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- 50 Nobel Laureates and Other Great Scientists Who Believe in God


On this page:
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The Scientific 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists, Past and Present
-
100 Scientists Who Shaped World History
-
Science: 100 Scientists Who Changed the World
-
Some Famous Scientists who were Christians

The Scientific 100:
A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists, Past and Present


The list below is from the book
The Scientific 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists, Past and Present, Citadel Press (2000), written by John Galbraith Simmons.

1 Isaac Newton the Newtonian Revolution Anglican (rejected Trinitarianism, i.e., Athanasianism;
believed in the Arianism of the Primitive Church)
2 Albert Einstein Twentieth-Century Science Jewish
3 Neils Bohr the Atom Jewish Lutheran
4 Charles Darwin Evolution Anglican (nominal); Unitarian
5 Louis Pasteur the Germ Theory of Disease Catholic
6 Sigmund Freud Psychology of the Unconscious Jewish; Atheist; Freudian psychoanalysis (Freudianism)
7 Galileo Galilei the New Science Catholic
8 Antoine Laurent Lavoisier the Revolution in Chemistry Catholic
9 Johannes Kepler Motion of the Planets Lutheran
10 Nicolaus Copernicus the Heliocentric Universe Catholic (priest)
11 Michael Faraday the Classical Field Theory Sandemanian
12 James Clerk Maxwell the Electromagnetic Field Presbyterian; Anglican; Baptist
13 Claude Bernard the Founding of Modern Physiology  
14 Franz Boas Modern Anthropology Jewish
15 Werner Heisenberg Quantum Theory Lutheran
16 Linus Pauling Twentieth-Century Chemistry Lutheran
17 Rudolf Virchow the Cell Doctrine  
18 Erwin Schrodinger Wave Mechanics Catholic
19 Ernest Rutherford the Structure of the Atom  
20 Paul Dirac Quantum Electrodynamics  
21 Andreas Vesalius the New Anatomy Catholic
22 Tycho Brahe the New Astronomy Lutheran
23 Comte de Buffon l'Histoire Naturelle  
24 Ludwig Boltzmann Thermodynamics  
25 Max Planck the Quanta Protestant
26 Marie Curie Radioactivity Catholic (lapsed)
27 William Herschel the Discovery of the Heavens Jewish
28 Charles Lyell Modern Geology  
29 Pierre Simon de Laplace Newtonian Mechanics atheist
30 Edwin Hubble the Modern Telescope  
31 Joseph J. Thomson the Discovery of the Electron  
32 Max Born Quantum Mechanics Jewish Lutheran
33 Francis Crick Molecular Biology atheist
34 Enrico Fermi Atomic Physics Catholic
35 Leonard Euler Eighteenth-Century Mathematics Calvinist
36 Justus Liebig Nineteenth-Century Chemistry  
37 Arthur Eddington Modern Astronomy Quaker
38 William Harvey Circulation of the Blood Anglican (nominal)
39 Marcello Malpighi Microscopic Anatomy Catholic
40 Christiaan Huygens the Wave Theory of Light Calvinist
41 Carl Gauss (Karl Friedrich Gauss) Mathematical Genius Lutheran
42 Albrecht von Haller Eighteenth-Century Medicine  
43 August Kekule Chemical Structure  
44 Robert Koch Bacteriology  
45 Murray Gell-Mann the Eightfold Way Jewish
46 Emil Fischer Organic Chemistry  
47 Dmitri Mendeleev the Periodic Table of Elements  
48 Sheldon Glashow the Discovery of Charm Jewish
49 James Watson the Structure of DNA atheist
50 John Bardeen Superconductivity  
51 John von Neumann the Modern Computer Jewish Catholic
52 Richard Feynman Quantum Electrodynamics Jewish
53 Alfred Wegener Continental Drift  
54 Stephen Hawking Quantum Cosmology atheist
55 Anton van Leeuwenhoek the Simple Microscope Dutch Reformed
56 Max von Laue X-ray Crystallography  
57 Gustav Kirchhoff Spectroscopy  
58 Hans Bethe the Energy of the Sun Jewish
59 Euclid the Foundations of Mathematics Platonism / Greek philosophy
60 Gregor Mendel the Laws of Inheritance Catholic (Augustinian monk)
61 Heike Kamerlingh Onnes Superconductivity  
62 Thomas Hunt Morgan the Chromosomal Theory of Heredity  
63 Hermann von Helmholtz the Rise of German Science  
64 Paul Ehrlich Chemotherapy Jewish
65 Ernst Mayr Evolutionary Theory atheist
66 Charles Sherrington Neurophysiology  
67 Theodosius Dobzhansky the Modern Synthesis Russian Orthodox
68 Max Delbruck the Bacteriophage  
69 Jean Baptiste Lamarck the Foundations of Biology  
70 William Bayliss Modern Physiology  
71 Noam Chomsky Twentieth-Century Linguistics Jewish atheist
72 Frederick Sanger the Genetic Code  
73 Lucretius Scientific Thinking Epicurean; atheist
74 John Dalton the Theory of the Atom Quaker
75 Louis Victor de Broglie Wave/Particle Duality  
76 Carl Linnaeus the Binomial Nomenclature Christianity
77 Jean Piaget Child Development  
78 George Gaylord Simpson the Tempo of Evolution  
79 Claude Levi-Strauss Structural Anthropology Jewish
80 Lynn Margulis Symbiosis Theory Jewish
81 Karl Landsteiner the Blood Groups Jewish
82 Konrad Lorenz Ethology  
83 Edward O. Wilson Sociobiology  
84 Frederick Gowland Hopkins Vitamins  
85 Gertrude Belle Elion Pharmacology  
86 Hans Selye the Stress Concept  
87 J. Robert Oppenheimer the Atomic Era Jewish
88 Edward Teller the Bomb Jewish
89 Willard Libby Radioactive Dating  
90 Ernst Haeckel the Biogenetic Principle  
91 Jonas Salk Vaccination Jewish
92 Emil Kraepelin Twentieth-Century Psychiatry  
93 Trofim Lysenko Soviet Genetics Russian Orthodox; Communist
94 Francis Galton Eugenics  
95 Alfred Binet the I.Q. Test  
96 Alfred Kinsey Human Sexuality atheist
97 Alexander Fleming Penicillin Catholic
98 B. F. Skinner Behaviorism atheist
99 Wilhelm Wundt the Founding of Psychology atheist
100 Archimedes the Beginning of Science Greek philosophy

100 Scientists Who Shaped World History

The list below is from the book 100 Scientists Who Shaped World History (Bluewood Books: San Francisco, CA, © 2000), written by John Hudson Tiner.

The names in this list are listed in chronological order. This book does
not purport to list the "most influential" scientists in history, although these are presumably among them. The names listed are not ranked in any way relative to each other. The back cover states:
100 Scientists Who Shaped World History is a fascinating book about the men and women who made significant impacts upon our understanding of the world around us. This chronologically-organized book provides capsule biographies of important scientists and describes how their contributions have shaped the world in which we live.
Pythagoras c. 580 B.C.-C. 500 B.C.  
Hippocates c. 460 B.C.-377 B.C.  
Aristotle 384 B.C.-322 B.C. Platonism / Greek philosophy
Euclid c. 325 B.C.-270 B.C. Platonism / Greek philosophy
Archimedes c. 287-c. 212 B.C. Greek philosophy
Eratosthenes c. 276 B.C.-c. 196 B.C.  
Galen c. A.D. 130-c. 216  
Hakim Ibn-e-Sina A.D. 980-1037 Islam
Nicolaus Copernicus 1473-1543 Catholic (priest)
Andreas Vesalius 1514-1564 Catholic
Gallileo Galilei 1564-1642 Catholic
Johannes Kepler 1571-1630 Lutheran
William Harvey 1578-1657 Anglican (nominal)
Rene Descartes 1596-1650 Catholic
Blaise Pascal 1623-1662 Jansenist
Robert Boyle 1627-1691 Anglican
Christian Huygens 1632-1695 Calvinist
Anton van Leeuwenhoek 1632-1723 Dutch Reformed
Robert Hooke 1635-1703 Anglican
Isaac Newton 1642-1727 Anglican (rejected Trinitarianism, i.e., Athanasianism;
believed in the Arianism of the Primitive Church)
Edmund Halley 1656-1742  
Daniel Bernoulli 1700-1782 Calvinist
Benjamin Franklin 1706-1790 Presbyterian; Deist
Leonard Euler 1707-1783 Calvinist
Carolus Linnaeus 1707-1778 Christianity
Henry Cavendish 1731-1810  
Joseph Priestley 1733-1804 Presbyterian; unitarian
William Herschel 1738-1822 Jewish
Antoine Laurent Lavoisier 1743-1794 Catholic
Alessandro Volta 1746-1827 Catholic
Edward Jenner 1749-1823 Anglican
John Dalton 1766-1844 Quaker
Georges Cuvier 1769-1832 Lutheran
Alexander von Humboldt 1769-1859  
Karl Friedrich Gauss 1777-1855 Lutheran
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac 1778-1850  
Humphry Davy 1778-1829  
Jons Jakob Berzelius 1779-1848  
Michael Faraday 1791-1867 Sandemanian
Charles Babbage 1792-1871 Anglican
Joseph Henry 1797-1878 Presbyterian
Matthew Fontaine Maury 1806-1873  
Louis Agassiz 1807-1873 Lutheran
Charles Darwin 1809-1882 Anglican (nominal); Unitarian
Augusta Ada Byron 1815-1852  
James Prescott Joule 1818-1868  
Jean Bernard Leon Foucault 1819-1868  
Gregor Mendel 1822-1884 Catholic (Augustinian monk)
Louis Pasteur 1822-1895 Catholic
William Thomson, Lord Kelvin 1824-1907 Anglican
Joseph Lister 1827-1912 Quaker
Friedrich August Kekule 1829-1896  
James Clerk Maxwell 1831-1879 Presbyterian; Anglican; Baptist
Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleyev 1834-1907  
William Henry Perkin 1838-1907  
Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen 1845-1923  
Thomas Alva Edison 1847-1931 Congregationalist; agnostic
Luther Burbank 1849-1923 Unitarian
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov 1849-1936  
John Ambrose Fleming 1849-1945  
William Ramsay 1852-1916  
Antoine-Henri Becquerel 1852-1908 Catholic
Albert Abraham Michelson 1852-1908 Jewish
Sigmnd Freud 1856-1939 Jewish; Atheist; Freudian psychoanalysis (Freudianism)
Joseph John Thomson 1856-1940  
Nettie Marie Stevens 1861-1912  
George Washington Carver 1864-1943 Christianity
Marie Sklodowska Curie 1867-1934 Catholic (lapsed)
Henrietta Swan Leavitt 1868-1921 Protestant
Ernst Rutherford 1871-1937  
Lise Meitner 1878-1968 Jewish-born Protestant
Albert Einstein 1879-1955 Jewish
Alexander Fleming 1881-1955 Catholic
Niels Bohr 1885-1962 Jewish Lutheran
Selman Abraham Waksman 1888-1973 Jewish
Edwin Powell Hubble 1889-1953  
Robert Alexander Watson-Watt 1892-1973  
Arthur Holly Compton 1892-1962 Presbyterian
Irene Joliot-Curie 1897-1956  
Linus Carl Pauling 1901-1994 Lutheran
Enrico Fermi 1901-1954 Catholic
Werner Heisenberg 1901-1967 Lutheran
Margaret Mead 1901-1978 Episcopalian
Barbara McClintock 1902-1992  
Grace Brewster Murray Hopper 1906-1992 Jewish
Marie Goeppert-Mayer 1906-1972  
John Bardeen 1908-1991  
William Bradford Shockley 1910-1989  
Dorothy Crowfood Hodgkin 1910-1994  
Jaques Yves Cousteau 1910-1997  
Luis Walter Alvarez 1911-1988  
Charles Hard Townes 1915-  
Richard Philipis Feynman 1918-1988 Jewish
Frederick Sanger 1918-  
Rosalind Elsie Franklin 1920-1958 Jewish
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow 1921- Jewish
Har Gobind Khorana 1922- Hindu
Tsung-Dao Lee 1926-  
James Dewey Watson 1928-  
Stephen William Hawking 1942- atheist

Science:
100 Scientists Who Changed the World

The list below is from the book Science: 100 Scientists Who Changed the World (Enchanted Lion Books: New York, 2003), written by John Balchin.

The names in this list are listed in chronological order. This book does not purport to list the "most influential" scientists in history, although these are presumably among them. The back cover states:

"If I saw further than others," said Sir Isaac Newton, "it is because I was standing on the shoulders of giants." Science introduces one hundred of these giants and examines their achievements: the men and women who, often in the face of extreme scepticism or worse, have striven and succeeded in pushing back the boundaries of human knowledge.

Ranging across the spectrum of scientific endeavour, from the cosmology of Copernicus and Galileo, through the medical revolutions of Hippocrates and Galen, it includes the fields of physics, biology, chemistry and genetics.

This is the story of the ideas that have shaped the world today, and the ideas that will shape the future.

Anaximander c. 611-547 B.C.  
Pythagoras c. 581-497 B.C.  
Hippocrates of Cos c. 460-377 B.C.  
Democritus of Abdera c. 460-370 B.C.  
Plato c. 427-347 B.C. Platonism / Greek philosophy
Aristotle c. 384-322 B.C. Platonism / Greek philosophy
Euclid c. 330-260 B.C. Platonism / Greek philosophy
Archimedes c. 287-212 B.C. Greek philosophy
Hipparchus c. 170-125 B.C.  
Zhang Heng 78-139 A.D.  
Ptolemy 90-168 A.D.  
Galen of Pergamum 130-201 A.D.  
Al-Khwarizmi 800-850 Islam
Johannes Gutenberg 1400-1468 Catholic
Leonardo da Vinci 1452-1519 Catholic
Nicolas Copernicus 1473-1543 Catholic (priest)
Andreas Vesalius 1514-1564 Catholic
William Gilbert 1540-1603  
Francis Bacon 1561-1626 Anglican
Galileo Galileo 1564-1642 Catholic
Johannes Kepler 1571-1630 Lutheran
William Harvey 1578-1657 Anglican (nominal)
Johann van Helmont 1579-1644  
Rene Descartes 1596-1650 Catholic
Blaise Pascal 1623-1662 Jansenist
Robert Boyle 1627-1691 Anglican
Christiann Huygens 1629-1695 Calvinist
Anton van Leeuwenhoek 1632-1723 Dutch Reformed
Robert Hooke 1635-1703 Anglican
Sir Isaac Newton 1642-1727 Anglican (rejected Trinitarianism, i.e., Athanasianism;
believed in the Arianism of the Primitive Church)
Edmund Halley 1656-1742  
Thomas Newcomen 1663-1729 Baptist
Daniel Fahrenheit 1686-1736  
Benjamin Franklin 1706-1790 Presbyterian; Deist
Joseph Black 1728-1799  
Henry Cavendish 1731-1810  
Joseph Priestley 1733-1804 Unitarian
James Watt 1736-1819 Presbyterian (lapsed)
Charles de Coulomb 1736-1806  
Joseph Montgolfier 1740-1810  
Karl Wilhelm Scheele 1742-1786  
Antoine Lavoisier 1743-1794 Catholic
Count Alessandro Volta 1745-1827 Catholic
Edward Jenner 1749-1823 Anglican
John Dalton 1766-1844 Quaker
Andre-Marie Ampere 1755-1836  
Amedo Avogadro 1776-1856 Catholic
Joseph Gay-Lussac 1778-1850  
Charles Babbage 1791-1871 Anglican
Michael Faraday 1791-1867 Sandemanian
Charles Darwin 1809-1881 Anglican (nominal); Unitarian
James Joule 1818-1920  
Louis Pasteur 1822-1895 Catholic
Johann Gregor Mendel 1822-1884 Catholic (Augustinian monk)
Jean-Joseph Lenoir 1822-1900  
Lord Kelvin 1824-1907 Anglican
James Clerk Maxwell 1831-1879 Presbyterian; Anglican; Baptist
Alfred Nobel 1833-1896  
Wilhelm Gottlieb Daimler 1834-1900  
Dmitri Mendeleev 1834-1907  
Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen 1845-1923  
Thomas Alva Edison 1847-1931 Congregationalist; agnostic
Alexander Graham Bell 1847-1922 Unitarian/Universalist
Antoine-Henri Becquerel 1852-1908 Catholic
Paul Ehrlich 1854-1915 Jewish
Nikola Tesla 1856-1943  
Sir John Joseph Thomson 1856-1940  
Sigmund Freud 1856-1939 Jewish; Atheist; Freudian psychoanalysis (Freudianism)
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz 1857-1894 Lutheran
Max Planck 1858-1947 Protestant
Leo Baekeland 1863-1944  
Thomas Hunt Morgan 1866-1945  
Marie Curie 1867-1934 Catholic (lapsed)
Ernest Rutherford 1871-1937  
The Wright Brothers Wilbur: 1867-1912; Orville: 1871-1948 United Brethren
Guglielmo Marconi 1847-1937 Catholic and Anglican
Frederick Soddy 1877-1956  
Albert Einstein 1879-1955 Jewish
Alexander Fleming 1881-1955 Catholic
Robert Goddard 1882-1945  
Neils Bohr 1885-1962 Jewish Lutheran
Erwin Schrodinger 1887-1961 Catholic
Henry Moseley 1887-1915  
Edwin Hubble 1889-1953  
Sir James Chadwick 1891-1974  
Frederick Banting 1891-1941  
Louis de Broglie 1892-1987  
Enrico Fermi 1901-1954 Catholic
Werner Heisenberg 1901-1954 Lutheran
Linus Carl Pauling 1901-1994 Lutheran
Robert Oppenheimer 1904-1967 Jewish
Sir Frank Whittle 1907-1996  
Edward Teller 1908- Jewish
William Shockley 1910-1989  
Alan Turing 1912-1954 Jewish
Jonas Salk 1914-1995 Jewish
Rosalind Franklin 1920-1958 Jewish
James Dewey Watson 1928-  
Stephen Hawking 1942- atheist
Tim Berners-Lee 1955- Unitarian

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Some Famous Scientists who were Christians

Related Pages:
- Famous Christians
- Famous Latter-day Saint Scientists
- Christian Science Fiction Writers

The list below is a list of prominent, important scientists who were also Christians. The list is from Dan Graves' book Scientists of Faith (Kregel Resources: Grand Rapids, MI; 1996). The book is subtitled: Forty-Eight Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith. The book lists members scientists without regard to which particular denomination they belonged to, whether Catholic, Presbyterian, Methodist, Quaker, Latter-day Saint, Lutheran, Eastern Orthodox, or otherwise.

The back cover notes some of the reasons the author wrote the book:

Secular thought often portrays religion as the enemy of science, but the truth is that many of the world's greatest scientific discoveries were made by persons of faith, seeking to honor God and His creation.

Scientists of Faith relates the personal stories of forty-eight scientists and provides a brief overview of each person's contribution in their own particular field. Included are such notables as Johannes Kepler, Blaise Pascal, Michael Faraday, Gregor Mendel, and George Washington Carver.

As the author writes, "Christians and the Christian worldview were crucial to the formation of the early sciences. . . . If science, technology, and medical advances, properly used, are examples of God's grace to us, then those who brought them into being should be credited for them. . . . None of these men was perfect... I have deliberately chosen to respect all Christians who have honored the living God with their lives and work, regardless of their theological differences. They began their search for truth with the assumption that God exists, that His Word is true, and that He has created an orderly universe that reveals Himself."

[NOTE: This list has nothing to do with the Church of Christ, Scientist, whose members are known as Christian Scientists (note the capitalized "S" in "Scientists." Christian Science is just one denomination within Christianity, and most members of the denomination are not scientists. Here is a separate list of famous Christian Scientists.]

Some Famous Scientists who were Christians

John Philoponus late 6th Century Aristotle's early Christian critic
Hugh of St. Victor c. 1096-1141 theologian of science
Robert Grosseteste c. 1168-1253 reform-minded bishop-scientist
Roger Bacon c. 1220-1292 Doctor Mirabiles
Dietrich von Frieberg c. 1250-c. 1310 the priest who solved the mystery of the rainbow
Thomas Bradwardine c. 1290-1349 student of motion
Nicole Oresme c. 1320-1382 inventor of scientific graphic techniques
Nicholas of Cusa 1401-1464 grappler with infinity
Georgias Agricola 1495-1555 founder of metallurgy
Johannes Kepler 1571-1630 discoverer of the laws of planetary motion
Johannes Baptista van Helmont 1579-1644 founder of pneumatic chemistry and chemical physiology
Francesco Maria Grimaldi 1618-1663 discoverer of the diffraction of light Catholic
Blaise Pascal 1623-1662 mathematical prodigy and universal genius
Robert Boyle 1627-1691 founder of modern chemistry
John Ray 1627-1705 cataloger of British flora and fauna Calvinist (denomination?)
Isaac Barrow 1630-1677 Newton's teacher
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 1632-1723 discoverer of bacteria
Niels Seno 1638-1686 founder of geology
James Bradley 1693-1762 discoverer of the aberration of starlight
Ewald Georg von Kleist c. 1700-1748 inventor of the Leyden jar
Carolus Linnaeus 1707-1778 classifer of all living things
Leonhard Euler 1707-1783 the prolific mathematician
John Dalton 1766-1844 founder of modern atomic theory
Thomas Young 1773-1829 first to conduct a double-slit experiment with light
David Brewster 1781-1868 researcher of polarized light
William Buckland 1784-1856 geologist of the Noahic flood
Adem Sedgwick 1785-1873 geologist of the Cambrian
Augustin-Jean Fresnel 1788-1827 the physicist of light waves
Augustin Louis Cauchy 1789-1857 soulwinning mathematician
Michael Faraday 1791-1867 giant of electrical research
John Frederick William Herschel 1792-1871 cataloger of the Southern skies
Matthew Fontaine Maury 1806-1873 pathfinder of the seas
Philip Henry Gosse 1810-1888 popular naturalist
Asa Gray 1810-1888 influential botanist
James Dwight Dana 1813-1895 systematizer of minerology
George Boole 1815-1864 discoverer of pure mathematics
James Prescott Joule 1818-1889 originator of Joule's Law
John Couch Adams 1819-1892 codiscoverer of Neptune
George Gabriel Stokes 1819-1903 theorist of fluorescence
Gregor Mendel 1822-1884 pioneer in genetics
William Thomson, Lord Kelvin 1824-1907 physicist of thermodynammics
Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann 1829-1907 the non-Euclidean geometer behind relativity theory
James Clerk Maxwell 1831-1879 father of modern physics
Edward William Morley 1838-1923 Michelson's partner in measuring the speed of light
Pierre-Maurice-Marie Duhem 1861-1923 the physicist who recovered the science of the Middle Ages
Georges Lemaitre 1894-1966 the prist who showed us the universe is expanding
George Washington Carver c. 1864-1943 pioneer in chemurgy
Arthur Stanley Eddington 1882-1944 the astronomer who ruled stellar theory



Some of the Most Influential, Most Famous Scientist who were Christians

Scientists listed in both Scientists of Faith (Christians) and also in one of the general books above (The Scientific 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists, Past and Present, etc.) These individuals could be considered among history's most influential and famous scientists, who also happen to have been devout Christians of various denominations:

Roger Bacon
Johannes Kepler
Johannes Baptista van Helmont
Blaise Pascal
Robert Boyle
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Carolus Linnaeus
Leonhard Euler
John Dalton
Michael Faraday
John Frederick William Herschel
Matthew Fontaine Maury
James Prescott Joule
Gregor Mendel
William Thomson, Lord Kelvin
James Clerk Maxwell
George Washington Carver
Arthur Stanley Eddington

[Note that many of the scientists from the books listed above were ALSO Christians, but were simply not listed in Dan Graves' brief book.]

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