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The Process of Criminal Profiling when Appilied to a Serial Killer

Susan Jones
Spring 2000
Youngstown State University

ABSTRACT

The process of criminal profiling as it pertains to serial killers is extremely interesting and far more common than first thought. The first study that we will look at deals with the developmental and psychological approaches to serial killers. In the end it suggest that further research into addictive processes in serial killers and serial murder is of importance.

This study examined the phenomenon of serial murder over a long period of time. The results of the study concluded that serial killers in both England and in America seem to share some very similar patterns and personality types.

While in the process of studying these violent offenders they discovered that crime scene manifestations of behavioral patterns enabled the investigators to discover much about the offender. There are three possible manifestations of offender behavior at a crime scene - Modus Operandi, Personation or Signature, and Staging. which are the offender's actions while committing the crime. This is a very critical step in crime scene analysis. The last aspect of manifestation at a crime scene is known as staging. Staging occurs when someone purposely alters the crime scene prior to the arrival of the police. The offender who usually had some type of relationship with the victim does this. The second reasoning for staging is to protect the victim of the victim's family. This type of staging usually occurs in the case of rape-murder crimes or autoerotic fatalities. So if the crime scene can be so easily staged to look like one thing happened when something totally different happened, then how valid is the role of crime scene analysis and criminal profiling in the development of trial strategy. It is the job of the profiler, in concert with criminality, to reconstruct behavior from the physical evidence then look for patterns in that behavior, and illuminate the behaviors within the context of a specific crime or series of crimes, to a specific criminal offender. It examines the reaction of juror to two potential descriptions of probabilistic DNA evidence. Due to the overwhelming presence of responsibility to the victim of this homicide led her to learn everything she could about detective work, homicide, and she read every book on serial killers that she could find. The organization provides profiling, education, an area sexual homicide data bank, investigative support and advocacy for the homicide investigators and for the families of the victims. The term criminal profiling also called investigative criminal profiling is a very important tactic in targeting certain offender types such as those who commit serial homicide, serial rape, or serial arson. Profiling is a method used in some unusual cases where it is believed that one person is committing the same crime repeatedly. Profiling does not solve the crime itself it is just used to aid in the investigation.

Criminal profiling is not used in all cases, it is most commonly used when there is an extremely violent homicide. A profiler can narrow the search of the offender greatly. Although there are many generalities in the profile, profilers are able to get more specific by looking at either the crime scene or photographs of the crime scene.

Aside from narrowing the offender type, profiling can assist in lowering the number of victims. With the type of information the investigator will get from a profile, the search for the offender will be more specific and result in fewer victims because the offender will be apprehended quicker. The profiler helps the jurors understand the dynamics of serial killing, serial killers, and the fantasies that motivate them. Profiling tremendously aids in an investigation. Profilers are trained in very specific areas of crime and human nature. There have been a number of serial killers throughout the years but there is often some confusion about exactly what a serial killer is. One of the biggest misconceptions is that a serial killer and a mass murderer are the same. A serial killer kills several people over a period of days, weeks, months, or even years. When actually there are four distinctive types; The Visionary Motive type is the group of serial killers who are considered insane and psychotic. This type of killer will select groups of individuals to kill off. This killer is in touch with reality and has relationships. In most cases a serial killer is a lust killer. Sometimes there is a third category, which a killer is considered "mixed" by displaying traits found in both the organized, and the disorganized killers. The fact is that many serial killers capture their victims by conning them, impersonating authoritative figures, or with a friendly little chat. To get a sense of the disorganized killer, picture the loner you may have thought all serial killers are. A serial killer very often appears normal. He is very often the last person his neighbors or friends would think is a serial killer. Unlike the less complex murderer, serial killers portray several elements. The most distinguishing factor is multiple victims generally three or more victims. A serial killer will continuously kill and not stop unless he is made to stop. Or unless an event occurs which stops the killer. For example, the killer is institutionalized or incarcerated. A serial killer may even wait years before claiming another victim but they eventually will.

Serial killers except in rare cases worked alone. For the serial killer the motivation is not one of money or the out-come of an event. The serial killer is simply motivated to kill as we might need water, the serial killer needs to kill. The typical serial killer is male, between the ages of 25-35, and he is usually white. The majority of the time, he will kill victims of his own race. In a study on serial killers done by Ressler in 1988, in which he took 30 known serial killers and crossed referenced their characteristics to come up with a more accurate stereotype The term serial killer is a recent one, but the crime is not. Oh, and did I mention that he was also a serial killer, cannibal, and child molester? In 1968, John Wayne Gacy was arrested for sexually assaulting a boy. The boy was not murdered. In fact, Gacy paid the boy to keep quiet. This time for soliciting a boy for sex. Outwardly everything was perfect in Gacy's world. The victim unwilling to let the crime go unsolved was diligent in his pursuit to track down Gacy. Although arrested, Gacy was released due to lack of evidence. This time a warrant was issued and Gacy's home was searched. The odor filled the house. There were 3 decomposing male bodies. Immediately Gacy was arrested. He then confessed to sexually torturing and murdering over 30 victims. David Berkowitz, also known as the Son of Sam, was one of the few Jewish serial killers. To help us to better understand serial killers Robert Ressler, Ann Burgess, and John Douglas performed a very extensive study involving 36 incarcerated serial killers. The study aimed to identify common traits in the childhood backgrounds of the killers in question. Out of the 36 serial killers used in this study28 of them showed frequent daydreaming, compulsive masturbation, isolation, chronic lying, cruelty to children, running away, and cruelty to animals. 27 of these serial killers showed traits for rebelliousness, stealing, poor body image, and temper tantrums Serial killers tend to be white heterosexual males in there twenties and thirties. Serial killers usually murder strangers with cooling off periods between each crime. Serial killers tend to prey on women and children of their same race. However some homosexual killers enjoy hunting gay men. Most serial killers grew up in violent households, tortured animals, and were bed- wetter when they were young. As adults many serial killers enjoy setting fires, have some sort of brain damage, and are addicted to alcohol or drugs.

Many case studies have been discussed in serial murder literature in which the offenders had a history of head trauma and abnormality on Computerized Topography(CT) Scans, Electroencephalography (EEG) Scans and neuropsychological testing. Few serial killers have documented neurological damage, with the exception of H. Other serial killers such as B. While possibly having a significant role in the crimes of serial killers, neurological impairments cannot be held as a general theory of serial killers. Serotonin and other neurotransmitter abnormalities may thus play a role in the offence of serial killers Research on the validity of crime scene profiling suffers mainly from two limitations. The practical issue with profiling is whether it leads to an increase in successful police investigations. A more limited study that might be possible would be to make available all profiles from solved cases. A less obvious problem might be the publication of too much information that could be useful to offenders who stage crime scenes. For example objective scales for categorizing crime scenes could be developed. Relationships between crime scenes and offender characteristics should be cross-validated on new samples of offenders.

Inaccurate profiles often seem to be ignored or forgotten. If the profiler doesn't truly believe what the evidence seems to show, they may withhold information or important profile items that could potential lead to an arrest. Criminal profiling can either help solve a case or maybe even prevent a case from being solved because everyone is on the wrong track. It is observed that many FBI profiles are generalizations about what is known of serial killers and are not helpful for narrowing suspect list.

The Process of Criminal Profiling when Appilied to a Serial Killer

The process of criminal profiling as it pertains to serial killers is extremely interesting and far more common than first thought. This paper aims to stress the relevance of this highly elevated skill, and the importance of those who master it. Nobody wants to think about it, but the truth of the matter is we do and probably will always have serial killers walking and living among us. But isn't it also comforting to know that we also have criminal profilers working among us to identify these very same serial killers and stop them before they have a chance to kill again. Without the massive talents and vast knowledge of such educated people we might still have people like Ted Bundy and Jeffery Dahmer still living right beside us pretending to be the perfect neighbor. In hopes that by writing this paper it can create awareness among the majority towards the potential dangers that we live with every day. And by doing this it is believed that it will truly be doing its part in protecting many lives. You can even do your part just by being aware. Criminal profilers possess a lot of knowledge and training, but before they obtained all of this, all they had to go on was pure basic instinct and all of us have a little of that so we all have the power to become a criminal profiler all we have to do is fine-tune the skills that we already possess.

One of the main points of this paper is to educate and inform anyone who reads this. The topic of serial killers is a very hot one and also a very frustrating one since we as the general public know very little about the subject in question. This paper also aims to minimize the fear and confusion by introducing the ideal of criminal profiling. Thus, giving us a method to fight back with in hopes that they can find and stop the actions of known serial killers and /or warn any suspected future targets.

The first study that we will look at deals with the developmental and psychological approaches to serial killers. The first theory that was examined was the psychodynamic theories. xxxxxxxxxx, in 1989 conducted a study that involved the Freudian concepts of unresolved sexual conflict, infantilisation, and maternal over-protection or outright rejection, in explaining serial murder. It was found that 81% of offenders said pornography was their highest-ranking sexual interest. Another study by xxxxxxx in 1988 shows that only 16% of his sample said that there offences were unplanned. It then went on to show that 34% of the same sample described themselves as being in an emotional state such as frustration, hostility, or anger that made them susceptible to open opportunities.

Next discussed is the frustration / aggression hypothesis, which is also another Freudian ideal involving his hydraulic model of aggressive energy build-up. This model stresses the point that such energy must be, at one point or another, released before it has a chance to build up to a dangerous level. So it is then believed that this pattern exists in serial killers and that if they don't release this build-up energy before it reaches the dangerous level that when it does reach that level, is when they turn violent and kill. In the end it suggest that further research into addictive processes in serial killers and serial murder is of importance.

Another road to take while following up on the frustration/aggression hypothesis involves a review on Serial Murder in England from 1940-1985, written by xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. This study examined the phenomenon of serial murder over a long period of time. It also reflects the relationship of English police and the courts involved in handling all of the special problems posed by serial homicide.

The methods involved here were to examine all cases of multiple homicides in the United States between 1974-1979. One major problem that was uncovered was the sheer scope of material.

The results of the study concluded that serial killers in both England and in America seem to share some very similar patterns and personality types.

In the end it was suggested that future research should be aimed in the area of extremely violent offenders.

While in the process of studying these violent offenders they discovered that crime scene manifestations of behavioral patterns enabled the investigators to discover much about the offender. There are three possible manifestations of offender behavior at a crime scene- Modus Operandi, Personation or Signature, and Staging. This article addresses each of these manifestations in order to demonstrate the importance of analyzing a crime scene in terms of human behavior. The first manifestation discussed is modus operandi, better known as the M.O. The M.O. which are the offender's actions while committing the crime. This is a very critical step in crime scene analysis. The second manifestation that could be found at the crime scene is a signature which is something of a calling card, or something that the offender always does something unique to him and this never changes. The offender will go out of his way to make sure he committees the same signature on each and every crime he committees. It becomes part of his ritual. The last aspect of manifestation at a crime scene is known as staging. Staging occurs when someone purposely alters the crime scene prior to the arrival of the police. There are basically two reasons why staging occurs; one is to direct the coarse of the investigation away from the most logical suspects, themselves. The offender who usually had some type of relationship with the victim does this. The offender will try to obvert the blame from him by being overly cooperative or extremely distraught. The second reasoning for staging is to protect the victim of the victim's family. This type of staging usually occurs in the case of rape-murder crimes or autoerotic fatalities. The family member or person who finds the body usually performs the act. Offenders who stage crime scenes usually make a mistake because they arrange the scene to resemble what they believe it should look like. So if the crime scene can be so easily staged to look like one thing happened when something totally different happened, then how valid is the role of crime scene analysis and criminal profiling in the development of trial strategy. xxxxxxxx stressed this point in an article. xxxxxx, in November of 1997. One problem consist of the police or other authorities solicitation these profilers for help and thinking that these people can solve the case for them, not just give them leads to follow or other types of help. These profilers are then faced with the difficulty of coming up with something for the police to use when they really have nothing to go on. In the majority of cases in which a profiler is involved they will never use any physical evidence even if there was some found at the scene. In fact, a literature review conducted by xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, determined that physical evidence is used in less than 25% of the cases prosecuted in the United States, with the percentage in some regions dipping to less than 5%.

One of the largest issues that any forensic examiner faces is the question of objectivity. But the most effective criminal profilers tend to be those who have first been trained as competent forensic investigators, with an appreciation for the value of forensic evidence, and the ability to perform at least some level of wound pattern analysis.

A common misconception on any side of the courtroom is that there is such a thing as a motiveless crime. It is the job of the profiler, in concert with criminality, to reconstruct behavior from the physical evidence then look for patterns in that behavior, and illuminate the behaviors within the context of a specific crime or series of crimes, to a specific criminal offender. But the big issue to consider is what happens if the profiler gets the wrong message and has the police looking for someone totally different. Or what if the evidence itself is faulty. One such literary review conducted a survey and experiment on something some where along the same lines. But in this study the wrong lead or faulty answers were used in determining the reactions it would have on jurors in Juror Reactions To DNA Evidence: Errors and Expectancies, written by xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. It examines the reaction of juror to two potential descriptions of probabilistic DNA evidence. The methods used were the error-based description and the expectancy-based description.

The error-based descriptions study showed that the jurors are not perfect and that they are capable of errors. And that there can be a lot of misperception on their part. Then to make things a little more interesting and to receive a more accurate measure of awareness. Some of the jurors in question received Bayesian training by an expert witness while the rest remained untrained and the survey was then repeated

Next they tested the expectancy-based description, which revealed that some jurors are influenced by beliefs of evidence tampering or laboratory errors. One fact in particular was found to be very alarming, that is that the jurors seemed to assume that what ever they heard was the truth. So this time they provided two types of training and then retested them and the participants who received both RMP and LE were more likely to return a conviction

The results of this study provide evidence that evaluations of DNA evidence are influenced by both systematic errors and lay expectancies about the source of a DNA match report. It was also discovered that jurors would be more effective if they could find a balance between the two descriptions instead of having a lot of small misperceptions. The next step in this research would be individual surveys where they don't have a chance to deliberate.

Lets take an inside look at the life of an investigative criminal profiler. To bring more information on this topic to the surface, an interview with an actual investigative criminal profiler by the name of xxxxxxxxxx. Who just happens to be the director of the Sexual Homicide Exchange of Washington DC and Vicinity. She is also a licensed private investigator in the state of Virginia. She entered into the investigative field in early 1995. She did so because of a case that the police were working on. The police decided to drop a case involving a man that she believed had murdered a woman in 1990. Due to the overwhelming presence of responsibility to the victim of this homicide led her to learn everything she could about detective work, homicide, and she read every book on serial killers that she could find. And in her search for justice she realized why many killers are never caught, because it takes so much effort and an unwillingness to give up to bring the offender to justice. It is also well known that the majority of homicide investigators lack the departmental support for such a project. That is why she established the Sexual Homicide Exchange of Washington DC and Vicinity. The organization provides profiling, education, an area sexual homicide data bank, investigative support and advocacy for the homicide investigators and for the families of the victims. The services are provided free to local police departments and to the families. The organization is supported through funding and donations. The term criminal profiling also called investigative criminal profiling is a very important tactic in targeting certain offender types such as those who commit serial homicide, serial rape, or serial arson. Profiling is a method used in some unusual cases where it is believed that one person is committing the same crime repeatedly. Profiling does not solve the crime itself it is just used to aid in the investigation.

Criminal profiling is not used in all cases, it is most commonly used when there is an extremely violent homicide. Another time a profiler might be called in is if the crime has remained unsolved for a long period of time, when all leads have been exhausted and the investigators have tried all they can think of.

A profiler can narrow the search of the offender greatly. The profiler will let the local law enforcement agency that they happen to be working with know what type of person they are most likely looking for. Although there are many generalities in the profile, profilers are able to get more specific by looking at either the crime scene or photographs of the crime scene.

Aside from narrowing the offender type, profiling can assist in lowering the number of victims. With the type of information the investigator will get from a profile, the search for the offender will be more specific and result in fewer victims because the offender will be apprehended quicker. Another benefit of a profile is by knowing your offender you are better equipped during the interrogation process. Profilers have often directed investigators as to what kind of questions to ask and what kind of method would work best with the person they have apprehended. The interrogation techniques are based on the individual offender's personality type rather than a standard procedure. Plus a profiler is able to serve as an expert witness during the trial of the offender. The profiler helps the jurors understand the dynamics of serial killing, serial killers, and the fantasies that motivate them. Profiling tremendously aids in an investigation. Profilers are trained in very specific areas of crime and human nature. Their goal is the same as the law enforcement's and that is for the offender to be stopped.

There have been a number of serial killers throughout the years but there is often some confusion about exactly what a serial killer is. One of the biggest misconceptions is that a serial killer and a mass murderer are the same. This is not true. And a spree killer is neither a mass murderer nor a serial killer. A mass murderer is someone, for example, who shoots everyone in the post office and then maybe even him/herself. They kill several people in a matter of hours and there is no cooling off period. A serial killer kills several people over a period of days, weeks, months, or even years. There is a cooling off period and the killer goes through phases or cycles. Another misconception is that there is only one type of serial killer. When actually there are four distinctive types; The Visionary Motive type is the group of serial killers who are considered insane and psychotic. They often hear voices in their head telling them to commit the crime. The Missionary-Oriented Motive type displays no psychosis to the outside world, but on the inside, this killer has a need to rid the world of what he considers immoral or unworthy. This type of killer will select groups of individuals to kill off. The Thrill-Oriented Motive types are the guys that are only in it for the fun. They get a high from killing. Of the four types, this is the one who enjoys killing very sadistically. He is into the killing for excitement. And the last type is the Lust killer or your sexual killer. This are the ones who kill for the turn on that it gives them. For them, the amount of their pleasure is in direct correlation with how much they can torture their victim, the more heinous their actions the more aroused they become. This killer is in touch with reality and has relationships. In most cases a serial killer is a lust killer. Also, each of these types can be broken down into 2 more categories- the organized and the disorganized. Sometimes there is a third category, which a killer is considered "mixed" by displaying traits found in both the organized, and the disorganized killers.

Another misconception is that these killers are complete and total loners who cannot function in society. While true some of the time, it is not true all of the time. We often think that Ted Bundy was an exception because he seemed to lead such a normal life. The fact is that many serial killers capture their victims by conning them, impersonating authoritative figures, or with a friendly little chat. They will even dress neatly. These behaviors are most indicative of an organized killer.

To get a sense of the disorganized killer, picture the loner you may have thought all serial killers are. This is the type you may see on the street and think that he is at least a low-life. He normally has a past record of poor performance in school, in social situations, and in his job. He is usually sloppy and a night owl. He would be the less intelligent of the 2 sub-types of offenders to the point of shoeing a little to much interest in his crime, like talking about it to much and checking out the crime scene.

A serial killer very often appears normal. He is very often the last person his neighbors or friends would think is a serial killer. Even those who are different than most people, like if they don't associate much with others are capable of appearing normal enough to not be considered a serial killer at first.

Unlike the less complex murderer, serial killers portray several elements. The most distinguishing factor is multiple victims generally three or more victims. A serial killer will continuously kill and not stop unless he is made to stop. Or unless an event occurs which stops the killer. For example, the killer is institutionalized or incarcerated. This killing will have a cooling down or cooling off period but will continue upon their release. A serial killer may even wait years before claiming another victim but they eventually will.

While normal murder most often involves persons who know one another even in the slightest sense serial killing has been in the past, a stranger-to-stranger crime. It has only been recently that this is changing. For the most part it is safe to assume that the perpetrator and the victim usually do not know one another and have most often not had any previous contact.

Serial killers except in rare cases worked alone. For the serial killer the motivation is not one of money or the out-come of an event. The serial killer is simply motivated to kill as we might need water, the serial killer needs to kill. Generally their need to kill is fueled by fantasies that have been building up for some time. Currently, the thought seems to be that the need for control, power, and dominance is the major driving force behind the killings. Motives for their killings are not as obvious as the for gain or reaction murders. Their motives are generally internal which is the mystery, which must be solved to figure out why one particular serial killer is killing.

By now you are probably wondering how do we know a serial killer when we see them, but there are no true method of picking them all out because all we have is a very generalized description based on the traits of most known serial killers. The typical serial killer is male, between the ages of 25-35, and he is usually white. The majority of the time, he will kill victims of his own race. The ages of the victims will vary greatly depending on his particular interest. His intellect ranges from below average to above average. He doesn't usually know his victims or have any particular hatred for them personally, but they might be symbolic to him in some way. Most of the time his victims never did anything to hurt him in any way, they are normally strangers to him. He doesn't come from one social class or another, he can come from skid row or Park Avenue, just as his victims can. He might be married, have children, and work like many of us. Or he might be so unstable that he either cannot work or works irregularly. He may not be able to maintain relationships with people, so therefore he may be a loner.

In a study on serial killers done by xxxxxxxxxxx 1988, in which he took 30 known serial killers and crossed referenced their characteristics to come up with a more accurate stereotype. His results were as follows :

The term serial killer is a recent one, but the crime is not. Modern serial murder has its origins in the late nineteenth century starting with Jack the Ripper in London, Joseph Vacher in France, and Fritz Haarman in Germany. And as you can see there were serial killers all over the world back then. And there are still serial killers around today, so lets take a look at some of the important cases of more recent serial killers.

Lets start with Albert Fish who was a house painter and father of 6. Oh, and did I mention that he was also a serial killer, cannibal, and child molester? After Fish's wife left him in 1917, he was 49 at the time, his bizarre behavior got worse and worse finally ending in murder. He preferred to torture children, who he could deceive very easily. He was considered a sadomasochist. He would often get his children to beat him.

In 1928, he kidnapped the 12-year-old daughter of acquaintances of his. He took her to a cottage in New York. Then while taking off his clothes he proceeded to strangle her. He then cut off her head and dismembered her body with a meat cleaver. To finish off his process he cooked her body parts in a stew seasoned with onions and carrots. He ate every single bite of his stew then disappeared for 6 months. Her parents kept the hopes that their daughter might still be alive, but Fish put that to rest quick by mailing them a letter explaining in detail what he had done to their little girl. This led to his apprehension. He tried to plead insanity but was found guilty and sentenced to death. In Sing Sing New York, on January 16, 1936 he was electrocuted. His final thoughts before the electrocution, he said "it will be the supreme thrill, the only one I haven't tried."

In 1968, John Wayne Gacy was arrested for sexually assaulting a boy. He handcuffed the boy in order to have sex with him. The boy was not murdered. In fact, Gacy paid the boy to keep quiet. However the boy did not and in fact testified against Gacy in court. This prompted Gacy to hire another boy to beat up the other boy. For this crime Gacy was sentenced to 10 years, but was out by 1971. His wife had divorced him and he moved from Iowa to Des Plains, Illinois. He then remarried and ran a construction business from his home. In less than a year he was once again arrested. This time for soliciting a boy for sex. The boy did not show up in court so the charges were dropped. To the outside world Gacy was the original nice-guy. He presented himself as caring and giving, he became involved in politics, and helped both financially and personally in aiding those less fortunate. He even dressed as a clown for children at social events. Outwardly everything was perfect in Gacy's world. If one had spoken with his second wife she might have told them he was mean and fought with her a lot. And his employees would have said that he treated them the same way. In 1976, his second wife left him. After the divorce Gacy was often seen in areas of town that was known to be a homosexual prostitute area. Although many of the young men and boys who Gacy hired were not murdered, they were beaten or otherwise inflicted pain upon. Neighbors began seeing young men enter his house all hours of the day and night. Things took a turn for Gacy in March of 1978, when an abused 27-year-old male checked into a Chicago hospital. When discussing the incident with the police, the man's mind was hazy due to being knocked unconscious with a cloth that had been soaked in chloroform. He did however remember that the man who had lured him into his car was heavy-set and drove a black Oldsmobile. The man told the officers that he was taken to a house, sexually assaulted, and beaten with a whip. He could not recall where the house was that he was taken . The victim unwilling to let the crime go unsolved was diligent in his pursuit to track down Gacy. Finally the victim did spot the car and gave the license plate number to the police. Although arrested, Gacy was released due to lack of evidence. With his luck having already been tried, Gacy pushed his chances even further, until December 11, 1978. On that day a 15-year-old boy who had gone to discuss details of a job with Gacy disappeared. His name was Robert Piest, who was last seen by his mother. After Robert failed to come home, his mother notified the police. This time a warrant was issued and Gacy's home was searched. The odor filled the house. The investigators followed the smell until they came to a crawlspace beneath the house. There were 3 decomposing male bodies. Immediately Gacy was arrested. He then confessed to sexually torturing and murdering over 30 victims. Searching for the other victims' investigators removed floors all throughout the house. They found several bodies in shallow graves and long trenches. To hasten the decomposition Gacy had covered the bodies with quicklime. The house was raised from its foundation and more bodies were found. Those that filled the house plus the 5 more he dumped into the Des Plaines River, made a total of 33 victims. Many had been strangled, and had underwear stuffed in their mouths. Gacy was sentenced to die in 1980 but some 10 plus years went by with Gacy living it up in prison before he was finally given a lethal injection.

David Berkowitz, also known as the Son of Sam, was one of the few Jewish serial killers. Between 1976 and 1977 he terrified lovers on the streets of New York. This former postal worker killed six and wounded seven after a 6,000-year-old spirit invaded his neighbors Labrador and commanded him to do the evil deeds. He sent numerous letters to Jimmy Breslin of the New York daily News and to the NYPD exulting his exploits. While in prison Dave was assaulted and had his throat slit. He survived, but now has a fifty-six-stitch necklace permanently decorating his throat. Some believe the Dave was actually the fall guy and that a satanic sect that included his neighbor Sam and his two sons committed his crimes.

Jeffery Dahmer the founding father of Cannibals Anonymous. As a kid Jeff liked to torture and kill little animals. As an adult he did the same with humans. This Milwaukee chocolate factory worker lured gay black men to his apartment with the promise of sex and drugs and instead killed them and had them for dinner. Once his victims were dead he came to life. He enjoyed sex with corpses and was conscientious enough to always wear a condom. Sex with live beings was not as good he said because they could get up and leave at any minute. He also enjoyed mutilation and experimented with different ways of disposing of his victims. He once tried to turn one of his victims into a zombie by performing a homemade lobotomy on the man by drilling into his brain and pouring acid into the holes. When captured police found three dissolving bodies in 55-gallon acid vats in his bedroom. They also found four severed heads, seven skulls, and skeletons in his closet and a penis in a lobster pot. Curiously he had no food in the fridge, only condiments. In the freezer he had a heart stashed probably to eat later. Although he enjoyed munching his loved ones, at the time of his arrest he was thin as a rail. In jail the authorities managed to fatten him up. Jeff met his end when he was viciously attacked by Christopher Scarver, a convicted killer on anti-psychotic medication while mopping the bathroom floor in maximum security. The lethargic cannibal died with a mop handle sticking out of his eye socket. At his mother's request his brain was preserved in formaldehyde for future study. A year after his death his parents began battling over the killers preserved brain. On December 12, 1995 this absurdity saga came to an end when a judge ruled in favor of his father who wanted to honor his son's request of being cremated. The last chapter of the Dahmer postmortem involved his personal belongings. A lawyer representing the families of some of his victims planned to auction Dahmer's possessions to raise money for his clients. The city of Milwaukee was outraged by the idea. As of May 29, 1996, Thomas Jacobson, the lawyer representing eight of the 11 families announced that Jeffrey's estate would be going to the incinerator instead of the auction blocks after a civic group, fearing bad publicity for their fair city pledged to pay $407,225 for the famed cannibals household items. To help us to better understand serial killers xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxxxxxxxxxxx, and xxxxxxxxxxxxx performed a very extensive study involving 36 incarcerated serial killers. The study aimed to identify common traits in the childhood backgrounds of the killers in question. Out of the 36 serial killers used in this study28 of them showed frequent daydreaming, compulsive masturbation, isolation, chronic lying, cruelty to children, running away, and cruelty to animals. 27 of these serial killers showed traits for rebelliousness, stealing, poor body image, and temper tantrums. 26 of them possessed eating problem, a tendency to destroy property, convulsions, and self-mutilation. 25 of them took to destroying possessions, assaulting adults, and setting fires. 24 of them had frequent nightmares, had phobias, and were very accident-prone. But only 23 of them had any problems sleeping. While 22 of them had enuresis or the tendency to wet the bed. While last but not least, 21 of them experienced very frequent and reoccurring headaches.

Serial killers tend to be white heterosexual males in there twenties and thirties. Their methodical rampages are almost always sexually motivated. Their killings tend to be part of an elaborate sexual fantasy that builds to a climax at the moment of their murderous outburst. Serial killers usually murder strangers with cooling off periods between each crime. Many enjoy cannibalism, necrophilia, and keep trophy-like body parts as mementos of their work.

Serial killers tend to prey on women and children of their same race. However some homosexual killers enjoy hunting gay men. Prostitutes, drifters, male hustlers, and hitchhikers seem to be their victims of choice. Most serial killers grew up in violent households, tortured animals, and were bed- wetter when they were young. As adults many serial killers enjoy setting fires, have some sort of brain damage, and are addicted to alcohol or drugs.

Many case studies have been discussed in serial murder literature in which the offenders had a history of head trauma and abnormality on Computerized Topography(CT) Scans, Electroencephalography (EEG) Scans and neuropsychological testing.

The role of head trauma may cause a vast range of cognitive and behavioral deficits usually sustained as a result of a fall, a car accident, a playground injury, or physical abuse. However, such studies as these are limited to CT scans that show no physical consequences of such blows. Few serial killers have documented neurological damage, with the exception of H. Lucas who shows marked widening of temporal lobe sulci and irritative lesions in or near the limbic cortex probably due to trauma sustained as a result of physical abuse. Other serial killers such as B. Long and G. Shaefer are also deemed to have suffered neurological damage. While possibly having a significant role in the crimes of serial killers, neurological impairments cannot be held as a general theory of serial killers.

Recent studies have shown that a number of neurotransmitters may influence cortical and sub cortical mechanisms for aggression and violence. In particular 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) a metabolic bi-product of the neurotransmitter serotonin, may have an abnormally low concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid persistently aggressive and anti-social males. This has led to speculation of the role of serotonin in aggressive behavior and anti-social disorders. Serotonin and other neurotransmitter abnormalities may thus play a role in the offence of serial killers. The direction of causality is not known and further research should be a priority.

Research on the validity of crime scene profiling suffers mainly from two limitations. One is the lack of access for neutral researchers to a representative sample of actual profiles. The second problem concerns the criterion : The accuracy of a profile can only be determined in cases where the criminal has been clearly identified. This second problem is compounded by the possibility that accurate profiles may be more likely to result in solved cases, thus inaccurate profiles may be less likely to come to light. The practical issue with profiling is whether it leads to an increase in successful police investigations. In this sense even an inaccurate profile may be useful for example, by stimulating a line of inquiry. Probably the only way that this practical validity could be determined would be by a truly randomized experiment in which profiling was withheld from some otherwise suitable cases.

A more limited study that might be possible would be to make available all profiles from solved cases. This would at least permit researchers to make more or less objective judgments about the accuracy of the various elements of the profile. One limitation that they foresee in such a study is that profilers often do not clarify the basis for their predictions. Thus a piece of physical evidence that leads to a straightforward conclusion may make the profile sound much more intuitive than it really is. There may also be legitimate policy reasons to deny neutral researchers access to FBI files. One obvious concern has to do with the privacy needs of victims and their families. A less obvious problem might be the publication of too much information that could be useful to offenders who stage crime scenes. Nevertheless, until neutral researchers have some way of determining the accuracy of the various elements of a representative sample of profiles compared against some meaningful baseline data, the validity of the entire process has to remain in a great deal of doubt. In the meantime some researchers recommend that more attention be paid to the specific concepts used by profilers. For example objective scales for categorizing crime scenes could be developed. MO, signature, staging, and posing need to be more carefully operational zed and distinguished. Relationships between crime scenes and offender characteristics should be cross validated on new samples of offenders.

On a larger scale more objectively gathered qualitative data on experiences with profiles should be obtained. This would involve a more careful tracking of profiles that are generated and a comparison with actual offenders when outcomes are known. Although some of this information is available anecdotally in biographical material(xxxxxxx and xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx and xxxxxxxx and xxxxxxxxxxx 1992) it does not seem to have been gathered systematically. Finally, more attention should be paid to the various uses to which profiling is being put-from various types of crimes, to interrogation advice, to predictions in negligent security cases. It is important that a halo effect not be created where by a finding of profiling success in one area might be taken as indicative of all possible uses.

In summary there is enough research to suggest that crime scene profiling may have sufficient reliability and validity to be useful for some purposes. The literature suggests that the concept of behavioral traits and consistency across situations is respectable if measured in broad contexts. Some anti-social behavior especially if used on underlying psychopathology may have a high degree of consistency. Within the narrow category of sexual offenders and murderers some theoretically reasonable and reliable distinctions can be made. Crime scenes can be categorized with some degree of reliability and have been found to correlate with some offender characteristics. Those trained in profiling have been found to produce longer more detailed reports possibly with increased accuracy and field agencies have been generally positive in their feedback.

At the same time, all of the supporting data seem somewhat tentative and much of the research is in-house and done on the same common core of offenders. Inaccurate profiles often seem to be ignored or forgotten. Although all profilers caution that profiling is an art and that mistakes can be made the occasional dramatic success tends to encourage pushing the envelope to new applications. One problem that is foreseen is that there is not very much factual training that can be offered. They can teach the basics but they can't control how or to what extent they will be used. There is also another concept about the beliefs behind the profile given. If the profiler doesn't truly believe what the evidence seems to show, they may withhold information or important profile items that could potential lead to an arrest. Criminal profiling can either help solve a case or maybe even prevent a case from being solved because everyone is on the wrong track. Their needs to be more training and practice done to insure that the information given is valid. It is observed that many FBI profiles are generalizations about what is known of serial killers and are not helpful for narrowing suspect list. But they will keep working on it.

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