Related pages:
- 50 Nobel Laureates and Other Great Scientists Who Believe in God


On this page:
- The Scientific 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists, Past and Present
- 100 Scientists Who Shaped World History
- Science: 100 Scientists Who Changed the World
- Some Famous Scientists who were Christians

The Scientific 100:
A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists, Past and Present


The list below is from the book The Scientific 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists, Past and Present, Citadel Press (2000), written by John Galbraith Simmons.

1Isaac Newtonthe Newtonian RevolutionAnglican (rejected Trinitarianism, i.e., Athanasianism;
believed in the Arianism of the Primitive Church)
2Albert EinsteinTwentieth-Century ScienceJewish
3Neils Bohrthe AtomJewish Lutheran
4Charles DarwinEvolutionAnglican (nominal); Unitarian
5Louis Pasteurthe Germ Theory of DiseaseCatholic
6Sigmund FreudPsychology of the UnconsciousJewish; Atheist; Freudian psychoanalysis (Freudianism)
7Galileo Galileithe New ScienceCatholic
8Antoine Laurent Lavoisierthe Revolution in ChemistryCatholic
9Johannes KeplerMotion of the PlanetsLutheran
10Nicolaus Copernicusthe Heliocentric UniverseCatholic (priest)
11Michael Faradaythe Classical Field TheorySandemanian
12James Clerk Maxwellthe Electromagnetic FieldPresbyterian; Anglican; Baptist
13Claude Bernardthe Founding of Modern Physiology 
14Franz BoasModern AnthropologyJewish
15Werner HeisenbergQuantum TheoryLutheran
16Linus PaulingTwentieth-Century ChemistryLutheran
17Rudolf Virchowthe Cell Doctrine 
18Erwin SchrodingerWave MechanicsCatholic
19Ernest Rutherfordthe Structure of the Atom 
20Paul DiracQuantum Electrodynamics 
21Andreas Vesaliusthe New AnatomyCatholic
22Tycho Brahethe New AstronomyLutheran
23Comte de Buffonl'Histoire Naturelle 
24Ludwig BoltzmannThermodynamics 
25Max Planckthe QuantaProtestant
26Marie CurieRadioactivityCatholic (lapsed)
27William Herschelthe Discovery of the HeavensJewish
28Charles LyellModern Geology 
29Pierre Simon de LaplaceNewtonian Mechanicsatheist
30Edwin Hubblethe Modern Telescope 
31Joseph J. Thomsonthe Discovery of the Electron 
32Max BornQuantum MechanicsJewish Lutheran
33Francis CrickMolecular Biologyatheist
34Enrico FermiAtomic PhysicsCatholic
35Leonard EulerEighteenth-Century MathematicsCalvinist
36Justus LiebigNineteenth-Century Chemistry 
37Arthur EddingtonModern AstronomyQuaker
38William HarveyCirculation of the BloodAnglican (nominal)
39Marcello MalpighiMicroscopic AnatomyCatholic
40Christiaan Huygensthe Wave Theory of LightCalvinist
41Carl Gauss (Karl Friedrich Gauss)Mathematical GeniusLutheran
42Albrecht von HallerEighteenth-Century Medicine 
43August KekuleChemical Structure 
44Robert KochBacteriology 
45Murray Gell-Mannthe Eightfold WayJewish
46Emil FischerOrganic Chemistry 
47Dmitri Mendeleevthe Periodic Table of Elements 
48Sheldon Glashowthe Discovery of CharmJewish
49James Watsonthe Structure of DNAatheist
50John BardeenSuperconductivity 
51John von Neumannthe Modern ComputerJewish Catholic
52Richard FeynmanQuantum ElectrodynamicsJewish
53Alfred WegenerContinental Drift 
54Stephen HawkingQuantum Cosmologyatheist
55Anton van Leeuwenhoekthe Simple MicroscopeDutch Reformed
56Max von LaueX-ray Crystallography 
57Gustav KirchhoffSpectroscopy 
58Hans Bethethe Energy of the SunJewish
59Euclidthe Foundations of MathematicsPlatonism / Greek philosophy
60Gregor Mendelthe Laws of InheritanceCatholic (Augustinian monk)
61Heike Kamerlingh OnnesSuperconductivity 
62Thomas Hunt Morganthe Chromosomal Theory of Heredity 
63Hermann von Helmholtzthe Rise of German Science 
64Paul EhrlichChemotherapyJewish
65Ernst MayrEvolutionary Theoryatheist
66Charles SherringtonNeurophysiology 
67Theodosius Dobzhanskythe Modern SynthesisRussian Orthodox
68Max Delbruckthe Bacteriophage 
69Jean Baptiste Lamarckthe Foundations of Biology 
70William BaylissModern Physiology 
71Noam ChomskyTwentieth-Century LinguisticsJewish atheist
72Frederick Sangerthe Genetic Code 
73LucretiusScientific ThinkingEpicurean; atheist
74John Daltonthe Theory of the AtomQuaker
75Louis Victor de BroglieWave/Particle Duality 
76Carl Linnaeusthe Binomial NomenclatureChristianity
77Jean PiagetChild Development 
78George Gaylord Simpsonthe Tempo of Evolution 
79Claude Levi-StraussStructural AnthropologyJewish
80Lynn MargulisSymbiosis TheoryJewish
81Karl Landsteinerthe Blood GroupsJewish
82Konrad LorenzEthology 
83Edward O. WilsonSociobiology 
84Frederick Gowland HopkinsVitamins 
85Gertrude Belle ElionPharmacology 
86Hans Selyethe Stress Concept 
87J. Robert Oppenheimerthe Atomic EraJewish
88Edward Tellerthe BombJewish
89Willard LibbyRadioactive Dating 
90Ernst Haeckelthe Biogenetic Principle 
91Jonas SalkVaccinationJewish
92Emil KraepelinTwentieth-Century Psychiatry 
93Trofim LysenkoSoviet GeneticsRussian Orthodox; Communist
94Francis GaltonEugenics 
95Alfred Binetthe I.Q. Test 
96Alfred KinseyHuman Sexualityatheist
97Alexander FlemingPenicillinCatholic
98B. F. SkinnerBehaviorismatheist
99Wilhelm Wundtthe Founding of Psychologyatheist
100Archimedesthe Beginning of ScienceGreek philosophy

100 Scientists Who Shaped World History

The list below is from the book 100 Scientists Who Shaped World History (Bluewood Books: San Francisco, CA, © 2000), written by John Hudson Tiner.

The names in this list are listed in chronological order. This book does not purport to list the "most influential" scientists in history, although these are presumably among them. The names listed are not ranked in any way relative to each other. The back cover states:
100 Scientists Who Shaped World History is a fascinating book about the men and women who made significant impacts upon our understanding of the world around us. This chronologically-organized book provides capsule biographies of important scientists and describes how their contributions have shaped the world in which we live.
Pythagorasc. 580 B.C.-C. 500 B.C. 
Hippocatesc. 460 B.C.-377 B.C. 
Aristotle384 B.C.-322 B.C.Platonism / Greek philosophy
Euclidc. 325 B.C.-270 B.C.Platonism / Greek philosophy
Archimedesc. 287-c. 212 B.C.Greek philosophy
Eratosthenesc. 276 B.C.-c. 196 B.C. 
Galenc. A.D. 130-c. 216 
Hakim Ibn-e-SinaA.D. 980-1037Islam
Nicolaus Copernicus1473-1543Catholic (priest)
Andreas Vesalius1514-1564Catholic
Gallileo Galilei1564-1642Catholic
Johannes Kepler1571-1630Lutheran
William Harvey1578-1657Anglican (nominal)
Rene Descartes1596-1650Catholic
Blaise Pascal1623-1662Jansenist
Robert Boyle1627-1691Anglican
Christian Huygens1632-1695Calvinist
Anton van Leeuwenhoek1632-1723Dutch Reformed
Robert Hooke1635-1703Anglican
Isaac Newton1642-1727Anglican (rejected Trinitarianism, i.e., Athanasianism;
believed in the Arianism of the Primitive Church)
Edmund Halley1656-1742 
Daniel Bernoulli1700-1782Calvinist
Benjamin Franklin1706-1790Presbyterian; Deist
Leonard Euler1707-1783Calvinist
Carolus Linnaeus1707-1778Christianity
Henry Cavendish1731-1810 
Joseph Priestley1733-1804Presbyterian; unitarian
William Herschel1738-1822Jewish
Antoine Laurent Lavoisier1743-1794Catholic
Alessandro Volta1746-1827Catholic
Edward Jenner1749-1823Anglican
John Dalton1766-1844Quaker
Georges Cuvier1769-1832Lutheran
Alexander von Humboldt1769-1859 
Karl Friedrich Gauss1777-1855Lutheran
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac1778-1850 
Humphry Davy1778-1829 
Jons Jakob Berzelius1779-1848 
Michael Faraday1791-1867Sandemanian
Charles Babbage1792-1871Anglican
Joseph Henry1797-1878Presbyterian
Matthew Fontaine Maury1806-1873 
Louis Agassiz1807-1873Lutheran
Charles Darwin1809-1882Anglican (nominal); Unitarian
Augusta Ada Byron1815-1852 
James Prescott Joule1818-1868 
Jean Bernard Leon Foucault1819-1868 
Gregor Mendel1822-1884Catholic (Augustinian monk)
Louis Pasteur1822-1895Catholic
William Thomson, Lord Kelvin1824-1907Anglican
Joseph Lister1827-1912Quaker
Friedrich August Kekule1829-1896 
James Clerk Maxwell1831-1879Presbyterian; Anglican; Baptist
Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleyev1834-1907 
William Henry Perkin1838-1907 
Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen1845-1923 
Thomas Alva Edison1847-1931Congregationalist; agnostic
Luther Burbank1849-1923Unitarian
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov1849-1936 
John Ambrose Fleming1849-1945 
William Ramsay1852-1916 
Antoine-Henri Becquerel1852-1908Catholic
Albert Abraham Michelson1852-1908Jewish
Sigmnd Freud1856-1939Jewish; Atheist; Freudian psychoanalysis (Freudianism)
Joseph John Thomson1856-1940 
Nettie Marie Stevens1861-1912 
George Washington Carver1864-1943Christianity
Marie Sklodowska Curie1867-1934Catholic (lapsed)
Henrietta Swan Leavitt1868-1921Protestant
Ernst Rutherford1871-1937 
Lise Meitner1878-1968Jewish-born Protestant
Albert Einstein1879-1955Jewish
Alexander Fleming1881-1955Catholic
Niels Bohr1885-1962Jewish Lutheran
Selman Abraham Waksman1888-1973Jewish
Edwin Powell Hubble1889-1953 
Robert Alexander Watson-Watt1892-1973 
Arthur Holly Compton1892-1962Presbyterian
Irene Joliot-Curie1897-1956 
Linus Carl Pauling1901-1994Lutheran
Enrico Fermi1901-1954Catholic
Werner Heisenberg1901-1967Lutheran
Margaret Mead1901-1978Episcopalian
Barbara McClintock1902-1992 
Grace Brewster Murray Hopper1906-1992Jewish
Marie Goeppert-Mayer1906-1972 
John Bardeen1908-1991 
William Bradford Shockley1910-1989 
Dorothy Crowfood Hodgkin1910-1994 
Jaques Yves Cousteau1910-1997 
Luis Walter Alvarez1911-1988 
Charles Hard Townes1915- 
Richard Philipis Feynman1918-1988Jewish
Frederick Sanger1918- 
Rosalind Elsie Franklin1920-1958Jewish
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow1921-Jewish
Har Gobind Khorana1922-Hindu
Tsung-Dao Lee1926- 
James Dewey Watson1928- 
Stephen William Hawking1942-atheist

Science:
100 Scientists Who Changed the World

The list below is from the book Science: 100 Scientists Who Changed the World (Enchanted Lion Books: New York, 2003), written by John Balchin.

The names in this list are listed in chronological order. This book does not purport to list the "most influential" scientists in history, although these are presumably among them. The back cover states:

"If I saw further than others," said Sir Isaac Newton, "it is because I was standing on the shoulders of giants." Science introduces one hundred of these giants and examines their achievements: the men and women who, often in the face of extreme scepticism or worse, have striven and succeeded in pushing back the boundaries of human knowledge.

Ranging across the spectrum of scientific endeavour, from the cosmology of Copernicus and Galileo, through the medical revolutions of Hippocrates and Galen, it includes the fields of physics, biology, chemistry and genetics.

This is the story of the ideas that have shaped the world today, and the ideas that will shape the future.

Anaximanderc. 611-547 B.C. 
Pythagorasc. 581-497 B.C. 
Hippocrates of Cosc. 460-377 B.C. 
Democritus of Abderac. 460-370 B.C. 
Platoc. 427-347 B.C.Platonism / Greek philosophy
Aristotlec. 384-322 B.C.Platonism / Greek philosophy
Euclidc. 330-260 B.C.Platonism / Greek philosophy
Archimedesc. 287-212 B.C.Greek philosophy
Hipparchusc. 170-125 B.C. 
Zhang Heng78-139 A.D. 
Ptolemy90-168 A.D. 
Galen of Pergamum130-201 A.D. 
Al-Khwarizmi800-850Islam
Johannes Gutenberg1400-1468Catholic
Leonardo da Vinci1452-1519Catholic
Nicolas Copernicus1473-1543Catholic (priest)
Andreas Vesalius1514-1564Catholic
William Gilbert1540-1603 
Francis Bacon1561-1626Anglican
Galileo Galileo1564-1642Catholic
Johannes Kepler1571-1630 Lutheran
William Harvey1578-1657Anglican (nominal)
Johann van Helmont1579-1644 
Rene Descartes1596-1650Catholic
Blaise Pascal1623-1662Jansenist
Robert Boyle1627-1691Anglican
Christiann Huygens1629-1695Calvinist
Anton van Leeuwenhoek1632-1723Dutch Reformed
Robert Hooke1635-1703Anglican
Sir Isaac Newton1642-1727Anglican (rejected Trinitarianism, i.e., Athanasianism;
believed in the Arianism of the Primitive Church)
Edmund Halley1656-1742 
Thomas Newcomen1663-1729Baptist
Daniel Fahrenheit1686-1736 
Benjamin Franklin1706-1790Presbyterian; Deist
Joseph Black1728-1799 
Henry Cavendish1731-1810 
Joseph Priestley1733-1804Unitarian
James Watt1736-1819Presbyterian (lapsed)
Charles de Coulomb1736-1806 
Joseph Montgolfier1740-1810 
Karl Wilhelm Scheele1742-1786 
Antoine Lavoisier1743-1794Catholic
Count Alessandro Volta1745-1827Catholic
Edward Jenner1749-1823Anglican
John Dalton1766-1844Quaker
Andre-Marie Ampere1755-1836 
Amedo Avogadro1776-1856Catholic
Joseph Gay-Lussac1778-1850 
Charles Babbage1791-1871Anglican
Michael Faraday1791-1867Sandemanian
Charles Darwin1809-1881Anglican (nominal); Unitarian
James Joule1818-1920 
Louis Pasteur1822-1895Catholic
Johann Gregor Mendel1822-1884Catholic (Augustinian monk)
Jean-Joseph Lenoir1822-1900 
Lord Kelvin1824-1907Anglican
James Clerk Maxwell1831-1879Presbyterian; Anglican; Baptist
Alfred Nobel1833-1896 
Wilhelm Gottlieb Daimler1834-1900 
Dmitri Mendeleev1834-1907 
Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen1845-1923 
Thomas Alva Edison1847-1931Congregationalist; agnostic
Alexander Graham Bell1847-1922Unitarian/Universalist
Antoine-Henri Becquerel1852-1908Catholic
Paul Ehrlich1854-1915Jewish
Nikola Tesla1856-1943 
Sir John Joseph Thomson1856-1940 
Sigmund Freud1856-1939Jewish; Atheist; Freudian psychoanalysis (Freudianism)
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz1857-1894Lutheran
Max Planck1858-1947Protestant
Leo Baekeland1863-1944 
Thomas Hunt Morgan1866-1945 
Marie Curie1867-1934Catholic (lapsed)
Ernest Rutherford1871-1937 
The Wright BrothersWilbur: 1867-1912; Orville: 1871-1948United Brethren
Guglielmo Marconi1847-1937Catholic and Anglican
Frederick Soddy1877-1956 
Albert Einstein1879-1955Jewish
Alexander Fleming1881-1955Catholic
Robert Goddard1882-1945 
Neils Bohr1885-1962Jewish Lutheran
Erwin Schrodinger1887-1961Catholic
Henry Moseley1887-1915 
Edwin Hubble1889-1953 
Sir James Chadwick1891-1974 
Frederick Banting1891-1941 
Louis de Broglie1892-1987 
Enrico Fermi1901-1954Catholic
Werner Heisenberg1901-1954Lutheran
Linus Carl Pauling1901-1994Lutheran
Robert Oppenheimer1904-1967Jewish
Sir Frank Whittle1907-1996 
Edward Teller1908-Jewish
William Shockley1910-1989 
Alan Turing1912-1954Jewish
Jonas Salk1914-1995Jewish
Rosalind Franklin1920-1958Jewish
James Dewey Watson1928- 
Stephen Hawking1942-atheist
Tim Berners-Lee1955-Unitarian

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Some Famous Scientists who were Christians

Related Pages:
- Famous Christians
- Famous Latter-day Saint Scientists
- Christian Science Fiction Writers

The list below is a list of prominent, important scientists who were also Christians. The list is from Dan Graves' book Scientists of Faith (Kregel Resources: Grand Rapids, MI; 1996). The book is subtitled: Forty-Eight Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith. The book lists members scientists without regard to which particular denomination they belonged to, whether Catholic, Presbyterian, Methodist, Quaker, Latter-day Saint, Lutheran, Eastern Orthodox, or otherwise.

The back cover notes some of the reasons the author wrote the book:

Secular thought often portrays religion as the enemy of science, but the truth is that many of the world's greatest scientific discoveries were made by persons of faith, seeking to honor God and His creation.

Scientists of Faith relates the personal stories of forty-eight scientists and provides a brief overview of each person's contribution in their own particular field. Included are such notables as Johannes Kepler, Blaise Pascal, Michael Faraday, Gregor Mendel, and George Washington Carver.

As the author writes, "Christians and the Christian worldview were crucial to the formation of the early sciences. . . . If science, technology, and medical advances, properly used, are examples of God's grace to us, then those who brought them into being should be credited for them. . . . None of these men was perfect... I have deliberately chosen to respect all Christians who have honored the living God with their lives and work, regardless of their theological differences. They began their search for truth with the assumption that God exists, that His Word is true, and that He has created an orderly universe that reveals Himself."

[NOTE: This list has nothing to do with the Church of Christ, Scientist, whose members are known as Christian Scientists (note the capitalized "S" in "Scientists." Christian Science is just one denomination within Christianity, and most members of the denomination are not scientists. Here is a separate list of famous Christian Scientists.]

Some Famous Scientists who were Christians

John Philoponuslate 6th CenturyAristotle's early Christian critic
Hugh of St. Victorc. 1096-1141theologian of science
Robert Grossetestec. 1168-1253reform-minded bishop-scientist
Roger Baconc. 1220-1292Doctor Mirabiles
Dietrich von Friebergc. 1250-c. 1310the priest who solved the mystery of the rainbow
Thomas Bradwardinec. 1290-1349student of motion
Nicole Oresmec. 1320-1382inventor of scientific graphic techniques
Nicholas of Cusa1401-1464grappler with infinity
Georgias Agricola1495-1555founder of metallurgy
Johannes Kepler1571-1630discoverer of the laws of planetary motion
Johannes Baptista van Helmont1579-1644founder of pneumatic chemistry and chemical physiology
Francesco Maria Grimaldi1618-1663discoverer of the diffraction of lightCatholic
Blaise Pascal1623-1662mathematical prodigy and universal genius
Robert Boyle1627-1691founder of modern chemistry
John Ray1627-1705cataloger of British flora and faunaCalvinist (denomination?)
Isaac Barrow1630-1677Newton's teacher
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek1632-1723discoverer of bacteria
Niels Seno1638-1686founder of geology
James Bradley1693-1762discoverer of the aberration of starlight
Ewald Georg von Kleistc. 1700-1748inventor of the Leyden jar
Carolus Linnaeus1707-1778classifer of all living things
Leonhard Euler1707-1783the prolific mathematician
John Dalton1766-1844founder of modern atomic theory
Thomas Young1773-1829first to conduct a double-slit experiment with light
David Brewster1781-1868researcher of polarized light
William Buckland1784-1856geologist of the Noahic flood
Adem Sedgwick1785-1873geologist of the Cambrian
Augustin-Jean Fresnel1788-1827the physicist of light waves
Augustin Louis Cauchy1789-1857soulwinning mathematician
Michael Faraday1791-1867giant of electrical research
John Frederick William Herschel1792-1871cataloger of the Southern skies
Matthew Fontaine Maury1806-1873pathfinder of the seas
Philip Henry Gosse1810-1888popular naturalist
Asa Gray1810-1888influential botanist
James Dwight Dana1813-1895systematizer of minerology
George Boole1815-1864discoverer of pure mathematics
James Prescott Joule1818-1889originator of Joule's Law
John Couch Adams1819-1892codiscoverer of Neptune
George Gabriel Stokes1819-1903theorist of fluorescence
Gregor Mendel1822-1884pioneer in genetics
William Thomson, Lord Kelvin1824-1907physicist of thermodynammics
Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann1829-1907the non-Euclidean geometer behind relativity theory
James Clerk Maxwell1831-1879father of modern physics
Edward William Morley1838-1923Michelson's partner in measuring the speed of light
Pierre-Maurice-Marie Duhem1861-1923the physicist who recovered the science of the Middle Ages
Georges Lemaitre1894-1966the prist who showed us the universe is expanding
George Washington Carverc. 1864-1943pioneer in chemurgy
Arthur Stanley Eddington1882-1944the astronomer who ruled stellar theory



Some of the Most Influential, Most Famous Scientist who were Christians

Scientists listed in both Scientists of Faith (Christians) and also in one of the general books above (The Scientific 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists, Past and Present, etc.) These individuals could be considered among history's most influential and famous scientists, who also happen to have been devout Christians of various denominations:

Roger Bacon
Johannes Kepler
Johannes Baptista van Helmont
Blaise Pascal
Robert Boyle
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Carolus Linnaeus
Leonhard Euler
John Dalton
Michael Faraday
John Frederick William Herschel
Matthew Fontaine Maury
James Prescott Joule
Gregor Mendel
William Thomson, Lord Kelvin
James Clerk Maxwell
George Washington Carver
Arthur Stanley Eddington

[Note that many of the scientists from the books listed above were ALSO Christians, but were simply not listed in Dan Graves' brief book.]

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