Adherents.com - Religions in Literature


Literature Reference List (by name of denomination/religion/tribe):
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Related Pages:

Miller's Canticle, set in a Catholic monastery in post-apocalyptic Utah, remains one of the most important examples of religious science fiction.

This list contains 34,420 citations from literature (primarily science fiction and fantasy novels and stories) referring to actual churches, religions and tribes. This list is intended for literary research only. This is not a source of information about religion.

Which source material has been indexed?
This database is not comprehensive in that all works of science fiction have not been indexed. But this may be thought of as a sampling. Much of the literature currently indexed was chosen simply because it was available at the local library. Additionally, certain non-arbitrary collections of literature have been indexed:

  • Hugo Award-winning novels (100% complete)
  • Nebula Award-winning novels (100% complete)
  • Locus Award-winning s.f. novels (100% complete)
  • Locus Award-winning dark fantasy/horror novels (100% complete)
  • Amazon.com's "25 Best sf/f novels of the century" (100% complete)
  • Sidewise Award-winning novels (100% complete); Sidewise nominated novels (68%)
  • All stories in The Modern Classics of Science Fiction (Dozois) and The Norton Book of Science Fiction (Le Guin)
  • Campbell Award-winning books (100% of 1st place winners and 89% of 2nd and 3rd place winners have been indexed)
  • Star Trek: Voyager novels (92% complete); DS9 novels (88%); TNG novels (73%); New Frontier novels (100%)
  • World Fantasy Award-winning novels (85% complete)
  • Tiptree Award winners (65% complete)
  • Locus Award-winning fantasy novels (63% complete)
  • Philip K. Dick Award-winning novels (45% complete)
  • X-Men novels (44% complete)
  • Over 350 other novels and anthologies

At the close of 2000, 69 different novels have won the Hugo or Nebula award (some won both). 26 novels have won the Campbell Award. (A total of 84 books have won Campbell awards if one counts 2nd and 3rd place Campbell awards in addition to 1st place.) 20 novels have won the Philip K. Dick award. A total of 133 awards have been given for the Nebula or Hugo best novel, the 1st place Campbell award, or the Philip K. Dick award. These 133 awards have gone to 110 distinct books (many have won multiple awards).

Note that only Engish-language works have been indexed. The "Works Indexed" page lists all novels and stories indexed for the database.

As the list below indicates, certain religious groups are mentioned in science fiction more often than others. For instance, Catholicism, Judaism and Islam, and of course Christianity in general, are frequently mentioned religious groups. Many English-language science fiction novels feature in-depth literary exploration or detailed depictions of real-life religious cultures. Nearly always this is done within the Western Judeo-Christian-Muslim tradition, most often with Catholicism. In addition to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, the two religions which round out the "Big Five"--Hinduism and Buddhism--are mentioned frequently, but almost always briefly and in passing. These patterns are not surprising and reflect the background of most English-language authors. Other contemporary religions, including Zoroastrianism, Sikhism, Jainism, and the Baha'i faith, are referred to very rarely.

The primary factors determining which religious groups are referred to most often are:

  1. the religious affiliation of authors (There are more Catholic SF/F writers than Protestant, which is one of the reasons there are more references to Catholicism than Protestantism.)

  2. which religions have many adherents (Islam is mentioned frequently in futuristic literature, because many non-Muslim writers envision Muslims as a distinct and important people far into the future.)

  3. which religions are interesting and culturally distinctive (Many SF/F writers mention Latter-day Saints specifically, but few mention Presbyterians.)

It may also be mentioned that time travel and alternative history stories are more likely to contain references to Catholicism than any other religion because the Catholic Church was the dominant institution during many of the key periods of historical, intellectual and technological development in Western history, and most SF/F writers are from a Western background. After the European Enlightenment period and the Protestant Reformation the link between church and state was much weaker in the West. Accordingly, religion features less prominently in most time travel and alternative history stories after that period.

Once again, this list is intended for literary research. Many references to religious groups within science fiction and fantasy literature are positive or neutral. But many references are negative. This is not necessarily a reflection of the religious groups, but of the nature of the writers and of mainstream literature. The science fiction field naturally attracts many writers with alternative viewpoints. The percentage of writers from groups which are statistical minorities in the U.S., such as atheists, Jews, agnostics, Catholics, etc., is far higher than in the general population. As with other genres, culturally dominant groups and institutions are far more likely candidates for criticism within literature than minority groups.

The religious groups which are portrayed most negatively in science fiction (based on the number and degree of negative references, starting with the most negatively portrayed) are: the Ku Klux Klan, Nazis, Communists, televangelists, Thugees (Kali worshippers), Christian Fundamentalists, Shi'ite/Muslim fundamentalists, and Baptists.

Certain archetypes or stereotypes are commonly found among religious characters in mainstream science fiction. There is the academically and philosophically talented Catholic priest who surprises those around him with his open-minded, self-effacing manner. While there is an abundance of priests and nuns among science fiction characters, practicing lay Catholics are rarely used. Protestantism is all too frequently represented by a hate-mongering or greedy conservative preacher who is more caricature than character. The speech, ideas, and characteristics of these Protestant preachers (often Baptist or Baptist-like) usually seem drawn from televangelists. Evangelical televangelists have become "stock villains" in science fiction, especially since the end of the Cold War. Latter-day Saints use a lay ministry, so there are no Latter-day Saint preacher characters. Latter-day Saint characters in science fiction are frequently soldiers, law enforcement officials, engineers, or political leaders, and are usually characterized as pious, prayerful, and family-oriented, but rather insular.

There doesn't seem to be a stereotypical character type for Jews or Muslims. The Islamic world as a whole is often portrayed as an enemy nation in historical, near-future science fiction and thrillers, and Islam is frequently written as an important and thriving religious culture long into the future. But individual Muslim characters fill a variety of roles, as scientists, businessmen, allies or conquerors. In their religiosity, Muslim and Jewish characters range from devout believers to non-practicing non-believers.

Jews are the most diversely portrayed religious minority in science fiction. This can be attributed partially to the disproportionately large number of Jews (mostly non-practicing) who have written award-winning science fiction and used Jews as main characters. Also, because of the predominance of anti-Semitism in Western culture in the past the Holocaust, mainstream writers are particularly careful to avoid stereotyping this ethnic/religious group. Another factor which has contributed to the more balanced (and more frequent) portrayal of Jews in science fiction is the prominence of Jews in the scientific and other academic professions.


Some comments about methodology
An important distinction about this database is that indexes references to "religions" and not to "religion." This means the references are to groups of people, and not references to general religious topics. This database does not index literary references to topics such as "God", "love", "tolerance", "faith", "epistemology", "salvation", etc. It does contain references to "Catholic", "Islam", "Judaism", "Amish", "Hopi", etc.

Nearly all fiction (and certainly most science fiction and fantasy) addresses some of the same universal human themes that religion addresses. A significant proportion of science fiction novels which have won Hugo, Nebula or Campbell awards are primarily religious in theme, with scientific or futuristic issues absent or secondary. (Examples include: A Case of Conscience by James Blish; A Canticle for Leibowitz by Walter M. Miller, Jr. Stranger in a Strange Land by Robert A. Heinlein; Way Station by Clifford D. Simak; Lord of Light by Roger Zelazny; To Your Scattered Bodies Go by Philip Jose Farmer; Dreamsnake by Vonda McIntyre; The Fountains of Paradise by Arthur C. Clarke; Hyperion by Dan Simmons; Doomsday Book by Connie Willis; Stations of the Tide by Michael Swanwick; The Alteration by Kingsley Amis; The Terminal Experiment by Robert J. Sawyer. On Wings of Song by Disch. Some of these are primarily about abstract religious themes; some are about religions and churches as social institutions, and their history, future, or interaction with society and change. Some are about both. It is amazing how many Hugo-, Nebula, and Campbell-winning science fiction novels have Catholic institutions, clergy, and terminology mentioned on nearly every page.)

All works of literature are influenced by the religious beliefs and culture of the author. But it would be impossible, for example, to include in this list any novel written by a Christian author which contains a generic Christian theme, such as redemption or forgiveness, but does not mention Christianity by name. To attempt to catalogue religious references in general would be an enormous task. It would also be very subjective.

Indexing references to religious groups can be done more quickly and objectively, primarily by searching the literature for all proper names of religious groups. We have also included references to religious groups which do not include the group's name, by staying alert for associated words and phrases such as "imam", "rabbi", "rector", "nun", "rosary", "church", "fire temple", "Bible", "Luther", "Moses", "Siddhartha", "Jesus", etc.

It is easier to identify references to religious groups by their proper name than by associated words. If a religious group has been mentioned by name in a book or story that we have indexed, it is almost certainly included in this database in association with that book or story. Where there are multiple references, we may not index every reference, but the database will mention that this is the case, and will often include page numbers for additional references. Where there are multiple references within a single work to smaller, sectarian groups (which are less frequently written about), we may include more text from such references in the database.


Some religious groups referenced by this index are fictional and exist only within literature, such as Poul Anderson's "Avantism", Orson Scott Card's "Speakers for the Dead", or Dan Simmons' "Church of the Shrike". Nearly all science fiction and fantasy authors have created their own religious groups within their fiction, usually complete with doctrine, practice, and organizational guidelines. Often these new religious groups are developed in great detail, as with Katherine Kurtz's Deryni, Piers Anthony's extensive "Tarot" system and the "Holy Order of Vision", Octavia Butler's "EarthSeed", Walter Jon Williams' "Church of the Apostles of Elohim and the Nazarene", David Brin's "Gaianism" or Bohnhoff's "Meri". Occasionally these literary creations have served as the inspiration for real-world organizations, such as the real-world, tax-exempt Church of All Worlds, named after the religion created by Robert Heinlein in Stranger in a Strange Land, Discordianism from Shea's Illuminatus, various Klingon and other Star Trek clubs, and L. Ron Hubbard's well-known Scientology. However, purely fictional religious groups are not the focus of this list, and not every fictional religious group mentioned in the works referenced has been added to this list.

Distinct religions and philosophies of alien races are also usually invented in science fiction tales which prominently feature aliens, but references to these are usually not in the database unless they specify statistical estimates. Interestingly, alien races described in depth in science fiction nearly always have a distinctive religion, but they are rarely described as having more than one. "One religion per species" seems to be the rather un-Earthlike rule, although there are exceptions.

Along with references to religious groups, cultural references in other select areas have been indexed, in categories such as "television", "movies", "literature", and "music." Thus, this database can tell you, for example, which science fiction novels mention actor Robert Redford. (Elliot S. Maggin's Superman: Last Son of Krypton; George R. R. Martin's Wild Cards; Crystal Wood's Cut Him Out in Little Stars; Connie Willis's "At the Rialto"; Paul J. McAuley's Fairyland; Michael Bishop's No Enemy But Time.) This practice wasn't initiated with the earliest works indexed. More information about non-religious/ethnic topics indexed is available here.

Please send comments, questions, corrections, etc. to webmaster@adherents.com

Note that groups marked with an asterisk (*) are purely fictional.


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z



A

Abkhazian (5 recs.)
Abyssinian (3 recs.)
Accadians (3 recs.)
Adventist (5 recs.)
African Traditional Religion (25 recs.)
Afro-Brazilian religions (4 recs.)
Agnostic (35 recs.)
Ahmadiyya (7 recs.)
Ainu (3 recs.)
Alawi (3 recs.)
Albanian (7 recs.)
Albanian Orthodox (3 recs.)
Albigensianism (8 recs.)
Alcoholics Anonymous (8 recs.)
Aleut (12 recs.)
Algonquin (5 recs.)
American Catholics (2 recs.)
American Civil Liberties Union (17 recs.)
American Nazi Party (2 recs.)
Americanism (13 recs.)
Amidism (8 recs.)
Amish (27 recs.)
Anabaptist (2 recs.)
Anasazi (19 recs.)
ancestor veneration (18 recs.)
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite
Ancient and Mystical Order of the Rosae Crucis
Andamanese (9 recs.)
Anglican (67 recs.)
Animal Rights (32 recs.)
animism (12 recs.)
Anthroposophical Society
anti-Semitism (25 recs.)
Apache (35 recs.)
Apostolic Overcoming Holy Church of God
Aquarian (2 recs.)
Arab (206 recs.)
Arapaho (9 recs.)
Arawak (3 recs.)
Arianism (14 recs.)
Arikara (2 recs.)
Aristotelian (47 recs.)
Arizona (154 recs.)
Armenian (43 recs.)
Armenian Apostolic Church (4 recs.)
Arthurian (96 recs.)
artificial intelligence (408 recs.)
Aryan (42 recs.)
Aryan Brotherhood
Asatru
Ashanti (8 recs.)
Ashkenazi Judaism (2 recs.)
Assassins (5 recs.)
Assemblies of God (6 recs.)
Assiniboine
Assyrian (22 recs.)
astrology (93 recs.)
Athabaskan
Athanasianism
Atheism (128 recs.)
Atlantean (75 recs.)
attendance - regular (4 recs.)
Aum Shinrikyo (9 recs.)
Australian Aborigines (49 recs.)
Avar (2 recs.)
Azanian (4 recs.)
Azerbaijani (14 recs.)
Aztec (64 recs.)

B

Ba'ku* (10 recs.)
Baal (11 recs.)
Baba Ram Das (4 recs.)
Babylonian (99 recs.)
Bactrians (4 recs.)
Baghdadi Jews
Bahai Faith (19 recs.)
Bajoran* (83 recs.)
Balinese (13 recs.)
Bambara (2 recs.)
Bambuti
Baniwas
Bantu (7 recs.)
Banyas (2 recs.)
Baptist (146 recs.)
Baptist - black denominations (4 recs.)
Basque (16 recs.)
Batswana (2 recs.)
Bedj
Bedouin (33 recs.)
Bengali (15 recs.)
Berber (4 recs.)
Bihari
Bizango (6 recs.)
black militants (16 recs.)
Black Muslims (9 recs.)
Blackfoot (7 recs.)
Boer (13 recs.)
Bogomil (2 recs.)
Brahman (28 recs.)
Branch Davidians (10 recs.)
Buddhism (387 recs.)
Buddhist-Shinto
Buddhist-Taoist
Buriats
Burmese (15 recs.)
Bushido/Samurai (70 recs.)
Bushmen of the Kalahari (San) (15 recs.)

C

Cajun (34 recs.)
Calvary Chapel
Calvinist (20 recs.)
Cambodian (22 recs.)
Camisards
Campus Crusade for Christ (2 recs.)
Canaanite (6 recs.)
Canadian & Latin American Native Americans (5 recs.)
Cao Dai (2 recs.)
cargo cults (10 recs.)
Carib (11 recs.)
Carpatho-Rusyns (2 recs.)
Carthaginian (17 recs.)
Catalan (4 recs.)
Cathar (7 recs.)
Catholic (1176 recs.)
Catholic - Augustinian
Catholic - Benedictine (9 recs.)
Catholic - Bohemian parishes
Catholic - born-again (4 recs.)
Catholic - Capuchin (2 recs.)
Catholic - Carmelite (6 recs.)
Catholic - Carthusian (3 recs.)
Catholic - Chaldean Rites
Catholic - Cistercian (12 recs.)
Catholic - Dominican (14 recs.)
Catholic - Franciscan (15 recs.)
Catholic - Friends of God
Catholic - Greek Catholic (2 recs.)
Catholic - Gregorian (4 recs.)
Catholic - Jesuit (81 recs.)
Catholic - Knights of Columbus
Catholic - other (5 recs.)
Catholic - Pentecostal
Catholic - Syro-Malankara
Catholic - Trappist (10 recs.)
Catholic - Uniate (2 recs.)
Cayuse
Celt (79 recs.)
Celtic Christian
centaur (25 recs.)
cetacean (129 recs.)
Chaldean (6 recs.)
Charismatic movement (7 recs.)
Chechen
Cherokee (55 recs.)
Cheyenne (47 recs.)
Chibcha
Chickasaw (7 recs.)
children (7 recs.)
chiliasm (4 recs.)
Chinese (567 recs.)
Chinese traditional religion (34 recs.)
Chinook
Chippewa/Ojibwa (18 recs.)
Choctaw (11 recs.)
Christian Coalition
Christian Fundamentalist (127 recs.)
Christian Identity Movement (9 recs.)
Christian Science (42 recs.)
Christianity (2131 recs.)
Christianity - alternative (11 recs.)
Christianity - Aquinas (21 recs.)
Christianity - attend regularly
Christianity - born-again (35 recs.)
Christianity - Christmas (596 recs.)
Christianity - nondenominational (2 recs.)
Christianity - Old Testament (235 recs.)
Chukchi (4 recs.)
Church of All Worlds (3 recs.)
Church of God (2 recs.)
Church of God in Christ
Church of God With Signs Following (Snake Handlers) (2 recs.)
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (995 recs.)
Church of Scotland (2 recs.)
Church of Sweden (2 recs.)
Church of the Blood of the Lamb
Churches of Christ (4 recs.)
Circassians (5 recs.)
citizens (14 recs.)
cola (281 recs.)
Colorado (123 recs.)
Comanche (24 recs.)
comics (186 recs.)
Communist (445 recs.)
Community of Christ (RLDS)
Confucianism (48 recs.)
Confucianism (I-Ching) (33 recs.)
Congregationalist (22 recs.)
Coptic Orthodox (6 recs.)
Cossack (18 recs.)
Course in Miracles, A
Covenant of the Goddess
Cree (4 recs.)
Creek (8 recs.)
Croat (19 recs.)
Crow (10 recs.)
cults (170 recs.)
Cybele the Great Mother (20 recs.)

D

Dakota (6 recs.)
Dayak (3 recs.)
Deism (4 recs.)
Delaware (3 recs.)
demonology (7 recs.)
denominations (4 recs.)
Dervish (3 recs.)
Dionysus worship (16 recs.)
Discordianism (5 recs.)
Disney (196 recs.)
Dogon (8 recs.)
Donatists
Donmeh
Doukhobors (3 recs.)
Dravidian (4 recs.)
Drej* (16 recs.)
Druidism (67 recs.)
Druze (3 recs.)
dualism
Dunkard Brethren (2 recs.)
Dutch Reformed (10 recs.)

E

East Asian religions (5 recs.)
Eastern Orthodox (38 recs.)
Eblans
Eco-Tech Coalition* (20 recs.)
Egyptian ancient religion (115 recs.)
Elamites
Elan Vital
Elvis worship (56 recs.)
Embu (2 recs.)
environmentalism (104 recs.)
Epicurean (12 recs.)
Episcopalian (77 recs.)
Essenes (17 recs.)
est (2 recs.)
Ethical Culture Movement
Ethiopian Jews
Ethiopian Orthodox
Etruscan (17 recs.)
Evangelical (89 recs.)
Existentialism (10 recs.)

F

Faerie (72 recs.)
FALN - Puerto Rican National Liberation Armed Forces
Fatimid Islam (6 recs.)
Feminism (90 recs.)
feng shui (9 recs.)
Ferengi* (37 recs.)
Findhorn Community
Fire-Baptized Holiness Church of God
First Baptist Church (Dallas)
First Church of Wintermute
Fleming
framling (3 recs.)
Freemasonry (46 recs.)
Freud (108 recs.)
Frisian (7 recs.)
Fulani (3 recs.)
Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

G

Gaian (78 recs.)
Gandhi veneration (56 recs.)
Ganesh worship (13 recs.)
Gardnerian Wicca
Gaul (11 recs.)
German Order
Gheg (2 recs.)
Ghost Dance (8 recs.)
Ghurkas (9 recs.)
Gimi
Giriama
Gnosticism (39 recs.)
God (260 recs.)
goddess worship (164 recs.)
Goth (17 recs.)
Great Ones/The Master* (23 recs.)
Greco-Roman classical religion (444 recs.)
Greek Orthodox (18 recs.)
Greek philosophy (11 recs.)
Greenpeace (3 recs.)
Gurdjieff (3 recs.)
Gwi

H

Han (12 recs.)
Harijan (4 recs.)
Hasidic Jews (19 recs.)
hate groups (8 recs.)
Hatha Yoga (2 recs.)
Hausa (5 recs.)
Hawaii (66 recs.)
Hawaiian traditional religion (6 recs.)
Heaven's Gate (11 recs.)
Hegelianism (2 recs.)
Hellfire Club (26 recs.)
Helliconian religion* (27 recs.)
Herero
hermaphrodite (35 recs.)
Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (10 recs.)
Hidatsa (2 recs.)
Hinayana Buddhism
Hinduism (338 recs.)
hippies (56 recs.)
historical people (410 recs.)
Hittite (13 recs.)
Hmong (2 recs.)
Holiness/Holy
homosexual (350 recs.)
Hopi (14 recs.)
Hospitalers (6 recs.)
Hottentot (9 recs.)
Huguenot (6 recs.)
Humanism (31 recs.)
Hun (43 recs.)
Huron
Hussite (3 recs.)
Hutterian Brethren

I

I AM
Iban
Ibo
Idaho (87 recs.)
Inca (33 recs.)
industrialism (11 recs.)
International Church of the Foursquare Gospel (7 recs.)
intuition (9 recs.)
Inuit (54 recs.)
Iroquois (17 recs.)
Isis worship (41 recs.)
ISKCON (21 recs.)
Islam (736 recs.)
Islamic fundamentalist (47 recs.)
Ismaili (2 recs.)
Italones

J

Jainism (14 recs.)
Janissaries (10 recs.)
Jansenism (2 recs.)
Japanese (490 recs.)
Javanese (5 recs.)
Jedi/The Force* (92 recs.)
Jehovah's Witnesses (37 recs.)
Jesus movement/Jesus freaks (2 recs.)
Jews for Jesus (2 recs.)
John Birch Society (5 recs.)
Ju-Bu
Juche (2 recs.)
Judaism (830 recs.)
Judaism - secular (2 recs.)
Judeo-Christian (35 recs.)
Jung (40 recs.)

K

Kabbalah (42 recs.)
Kali worship (41 recs.)
Kamba (7 recs.)
Kant (18 recs.)
Karachai
Karankawa (2 recs.)
Kardecian Spiritualism (5 recs.)
Karen
Kazakh (13 recs.)
Kentucky Fried Chicken (17 recs.)
Khmer Rouge
kibbutzim (13 recs.)
Kickapoo
Kikembu (3 recs.)
Kikuyu (11 recs.)
Kiowa (7 recs.)
Kirghiz (6 recs.)
Klamath (2 recs.)
Klingon* (22 recs.)
Know-Nothings (2 recs.)
Korean (73 recs.)
Koreshanity (2 recs.)
Kourete (3 recs.)
Kpala (7 recs.)
Krishna worship (5 recs.)
Krishnamurti (9 recs.)
Ku Klux Klan (38 recs.)
Kundalini (11 recs.)
Kung Bushmen (2 recs.)
Kurd (16 recs.)

L

Lacandon Maya (3 recs.)
Lahu
Lakota (13 recs.)
Lamaistic Buddhism (3 recs.)
Laotian (11 recs.)
Lemurians (3 recs.)
Leopard Society
Libertarian (11 recs.)
Lingayats
literature (929 recs.)
literature - Dickens (75 recs.)
literature - Robin Hood (29 recs.)
literature - Shakespeare (258 recs.)
literature - Sherlock Holmes (64 recs.)
literature - Twain (62 recs.)
literature - Victor Hugo (18 recs.)
Lollards
Lozi (3 recs.)
Luddite (20 recs.)
Luhya
Luo (3 recs.)
Lutheran (48 recs.)

M

Maasai (12 recs.)
Macedonian (5 recs.)
Macumba (4 recs.)
Mahayana Buddhism (10 recs.)
Mahdi (10 recs.)
Maitreya (2 recs.)
Malagasy
Manchus (2 recs.)
Mandan (2 recs.)
Mandingo (2 recs.)
Manichaeism (11 recs.)
Maoism (61 recs.)
Maori (15 recs.)
Mar Thoma Church
Marka
Marranos (2 recs.)
Marxism (132 recs.)
Maya (84 recs.)
McDonald's (66 recs.)
McLuhanism
Medes (4 recs.)
media (12 recs.)
Megalithic
Mennonite (16 recs.)
Menominee (2 recs.)
Mesopotamian (7 recs.)
Messianic Judaism
Methodist (59 recs.)
militias (5 recs.)
Minoan/Cretan (39 recs.)
Minorcans
Missouri
Mithraism (46 recs.)
Mohawk (19 recs.)
Mohegan (3 recs.)
Mon-Khmer hill tribespeople
Mongol (58 recs.)
monism
monolatrists
Monophysitism (2 recs.)
monotheism (23 recs.)
Moor (40 recs.)
Moral Majority (6 recs.)
Moravian (4 recs.)
Moro (3 recs.)
movies (597 recs.)
movies - James Bond (20 recs.)
music (236 recs.)
musicals (52 recs.)
Muskogee
Muslim Brotherhood (3 recs.)
mutants (127 recs.)
Mycenaean (8 recs.)
mystery religions (29 recs.)
mysticism (67 recs.)

N

Nabataean (3 recs.)
Naderites* (13 recs.)
Naga
Natchez
Nation of Islam (21 recs.)
National Council of Churches of Christ in the U.S.A. (2 recs.)
Native American Church
Native Americans (592 recs.)
Nature and Earth Based Religions (5 recs.)
Navajo (72 recs.)
Nazism (392 recs.)
Ndebele (5 recs.)
Negrito Semang
Neo-Paganism (6 recs.)
Nestorian (2 recs.)
Nevada (97 recs.)
New Age (81 recs.)
New Mexico (89 recs.)
New Reformed Druids
New Zealand (49 recs.)
Nez Perce (3 recs.)
Nguni
Nichiren Buddhism (2 recs.)
Nietzsche (33 recs.)
Nilotes (2 recs.)
non-Christian (9 recs.)
Nonreligious (31 recs.)
Norman (12 recs.)
Northern Baptist Convention
Nubian (6 recs.)
Nuer

O

Obeah
Objectivism/Ayn Rand (8 recs.)
occult (54 recs.)
Oglalla Sioux (5 recs.)
Old Believers (3 recs.)
Old Order Amish Church
Olmec (5 recs.)
Omaha (2 recs.)
Omphalos (6 recs.)
Oneida Community (2 recs.)
Oneida Indians
Onondaga (2 recs.)
Ooriyas
Opus Dei (2 recs.)
Orange Order
Order of Christ
Ordo Templi Orientis (2 recs.)
Orisha (2 recs.)
Orphism (26 recs.)
Orthodox Judaism (17 recs.)
Osage (3 recs.)
Ossetians (4 recs.)
Oto

P

paganism (125 recs.)
Paiute (4 recs.)
Palestinian (24 recs.)
Palestinian Liberation Front (PLO) (5 recs.)
Palouse
Pantheism (11 recs.)
Parsi (18 recs.)
Parthian (4 recs.)
Pathans (2 recs.)
Pawnee (10 recs.)
Peace Corps (10 recs.)
Pentecostal (53 recs.)
People, The* (46 recs.)
Peoples Temple (13 recs.)
Persian (69 recs.)
peyotism (6 recs.)
Pharisees (9 recs.)
Philistine (17 recs.)
philosophy (4 recs.)
Phoenician (24 recs.)
Phrygian (6 recs.)
Phurba (6 recs.)
Pietism
Pima
Plains Ojibwa
Platonism (95 recs.)
polygamy (55 recs.)
Polynesian (41 recs.)
Polynesian traditional religion
polytheism (159 recs.)
Ponca
Presbyterian (64 recs.)
primal-indigenous (45 recs.)
Process Church (2 recs.)
Protestant (267 recs.)
Protestant - liberal denominations (3 recs.)
Protestant - nondenominational (2 recs.)
Protestant - WASP (14 recs.)
psychohistory/Seldonists* (38 recs.)
psychology (24 recs.)
Pueblo (8 recs.)
Puritan (43 recs.)
Pygmies (14 recs.)
Pythagorean (35 recs.)

Q

Qadiriya
Quaker (142 recs.)
Quechua (8 recs.)
Querechos

R

radio (7 recs.)
Rajneesh Foundation/Osho (4 recs.)
raman (3 recs.)
Rastafarian (25 recs.)
Rationalism (8 recs.)
Reconstructionist Judaism
Reform Judaism (3 recs.)
Reformed (3 recs.)
religious (532 recs.)
religious - fictional (1375 recs.)
Religious Right (3 recs.)
Revenants of the Prophet* (32 recs.)
Rinzai
Roma (133 recs.)
Rosicrucian (19 recs.)
Russian Orthodox (10 recs.)
Ryobu Shinto

S

Sabines (2 recs.)
Sadducees
Salish (4 recs.)
Salvation Army (42 recs.)
Samaritan (22 recs.)
Sami (11 recs.)
Samoan (8 recs.)
Santeria (5 recs.)
Sarakole
Sarmatian (4 recs.)
Satanism (49 recs.)
Saxon (35 recs.)
science fiction (638 recs.)
science fiction - Alice in Wonderland (122 recs.)
science fiction - Arabian Nights (24 recs.)
science fiction - Arthur C. Clarke (38 recs.)
science fiction - Asimov (39 recs.)
science fiction - Bradbury (24 recs.)
science fiction - Dante (75 recs.)
science fiction - Dracula/vampire stories (51 recs.)
science fiction - Edgar Rice Burroughs (66 recs.)
science fiction - fairy tales (116 recs.)
science fiction - Frankenstein (69 recs.)
science fiction - Godzilla (17 recs.)
science fiction - Gulliver's Travels (23 recs.)
science fiction - H. G. Wells (82 recs.)
science fiction - Heinlein (35 recs.)
science fiction - King Kong (19 recs.)
science fiction - Orwell (30 recs.)
science fiction - Peter Pan (35 recs.)
science fiction - Philip K. Dick (32 recs.)
science fiction - Sagan (26 recs.)
science fiction - Star Trek (111 recs.)
science fiction - Star Wars (78 recs.)
science fiction - Stephen King (18 recs.)
science fiction - Tolkien (22 recs.)
science fiction - Twilight Zone (22 recs.)
science fiction - Verne (30 recs.)
science fiction - Wizard of Oz (109 recs.)
science fiction - X-Files (16 recs.)
Scientists (108 recs.)
Scientology: 8,000,000 (48 recs.)
Scythian (16 recs.)
sects (12 recs.)
secular (8 recs.)
self religions (2 recs.)
Self-Realization Fellowship
Seminole (9 recs.)
Sendero (5 recs.)
Seneca (3 recs.)
Senussi
Sephardic Judaism (9 recs.)
Serb (19 recs.)
Seventh-day Adventist (7 recs.)
Shaivism (2 recs.)
Shaker: 100,000 (21 recs.)
shamanism (64 recs.)
Shan
Shang-ti-hui
Shangaan
Shango
Shawnee (4 recs.)
Sherpa (3 recs.)
Shiite (41 recs.)
Shingon
Shinto (40 recs.)
Shoshone (6 recs.)
Sikhism (124 recs.)
simian (104 recs.)
Sinhalese (5 recs.)
Sioux (43 recs.)
Skinheads (6 recs.)
Skoptsy (6 recs.)
Society for Creative Anachronisms
Socinianism (2 recs.)
sociobiology (4 recs.)
Socrates (52 recs.)
Somali (4 recs.)
Songhai (4 recs.)
Sonrai
Sotho
Southern Baptist Convention (34 recs.)
Southern Methodist Church
Spartan (25 recs.)
Speakers for the Dead* (9 recs.)
Spiritism (15 recs.)
Spiritualism (24 recs.)
sports (10 recs.)
statistics
Stoicism (11 recs.)
Sufism (31 recs.)
Sumerian (30 recs.)
Sunni (19 recs.)
superstition (142 recs.)
survivalists (5 recs.)
Swazi
Swedenborgian (10 recs.)
Sybarites

T

Tai-ping (2 recs.)
Taino
Tajik
Taliban (3 recs.)
Tamil (13 recs.)
Tantrism (12 recs.)
Taoism (90 recs.)
Tarot (39 recs.)
Tasaday
Tasmanian Aborigines (5 recs.)
Tatar (17 recs.)
Tau Ceti (41 recs.)
Taushiro
Tebu
technology (19 recs.)
televangelism (106 recs.)
television (325 recs.)
Templars (19 recs.)
Teutonic paganism (247 recs.)
Thai (60 recs.)
Thelema (2 recs.)
Theosophy (24 recs.)
Theravada Buddhism (3 recs.)
Thugee (10 recs.)
Tibetan (34 recs.)
Tibetan Buddhism (96 recs.)
Tibetan Buddhism - Geluk order (4 recs.)
Tibetan Buddhism - Nyingma order (5 recs.)
Tibetan Buddhism - Sakya order
Tlingit
Tocharians
Todas
Tolalaki
Toltec (8 recs.)
Tongan (12 recs.)
Tosk
Transcendental Meditation (4 recs.)
Transcendentalism (5 recs.)
tritheism (3 recs.)
Trojan (35 recs.)
Tuareg (13 recs.)
Turk (125 recs.)
Turkomans (3 recs.)
Tutsi (4 recs.)
Twelvers
Twi
Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists

U

UFO groups (62 recs.)
Ugaritic (2 recs.)
Umbanda
Unarius Academy of Science
Unification Church (17 recs.)
Uniformitarian
Unitarian (9 recs.)
Unitarian/Unitarian Universalist (35 recs.)
United Church of Canada (2 recs.)
United Church of Christ
United Methodist Church
Universal Life Church (2 recs.)
Universalist (8 recs.)
Urantia Book Readers, Fellowship of
Utah (278 recs.)
Ute (7 recs.)
Utilitarianism (8 recs.)
utlanning (2 recs.)
Utraquists
Uygur (2 recs.)
Uzbek (11 recs.)

V

vampire (126 recs.)
Vandal (10 recs.)
varelse (3 recs.)
Vedanta Societies (2 recs.)
Vedic religion (6 recs.)
Vegan (4 recs.)
vegetarian (27 recs.)
Venda
Vietnamese (107 recs.)
Viking (82 recs.)
Visigoth (9 recs.)
Vodoun (81 recs.)
Volsci (2 recs.)
Vulcan* (50 recs.)

W

Wahhabi Sunni (5 recs.)
Waldensian (7 recs.)
Walla Walla (2 recs.)
Walloon
Wanderobo (2 recs.)
Washoe
Wee Kirk of Scotland
Whirling Dervishes (7 recs.)
white supremacist groups (7 recs.)
Wicca (16 recs.)
Wichita
Winnebago (4 recs.)
witch (465 recs.)
Wolof (2 recs.)
World Council of Churches
Wyandot
Wyoming (40 recs.)

X

Xango (2 recs.)
Xhosa (3 recs.)

Y

Yakut (4 recs.)
Yamacraw
Yamana
Yanomamo (3 recs.)
Yapese
Yaqui
YMCA (21 recs.)
yoga (30 recs.)
Yoruba (10 recs.)
Yuchi
Yukaghir

Z

Zen (155 recs.)
Zen - Fuke
Zionism (23 recs.)
Zobop (2 recs.)
Zoroastrian (81 recs.)
Zulu (38 recs.)
Zuni (8 recs.)
Zurvanism

miscellaneous regional info

34,420 adherent records.
796 groups.