Religion-Related Restrictions in the
1989 Comics Magazine Association of America
Most people familiar with comics are aware that the Comics Code restricted content such as nudity, drug use, graphic sex, etc. The Comics Code also featured specific restrictions about religious content. For many years, part of the reason that there was effectively a "religion taboo" that severely limited overt recognition of real-world religious affiliation among comic book characters was that the Comics Code that the major publishers adhered to specifically prohibited many types of religiously-oriented content. Such prohibitions may have been inspired by the Hayes film code, which contained very similar restrictions against negative portrayals of clergy and real-world religious denominations.
Reading the Comics Code (and keeping in mind the fact that the 1989 version of the Code was far less restrictive than the original versions of the Code), it is easy to see how a comic book writer might be afraid of including overt references to real-world religious affiliation out of fear of violating (even unintentionally) the strictures of the Comics Code.
The Comics Code was never the only reason (or even the principle reason) for the "religion taboo" in American comics. But it was a contributing factor.
Note that even today, when the content in most American comic books is controlled by company-level guidelines and editors rather than following the Comics Code, many comic book writers are fearful about including overt references to real-world religious groups, even when there are no policies or Codes prohibiting them from doing so.
Presented below are excerpts from the 1989 Comics Code of the Comics Magazine Association of America. These excerpts highlight the restrictions relating specifically to the overt portrayal of religious clergy and religious organizations, etc. (In a broad sense, the entire document is obviously related to subjects tied generically to religion and ethics):
In general recognizable... religious institutions... will be portrayed in a positive light. These include... known religious organizations [and] ethnic advancement agencies...
...profane words, symbols, and gestures are prohibited. References to... ethnic backgrounds... [and] religious beliefs... when presented in a derogatory manner for dramatic purposes, will be shown to be unacceptable.
Character portrayals will be caregully crafted and show sensitivity to... ethnic [and] religious... orientations.
If it is dramatically appropriate for one character to demean another because of his or her... ethnicity [or] religion... [comic book stories] should never assign ultimate responsibility for these conditions to the character themselves. Heroes should be role models and should reflect the prevailing social attitudes.
[Below: the complete document:]
Source: SEAL OF APPROVAL: THE HISTORY OF THE COMICS CODE
by Amy Kiste Nyberg
Comics Magazine Association of America Comics Code 1989
The Comics Magazine Association of America was formed in 1954 by a group of publishers committed to the principle that the public deserved decent and wholesome comic books as entertainment for children. To that end, those publishers set content guidelines, created a reviewing authority and established the Comics Code Seal. This seal was to appear on covers of the CMAA member comics as a way of communicating to the public their shared commitment to uphold these standards.
While the comic book industry has changed over the intervening three decades, as has almost every other facet of American life, the publisher members of the CMAA remain committed to providing decent and wholesome comic books for children. This new updated version of the Comics Code is a reaffirmation of that commitment.
The member publishers of the Comics Magazine Association of America hereby reaffirm our joint commitment to our shared principle: that comics carrying the Comics Code Seal be ones that a parent can purchase with confidence that the contents uphold basic American moral and cultural values.
In general recognizable national, social, political, cultural, ethnic and racial groups, religious institutions, law enforcement authorities will be portrayed in a positive light. These include the government on the national, state, and municiple levels, including all of its numerous departments, agencies and services; law enforcement agencies such as the FBI, the Secret Service, the CIA, etc.; the military, both United States and foreign; known religious organizations; ethnic advancement agencies; foreign leaders and representatives of other governments and national groups; and social groups identifiable by lifestyle, such as homosexuals, the economically disadvantaged, the economically privileged, the homeless, senior citizens, minors, etc.
Socially responsible attitudes will be favorably depicted and reinforced. Socially inappropriate, irresponsible, or illegal behaviour will be shown to be specific actions of a specific individual or group of individuals, and not meant to reflect the routine activity of any general group of real persons.
If, for dramatic purposes, it is neccessary to portray such group of individuals in a negative manner, the name of the group and its individual members will be fictitious, and its activities will bot be clearly identifiable with the routine activities of any real group.
Stereotyped images and activites will be not used to degrade specific national, ethnic, or socioeconomic groups.
The language in a comic book will be appropriate for a mass audience that includes children. Good grammar and spelling will be encouraged. Publishers will exercise good taste and a responsible attitude as to the use of language in their comics. Obscene and profane words, symbols, and gestures are prohibited.
References to physical handicaps, illnesses, ethnic backgrounds, sexual preferences, religious beliefs, and race, when presented in a derogatory manner for dramatic purposes, will be shown to be unacceptable.
Violent actions or scenes are acceptable within the context of a comic book story when dramatically appropriate. Violent behavior will not be shown as acceptable. If it is presented in a realistic manner, care should be taken to present the natural repercussions of such actions. Publishers should avoid excessive levels of violence, excessively graphic depictions of violence, and excessive bloodshed or gore. Publishers will not present detailed information instructing readers how to engage in imitable violent actions.
Character portrayals will be caregully crafted and show sensitivity to national, ethnic, religious, sexual, political and socioeconomic orientations.
If it is dramatically appropriate for one character to demean another because of his or her sex, ethnicity, religion, sexual preference, political orientation, socioeconomic disadvantages should never assign ultimate responsibility for these conditions to the character themselves. Heroes should be role models and should reflect the prevailing social attitudes.
Healthy, wholesome lifestyles will be presented as desirable. However, the use and abuse of controlled substances, legal and illicit, are facts of modern existence, and may be portrayed when dramatically appropiate.
The consumption of alcohol, narcotics, pharmaceuticals, and tobacco will not be depicted in a glamorous way. When the line between the normal, responsible consumption of legal substances and the abuse of these substances is crossed, the distinction will be made clear and the adverse consequences of such abuse will be noted.
Substance abuse is defined as the use of illicit drugs and the self-destructive use of such products as tobacco (including chewing tobacco), alcohol, prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, etc.
Use of dangerous substances both legal and illegal should be shown with restraint as necessary to the context of the story. However, storylines should not be detailed to the point of serving as instruction manuals for substance abuse. In each story, the abuser will be shown to pay the physical, mental and/or social penalty for his or her abuse.
While crimes and criminals may be portrayed for dramatic purposes, crimes will never presented in such a way as to inspire readers with a desire to imitate them nor will criminals be portrayed in such a manner as to inspire readers to emulate them. Stories will not present unique imitable techniques or methods of committing crimes.
ATTIRE AND SEXUALITY
Costumes in a comic book will be considered to be acceptable if they fall within the scope of contemporary styles and fashions.
Scenes and dialoge involving adult relationships will be presented with good taste, sensitivity, and in a manner which will be considered acceptable by a mass audience. Primary human sexual characteristics will never be shown. Graphic sexual activity will never be depicted.
All comics which member publishers wish to bear the Comics Code Seal will be submitted to the code administrator for review prior to publication. The administrator will review them according to the guideance he has received from the permanent committee and will either approve them to bear the seal, or return them to the publisher with comments. The responsible editor from the publisher will either revise the comic in accordance with those comments, or discuss with the administrator the concerns raised with him and reach agreement on how the comic can properly bear the Code Seal either without being revised or within a mutually-agreeable set of alternative revisions. In the event no agreement can be reached between the editor and the administrator, the matter can be referred to the permanent committee, which will act promptly to determine if, or under what conditions, the comic in question can bear the Code Seal. Decisions of the permanent committee will be binding on the publishers, who agree not to place the Code Seal on any comic on which it is not authorized.
The members of the Comics Magazine Association of America include publishers who elect to publish comics that are not intended to bear the Code Seal, and that therefore need not go through the approval process described above. Among the comics in this category may be titles intended for adult readers. Member publishers hereby affirm that we will distribute these publications only through distribution channels in which it is possible to notify retailers and distributors of their content, and thus help the publications reach their intended audiences. The member publishers agree to refrain from distributing these publications through those distribution channels that, like the traditional newsstand, are serviced by individuals who are unaware of the content of specific publications before placing them on display.
Recognizing that no document can address all of the complex issues and concerns that face our changing society, the member publishers have established a permanent committe composed of the senior editor of each member's staff. The committe will meet regularly to review those issues and concerns as they affect our publications, and to meet with the guide and administrator of the Comics Code, and will replace the previous written guidelines of the Comics Code.
** Extra special thanks to Tony Isabella for providing this to me.
Webpage created 27 June 2007. Last modified 27 June 2007.
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