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Methodological Report #43


Original source: http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/GSS99/report/m-report/meth43.htm


                  Classifying Protestant Denominations


                                  By


                             Tom W. Smith


                          Revised July, 1987


                            October, 1986

                   GSS Methodological Report No. 43


This research was done for the General Social Survey project directed by James A.
Davis and Tom W. Smith. The project is funded by the National Science Foundation,
Grant No. SES-8118731.

I would like to thank C. Kirk Hadaway and James A. Davis for their comments.

Publication Note:  A later version of this paper was published in Review of
Religious Research, 31 (March, 1990), 225-245.


Although the importance of religion as a attitudinal predictor in general
and as a marker of cultural pluralism in particular has been increasing
acknowledged in recent years (Smith, 1986), the use of religion in sociological
analysis has been stunted by the difficulty of working with
denominational variables. The basic reason for the difficulty is the complex
nature of America's denominational profile. As the Reverend J. Gordon Melton -
America's champion church hunter, once remarked, "We are probably the most
religious people -- and the most diversely religious people -- on earth."
Our tradition of religious pluralism goes deeply into our colonial history.
Edwin S. Gaustad noted that even as early as the 17th century one found
"Huguenots in Charleston, Anglicans in Tidewater Virginia, Catholics in
St. Mary's City, Swedish Lutherans along the Delaware, Quakers and
Presbyterians further up the river, Dutch Reform in Manhattan, Puritans in
New England, Baptists, and Heaven-knows-what-else in Rhode Island."  Early
in the history of the American republic, the French aristocrat Talleyrand
is reported to have derisively observed that the United States had 32 religions,
but only one sauce. Since then America has continued to both import foreign and
spawn indigenous religions, until by the late 1970s Melton came up with a list of
1,187 primary denominations in the United States. This makes religion a difficult
variable to collect and probably even more troublesome to use. It
leaves the analyst with a myriad of small, obscure, and easily confused groups to sift through.

     This problem is compounded by lack of government data on religion.
Because the Census Bureau feels proscribed by the First Amendment from
including religious affiliation questions on either the Census or the Current
Population Survey (CPS), authoritative, fine-grain statistics on religion are
in short supply. (The census of religious bodies was last conducted in 1936
and the CPS has not asked about religion since 1957. "Religion," 1958 and
Mueller and Lane, 1972).


                         Classifying Schemes

     The classic solution for dealing with large numbers of small and
unordered  groups is to create a classification scheme and aggregate the
separate groups into a manageable number of categories. Many classification
schemes for religion have been developed over the years using one criterion
or another to group denominations.  For example, the grouping of churches
into denominational families based on theological and historical similarity
has been common (Backman, 1983; Jacquet, 1980; Synan in Jacquet, 1980; and
Hunter, 1981) and other schemes have been used such criteria as form of
church government (Wbod, 1970) and the distinction between sects and denominations (Wilson, 1970).

     Social scientists in the United States however have found the
most useful classification to be one that discriminated denominations along a
continuum from fundamentalism to liberalism (or in similar schemes with
different labels from the orthodox, conservative, or Evangelical to the
secular, modern, or humanistic). It is hard to place a rigorous definition on
the poles of the continuum (and even harder to so label the way stations),
because there is enough particularism among denominations and conflict over
the use and meanings of terms that it is difficult to tailor a set of
criteria that are exact and easily quantifiable. Nevertheless, it is possible
to outline the main issues that separate fundamentalist and liberal theologies
and to array denomination along such a continuum.

     At one end we find the Fundamentalists, a movement of conservative or
traditionalist Protestant denominations that grew largely out of the Holiness
and Pentecostal movements (and later denominations) of the nineteenth century.
The movement was formed in the early 20th century as a reaction to what was
seen as the secularization and modernization of religious beliefs and
practices within many mainstream and established Protestant denominations. Its
keys beliefs were first articulated in a series of pamphlets called The
Fundamentals (1909). In addition to their opposition to the growth of secular
influence in society, the Fundamentalists are distinguished by belief in
1) the inerrancy of the Bible (or more technically in the verbal, plenary
inspiration of the Bible), 2) personal salvation by accepting Christ as their
saviour in what is often called the born-again experience, 3) the personal,
pre-millenial imminent return of Christ, 4) an evangelical or revivalist
desire to reach out to save and convert others, and 5) acceptance of most
traditional Protestant beliefs such as in Trinity, the Virgin birth, and the
existence of angels and devils. The position of liberal denominations is
perhaps less clear than that of the Fundamentalists, but tends to 1) emphasize
concerns about the nature and operation of this world more than salvation in
the next which leads to support for social action and progressive reform,
2) accept secular change and science as probably worthwhile and at least not
as anti-religious, 3) have little faith in the literal message of the Bible
and particularly in Biblical miracles which are seen as either questionable as
historical facts or metaphorical in nature, and 4) be non-adventist. The large
group of moderates between the two poles tends of course to reflect varying
elements of both the polar groups. They tend for example to reject the the
extreme inerrancy and anti-science leanings of the Fundamentalists while
sharing with them many other traditional Christian beliefs. Likewise, they
tend to share the liberal acceptance of modernization and some of their
leanings toward humanitarian reform, but share less of the deism or even
agnosticism that pervades some liberal faiths.


       Categorizing Along the Fundamentalist-Liberal Continuum.

To categorize denominations along Fundamentalist-Liberal continuum, we
used five different techniques: 1) utilization of prior classifications
schemes, 2) membership in theologically oriented ecumenical associations, 3)
surveys of denominational members, 4) surveys of denominational clergy, and 5)
theological beliefs of denominations. In developing our classification scheme
we have tried both to create a general scheme for classifying denominations
for analysts who may not wish to devise their own scheme and also compile
enough raw information so other analysts can make informed choices about how
to categorize denominations.

     Numerous scholars have developed schemes to classify individual
denominations along the Fundamentalist-Liberal continuum. These schemes are
presented in Tables 1 and 2 [Endnote 1]. (Denominations are presented in two
tables to correspond to the way religion is coded into discrete variables on
the General Social Survey (GSS), see Appendix 1 for details on the way
religion is measured on the GSS.) They differ greatly on coverage, categories,
and terminology.  Some schemes cover only a few denominations while others
cover over 75. Several enumerate only Fundamentalist denominations and either
ignore or treat as separate categories all remaining denominations. Those that
do more than just listing the Fundamentalists without reference to other
denominations use as few as two categories (Fundamentalist vs. Non-
Fundamentalist) to as many as five categories (usually Fundamentalist,
Conservative, Moderate, Liberal, and Excluded). Likewise they vary on what
they call the different poles. For example, what we are calling
Fundamentalists are also referred in Tables 1 and 2 as Orthodox, Conservative,
Neo-Fundamentalist, Evangelical, Pentecostal/Evangelical and Sects. Despite
these wide differences in the mechanics of the sundry schemes, there is
actually a great deal of agreement about the placement of the large majority
of denominations.

     The second technique for classifying denominations examined what inter-
church association they are affiliated with. The right most columns in Tables
1 and 2 indicate whether the denominations are affiliated with the moderate-
to-liberal National Council of the Churches of Christ or one of the three
Fundamentalist bodies (the National Evangelical Association, the Pentecosital
Federation of North America, and the Christian Holiness Association). While
many denominations do not belong to any of these bodies, the measure does
clearly distinguish between denominations since no church belongs to both the
NCCC and to any of the Fundamentalist associations.

      The third technique was to study the beliefs of denominational members.
Tables 3 through 5 show the beliefs of various denominational members on an
orthodoxy/traditional belief scale and to two theological items (Bible
inerrancy and being born again) that are central to Fundamentalism. The
advantage of these scales is that they quantify a denomination's position.
Most denominations however do not appear in any of these tables either because
too few people from a particular denomination appeared in the survey sample
(we reported figures for as few as ten cases) or because the denomination was
not separately coded in the survey. In addition, because of the often very
small sample sizes, the figures for many denominations are highly variable.

     The fourth technique is similar to the third except that it involves a
sample of clergy rather than a sample of laity. As in the case of the surveys
of members the advantage is the objective criteria and the quantification, but
we are aware of only one major inter-denominational example and only a half
dozen denominations are covered (Hadden, 1969).

      The last technique was to determine the theological orientation of
denominations in the standard reference works (Jacquet, 1980; Mead, 1970;
Melton, 1978, 1985; Barrett, 1982). This approach is the most comprehensive
since more denominations are covered in these sources than in any of the other
approaches, but it is often difficult to determine the current Fundamentalist-
Liberal leaning of denominations based on short descriptions that tend to
emphasize the denominational history of the church and the theological points
that originally distinguished them from other faiths, but which are often not
related to the contemporary Fundamentalist-Liberal dimension.

      As we have seen each of the five techniques that we have utilized has
particular strengths and weaknesses. In addition, certain problems are common
to all approaches. It is difficult to find information onmany of the smaller
denominations. For 8 of the 154 denominations coded on the GSS, no information
was locatable and for one insufficient information was available for even a
leaning to be determined. (We have tried to maximize the number of classified
denominations by assigning all denominations for which even minimal amount of
information indicated a tentative orientation.) A second problem is confusion
between denominations. Many denominations with decidedly different theological
orientations have highly similar and occasionally even identical names
[Endnote 2].

     Such confusion not only makes it difficult to determine which
denomination is being referred to in the various sources discussed above, but
also, as we shall see, probably contributes to respondent and interviewer
confusion about how to code respondents on surveys. Problems of obscurity and
confusion as well as other problems combine to make it impossible to place 20
out of 154 religions (or religious groupings) on the GSS. (While these
represent 13.0% of the coded denominations, they amount to only 0.4% of all
respondents.) For eight of these, no information was obtainable from any
source. Six denominations could be not distinguished from denominations with
similar names, four were non/interdenominational churches, one was non-
Christian and one was identified, but could not be characterized [Endnote 3].

      Another problem in deciding where a denomination falls is whether
evaluations of its place is being made across all denominations or only within
its denominational family. Several denominations have gained reputations as
being liberal or fundamentalist from being compared to their sister
denominations when in fact on an absolute scale they may not be either
particularly "liberal" or "fundamentalist" (Hadaway, 1978). As Figure 1 shows,
for example, the Lutheran Church, Missouri Synod is significantly more
fundamentalist on Bible inerrancy than the rest of the Lutherans, but compared
to all denominations they fall near the Fundamentalist/Moderate dividing line.

    The final problem was how to put together the various criteria into one
scheme. As noted above, the problem was not as difficult as one might have
feared since agreement, especially within technique, tended to be very high.
The first step was to ass-ign a tentative classification as fundamentalist,
moderate, or non-fundamentallst on the basis of the consensus among prior
classifications and group affiliation. Denominations that could be identified
as nonfundamentalist, but for which there was inadequate information to
delineate as moderate or liberal were left in the non-fundamentalist or
liberal category. For the few churches with conflicting assignments, the
denominations were examined in the standard reference sources and in every
case the assignment with the preponderance of votes was agreed to after
evaluating information on the history and beliefs of the denomination. For
those denominations that were not rated by two or more prior schemes, the
assignment was made on the basis of their historical and theological
orientation. We then checked these classifications with those from the surveys
of members and clergy. Four notable disagreements appeared. First, while prior
classification schemes consistently treat the American Baptist Churches in the
USA as a liberal to moderate church compared to the Southern Baptist
Convention, it came out as more Fundamentalist than the Southern Baptists on
the key Bible inerrancy question. Similarly, while the consensus is that the
Southern Presbyterians are more Fundamentalist than the Northern Presbyterians
(i.e. United Presbyterian) or at least equally moderate, the Southern
Presbyterians came out as much more liberal on Bible inerrancy than the
Northern Presbyterians. Relatively small sample sizes probably contribute to
these unexpected reversals, but in both cases we suspect that a large part of
the problem came from confusion between churches with similar names. We
suspect that the Southern based and fundamentalist American Baptist
Association and the more Northern centered and moderate American Baptist
Churches were often confused. Confusion also may have arisen from the fact
that American Baptist Churches has changed its name twice in the last 30
years.

     Besides the obvious similarity in names, there are two pieces of
information that lend indirect support for this interpretation. First,
although published membership figures report about the same number of laity in
the American Baptist Association as the American Baptist Churches, the GSS
finds twice as many respondents belonging to the former than the later. This
suggests that many Northern Baptists are incorrectly classifying themselves as
members of the American Baptist Association. Of course, since official church
membership figures are notoriously inaccurate (and often also self-serving) we
do not want to place great weight on this comparison. Second, Baptists seem to
have greater than average difficulty in identifying the exact denomination
they belong to. While 13-14% of Lutherans and Methodists did not know what
denomination they belong to, 26% of Baptists were unsure.

     The situation may be similar for the Presbyterians. In 1983 the Northern
Presbyterians, called the United Presbyterian Church in the USA, merged with
the Southern Presbyterians, called the Presbyterian Church in the United
States, to form the Presbyterian Church, USA. m e post-merger name more
closely resembles the title of the Southern Presbyterians than the Northern
Presbyterians. In addition confusion also may arise between these churches and
the fundamentalist and Southern oriented Presbyterian Church in America
(formed in 1973 as an off-shoot of the Presbyterian Church in the United
States) and the Presbyterian Church in the Unites States of America which had
joined the United Presbyterian Church of North America in 1958 to form the
United Presbyterian Church in the United States of America. We suspect that
members of the Northern Presbyterians wrongly indicated that they were members
of the Southern Presbyterian Church, confusing it with the merged and
similarly named Presbyterian Church, USA. As in the Baptist cases, there are
several pieces of data supporting this conclusion. Among published church
figures, the Southern Presbyterians make up 26% of the merged church, but on
the GSS, they account for 41%. In addition, the balance is shifting so that by
1986 more people were reporting themselves as members of the Southern branch
than of the Northern denomination. Also, as among Baptists, uncertainty is
high with 30% unable to indicate what denomination they belong to. In both of
these cases, we assume on the basis of other survey data, prior classification
schemes, and/or the analysis of the denomination's history and theology that
the survey data on Bible inerrancy is misleading and have classified the
American Baptist Churches as moderate rather than fundamentalist and the
Southern Presbyterians as moderate rather than liberal.

     Two major problematic cases result from conflicts between our various
categorization procedures, but do not involve confusion between denominations
with similar names. We classify the Mormons (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-
day Saints) as Fundamentalist. They were so placed by six prior schemes,
called pseudo-Fundamentalist by one investigator (by which he meant they
resembled, but were distinct from the Fundamentalists), and excluded from the
Fundamentalist-Liberal continuum by another scheme. But in terms of their
theological beliefs, it is impossible to consider them as Fundamentalists and
the beliefs expressed by members hardly mark them as Fundamentalists. On the
Bible scale, they come out as Liberals and on the born-again questions they
fall along the Fundamentalist-Moderate dividing line. Yet there has been a
consensus among prior researchers that they can be classified as
Fundamentalist and we have followed that precedent (although we will suggest a
preferred way of handling the Mormons later on)[Endnote 4].

     A similar situation exists for the Christian Scientists. They have been
classified as Fundamentalist by two investigators and excluded from the scale
by two others. On Bible inerrancy however, they come out as moderate-to-
liberal. Again, we have followed past practices and classed them as
Fundamentalist. Both of these classifications are problematic not only because
of the conflicting information, but because among the splintered
Fundamentalist groups they make up a non-trivial proportion of members -
Mormons are 14.1% of the Fundamentalists from the OTHER variable and Christian
Scientists are 2.5%.

     With these caveats the final assignment of denominations to the
Fundamentalist-Liberal scale is given in Appendix 2. This lists all
denominations coded in the 1972-1986 GSSs and the Fundamentalist-Liberal
category (i.e., Fundamentalist, Moderate, Liberal, or Excluded) of each
denomination.


                       Classification Prior to 1984

     On the GSS prior to 1984 the major Protestant denominations were not
delineated into their major sub-divisions (Baptists, Lutherans, Methodist,
Presbyterians). One can handle the broad denominational umbrellas as entities
and either place them in their most appropriate category or treat each as
separate categories. Alternatively, one can attempt to approximate
denominational sub-divisions by using other variables. The most common
procedure has been to breakdown Baptists into Southern and non-Southern groups
to better distinguish the Southern Baptist from the American Baptist Churches
(Simpson 1985a, 1985b; Smith, 1984a; Gill, 1982; Hadaway, 1978 and Jelen,
1984). Unfortunately, while region does discriminate between these
denominations, the degree of segregation is only moderate. In the 1984-1986
GSS, we find that 77.5% of Southern Baptists lived in the South as did 40% of
the American Baptists. However, since there are many more Southern Baptists
than American Baptists, they outnumbered the former by 4:1 even outside the
South. Similar, but even weaker, regional divisions occur among the
Presbyterians.

     One can either sub-divide the Baptists (or Presbyterians) by region
(South vs. Non-South) to approximate denominational distinctions and thereby
place some of the regional variation within the constructed denominations or
control for region and in effect, place some of the denominational variation
within region. Both are partial but crude solutions to the problem of overly
broad denominational classifications prior to 1984 (McIntoch, Alston, and
Alston, 1979).

     Another denominational distinction that is hidden by the pre-1984
classifications is that between white and black denominations (mainly Baptists
and Methodists). Most prior investigators have not dealt with the problems
directly, but some have used race as well as region to isolate black
denominations (Gill, 1982). Unfortunately, as in the case of region, racial
segregation is not so sharp to allow the neat separation of denominations. In
the 1984-1986 GSS, all members of the two black African Methodist churches
were black, but as many blacks were in the inter-racial United Methodists as
were in the African Methodists. Similar overlaps occur among the Baptists. As
with region, quasi-denominational contructions using race would only crudely
distinguish denominations. Whether denominations are contructed from race or
race is used as a separate control depend on where the analyst wants to place
the error.

     Of course, if the broad denominational families delineated prior to 1984
were theologically and socially cohesive then one could simply accept these
crude categorizations. Figure 1 shows however that within denominational
variation on Biblical inerrancy is often extremely large and prior research
(Smith, 1984b) has shown that the denominational refinements notably increase
the explanatory power of religion. It is thus analytically desirable to have
the more refined categories used since 1984.

     Despite the admitted difficulties and imperfections, the categorization
of denominations along the fundamentalism/liberal scale works quite well. Both
when applied to Protestant denominations on the OTHER variable and when
applied to all denominations (from RELIG, DENOM and OTHER) the
fundamentalism/liberalism scale is a strong predictor of various religious and
social variables. The predictive power of religion is even higher when the
larger denominations are retained as distinct categories and only the smaller
denominations are consigned to the three fundamentalism/liberalism categories
(Table 6). The retention of the larger denominations as distinct categories
permits detailed analys1s of particular faiths, makes the religion variable\
a better overall predictor, and avoids forcing some groups (in particular the
Mormons) into ill-fitting categories. In addition, most previous religion
analysts have preserved major denominations as distinct groups.  For these
reasons it would generally be desirable to separately distinguish as many
denominations as are practicable (Table 6, note b).


                                  Conclusion

      Despite the analytic difficulties of working with religion, the labor is
amply rewarded by the explanatory gains that emerge when religion is used in
research. As a key indicator of cultural origin and orientation, religion is a
strong predictor of not only of matters of faith, but also of such diverse
moral, social, and political issues as abortion, sex roles, education (prayer
in schools, creationism, government support for parochial schooling),
contraception and sexual permissiveness, and anti-Communism - to name only a
few. Just how religion is employed will of course depend on the theoretical
and quantitive approaches that a researcher utilizes. Most frequently,
however, researchers will probably want to use some type of
fundamentalism/liberal categorization and both the suggested classification
proposed within and the material gathered from other classifications and
surveys should help to assist the researcher in that task.




                                ENDNOTES

(l) For studies consulted but not used in these tables see Smith, 1987.

(2) Among the more important confusions are:

 1 The American Baptist Association vs. the American Baptist Churches in
 the U.S.A. (formerly the American Baptist Convention and the Northern
 Baptist Convention). 2. m e Presbyterian Church in the Unites States vs.
 the Presbyterian Church (The former merged with the United Presbyterian in
 Church of Christ. 4. The Brethren churches including Brethren in Christ
 Church, United Brethren in Christ Church (Sandusky), Brethren Church
 (Ashland), Brethren in Christ, Church of the Brethren in Christ, Mennonite
 Brethren, and Church of the Brethren. 5. Christians which could be the
 Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), the Christian Church (merged in
 1931 to form the Congregational Christian), the Christian Church of North
 America (Italian Protestants), the United Christian Church (Brethren),
 other denominations using the word "Christian" such as Christian
 Congregation, Christian Mission, Christian Union, etc. or a general non-
 denominational profession of being a generic Christian.

(3) In addition, those coded "Other" on RELIG are excluded. This is a
 catchall category with a majority of non-Christian respondents. A detailed
 listing of religions coded "Other" is available from the GSS project.

(4) The Mormons also present a second problem that is unrelated to
 classification issues. When NORC adopted a new sample frame based on the 1980
 census in order to replace its 1970 census sample frame, a primary sampling
 unit was selected from Utah whereas Utah had not been in the 1970 sample
 frame. This led to a significant increase in the proportion of Mormons
 falling into the cross-sections (since Utah is heavily Mormon and Mormons tend
 to be concentrated in and around Utah). Under the 1970 sample frame about
 0.9% of the cross-section was Mormon while under the 1980 sample frame ~lormons
 have been 2.4%. Since there has been no change in the proportion of Mormons
 prior to the frame switch nor any since the switch and since the 1983 split
 frame experiment shows the same pattern (Peterson and Smith, forthcoming), we
 know that this "increase" in Mormons is entirely artificial.




                                TABLE 1

              MAJOR PROTESTANT DENOMINATIONAL CLASSIFICATIONS
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Denomination                 Code  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9  10   11   12
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
BAPTIST                                    F       C           C       C   C(L)

American Baptist Association..10   F                                             X
American Baptist Churches
  in the U.S.A................11   C   NF             O(L) C
National Baptist Convention
  of America..................12                                                 X
National Baptist Convention,
  U.S.A, Inc..................13   F                                             X
Southern Baptist Convention...14       F       F       O   F       C
Other Baptist Churches........15
Baptist, Don't know which.....18

METHODIST                          L       L  NF   LM  L   L   NC       L   M    X

African Methodist Episcopal
  Church......................20                                                 X
African Methodist Episcopal
  Zion Church.................21                                   L             X
United Methodist Church.......22
Other Methodist Churches......23
Methodist, Don't Know which...24



LUTHERAN                                      NF   C           NC       M   M

American Lutheran Church......30   C   NF             O(L)} C                    X
Lutheran Church in America....31   C   NF             O(L)}
Lutheran Church-Missouri
  Synod.......................32   F   F               O    F
Wisconsin Evangelical
  Lutheran Synod..............33   F
Other Lutheran Churches.......34
Lutheran, Don't know which....38

PRESBYTERIAN                               L  NF   LM       M  NC       M   L

Prebyterian Church in the
  United States...............40   M                                             X
United Presbyterian Church
  in the U.S.A................41   M                   M            L            X
Other Presbyterian Churches...42
Presbyterian, Don't know
  which.......................48

EPISCOPAL CHURCH..............50   L          NF   LM  L    L  NC   L   L    L   X

OTHER (SPECIFY)...............60

NO DENOMINATION GIVEN OR
 NON-DENOMINATIONAL CHURCH....70



Notes to Table 1


1 - Wood, 1970 - F = fundamentalist, C - conservative, M = moderate, L = liberal

2 - Chi and Houseknecht, 1985 - F = fundamentalist, NF = not fundamentalist

3 - Johnson, 1962 - F = fundamentalist, L = liberal

4 - Houghland and Christenson, 1983 - C = conservative, LM - liberal/moderate

5 - Backman, 1983 - O = orthodox, O(L) = orthodox with large liberal minority, M
= moderate, M(L) = moderate with large liberal minority, L = liberal

6 - Glock and Stark, 1965 and Stark and Glock, 1968 - F = fundamentalist, C =
conservative, M = moderate, L = liberal

7 - McCutcheon, 1985 - C = conservative, NC = not conservative

8 - Roof and McKinney, 1985 - C = conservative, L = liberal

9 - Roof and Hadaway, 1979 - C = conservative, M = moderate, L = liberal

10 - Elifson and Hadaway, 1985 - C = conservative, M = moderate, L = liberal

11 - NCCC, 1980 - X = member of National Council of the Churches of Christ





                                 TABLE 2

             OTHER PROTESTANT DENOMINATIONAL CLASSIFICATIONS


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Denomination          Code  1 2  3 4   5  6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hungarian Reformed.......1      VE                                         X
Evangelical
  Congregational.........2                    F
Ind. Bible, Bible,
  Bible Fellowship.......3       F
Eckankar.................4      MA
Church of Prophecy.......5       F
New Testament
  Christian..............6       F
Church of God, Saint
  & Christ...............7
Moravian.................8       F                                         X
Christian and Missionary
  Alliances..............9       F       PE     C                 F     X
Advent Christian........10       F
Spiritualist............11      MA       PE                      EX
Assembly of God.........12  E    F F NEO PE F F C  F  F  C     O  F  F        X
Free Methodist..........13       F F NEO    F         F     S     F              X
Apostolic Faith.........14       F                 F     C
African Methodist.......15      VE


Table 2 (Continued)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Denomination          Code  1 2  3 4   5  6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Free Will Baptist.......16    F  F   NEO      F C     F              F        X
Eden Evangelist.........17       F            F C     F
Holiness (Nazarene).....18  E F  F       PE   F C  F  F              F           X
Baptist (Northern)......19                    F
Brethren Church,
  Brethren..............20    C  F            F    M                 F  X  X
Witness Holiness........21       F            F          C
Brethren, Plymouth......22  E    F   NEO    F F                      F
United Brethren, United
  Brethren in Christ....23  E C  F            F    F                 F           X
Independent.............24
Christian Disciples.....25  E M    F                              M        X
Christ in Christian
  Union.................26                                                       X
Open Bible..............27       F                          S                 X
Christian Catholic......28                                              X
Christ Church Unity.....29       H
Christ Adelphians.......30                         F


Table 2 (Continued)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Denomination          Code  1 2  3 4   5  6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Christian; Central
  Christian.............31    M                 C  M              M     X  X
Christian Reform........32  E F                    F  F
Christian Scientist.....33      MA                 F     C       EX
Church of Christ,
  Evangelical...........34  E    F F          F       F           F  F
Church of Christ........35  E    F F NEO    F F C  F  F  C     O  F  F  X
Church of God (Except
  with Christ and
  Holiness).............36  E F  F F NEO PE F F C  F     C        F  F  X     X  X
Churches of God in
  Christ................37  E    F   NEO    F F C  F  F  C     O     F
Church of God in Christ
  Holiness..............38  E    F            F C     F              F
Church of the Living
  God...................39       F            F C  F     C          NF
Congregationalist,
  1st Congregation......40       H                 L    LM        L NF
Community Church........41       V
Covenant................42
Dutch Reform............43                                                 X
Disciples of Christ.....44  E M NF F            C  M NF LM        M  F     X
Evangelical, Evangelist.45                   F C  F  F  C           F  X        X


Table 2 (Continued)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Denomination          Code  1 2  3 4   5  6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Evangelical Reformed....46                    F C     F  C           F
Evangelist Free Church..47       F            F C  F     C           F
First Church............48                      C
First Christian
  Disciples of Christ...49  E M NF F            C  M              M  F     X
First Reformed..........50                      C
First Christian.........51                      C  M
Full Gospel.............52  E    F       PE     C  F     C  S
Four Square Gospel......53       F F            C     F                 X        X
Friends.................54      NF                 M NF LM          NF     X
Holy Roller.............55       F              C                    F
Holiness; Church of
  Holiness..............56       F       PE   F C  F     C  S     F  F           X
Pilgrim Holiness........57       F       PE   F          C        F  F
Jehova's Witnesses......58      PF                 F     C  S  O  F  F
LDS.....................59      PF F               F  F  C  S  O
LDS-Mormon..............60      PF F               F  F  C  S  O EX


Table 2 (Continued)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Denomination          Code  1 2  3 4   5  6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
LDS-Reorganized.........61      PF F               F  F  C  S  O EX
LDS-Jesus Christ; Church
  of Jesus LDS..........62      PF F               F  F  C  S  O EX
Mennonite...............63  E    F                    F           F
Mormon..................64      PF F               F  F  C  S  O EX
Nazarene................65  E F  F F NEO PE F F    F     C  S  O  F  F           X
Pentacostal Assembly
  of God................66    F  F   NEO PE F F C     F  C  S     F  F        X
Pentacostal Church
  of God................67    F  F   NEO PE F F C     F  C  S     F  F  X     X
Pentacostal.............68    F  F   NEO PE F F C  F  F  C  S     F  F  X     X
Pentacostal Holiness,
  Holiness Pentacostal..69    F  F   NEO PE F F C  F  F  C  S     F  F  X     X
Quaker..................70      NF F                 NF LM     L    NF     X
Reformed................71    C NF                 M  F  C     O           X
Reformed United Church
  of Christ.............72                            F                    X
Reformed Church of
  Christ................73                                           F
Religious Science.......74      MA                 F
Mind Science............75      MA


Table 2 (Continued)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Denomination          Code  1 2  3 4   5  6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Salvation Army..........76      NF   NEO PE        F  F  C        F
7th Day Adventist.......77  E F  F F NEO    F F    F  F  C  S  O  F  F           X
Sanctified,
  Sanctification........78       F                 F
United Holiness.........79       F       PE   F                   F  F
Unitarian, Universalist.80    L  H                 L NF LM     L    NF
United Church of Christ.81    L  V                 L NF LM     L    NF     X
United Church, Unity
  Church................82       H
Wesleyan................83  E    F                                      X        X
Wesleyan Methodist-
  Pilgram...............84       F                          S           X
Zion Union..............85      VE
Zion Union Apostolic....86      VE
Zion Union Apostolic-
  Reformed..............87      VE
Disciples of God........88                            F
Grace Reformed..........89
Holiness Church of God..90       F       PE   F    F              F           X


Table 2 (Continued)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Denomination          Code  1 2  3 4   5  6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Evangelical Covenant....91       F            F    F  F           F  F
Mission Covenant........92       F                                F
Missionary Baptist......93       F            F                      F
Swedish Mission.........94      VE
Unity...................95       H                 F             EX
United Church of
  Christianity..........96                                                 X
Other Fundamentalist....97       F            F C  F
Federated Church........98
American Reform.........99
Grace Brethren.........100
Christ in God..........101
Charismatic............102
Pentacostal Apostolic..103                                                       X
House of Prayer........104
Latvian Lutheran.......105


Table 2 (Continued)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Denomination          Code  1 2  3 4   5  6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Triumph Church of God..106
Apostolic Christian....107
Christ Cathedral of
  Truth................108
Bible Missionary.......109
Calvary Bible..........110
Amish..................111
Evangelical Methodist..112                                              X
Worldwide Church
  of God...............113  E
Church Universal and
  Triumphant...........114
Mennonite Brethren.....115                                              X
Church of the
  First Born...........116
Missionary Church......117                                              X        X
The Way Missionary.....118
United Church
  of Canada............119
Evangelical United
  Brethren.............120
The Church of God
  and Prophecy.........121  E
Chapel of Faith........122
Polish National Church.123
Faith Gospel
  Tabernacle...........124                                                 X
Christian Calvary
  Chapel...............125
Camelite...............126



NOTES TO TABLE 2


1 - Hunter, 1981 - E = evangelical, see also Hunter, 1984 and Ammerman, 1982

2 - Wood, 1970 - F = fundamentalist, C = conservative, M = moderate, L = Liberal

3 - Chi, 1981 - F = fundamentalist, NF = not fundamentalist, PF = pseudo-
fundamentalist, MA = manipulationist, H = humanistic, V = varies, VE =
varies, ethnic

4 - Johnson, 1962 - F = fundamentalist

5 - SRC, 1980 - NEO = neo-fundamentalist

6 - Bahr, 1982 - PE = Pentecostal/evangelical

7 - Legge, 1983 - F = fundamentalist

8 - Hertel and Hughes, forthcoming - F = fundamentalist

9 - McCutcheon, 1984 - C = conservative

10 - Gill, 1982 - F = fundamentalist, M = moderate, L = liberal

11 - Jelen, 1984 - F = fundamentalist, NF = non-fundamentalist, see Jelen, 1982

12 - Houghland and Christenson, 1983 - C = conservative, LM = liberal/moderate

13 - Simpson, 1983, 85a, 85b - S = Sects

14 - Backman, 1983 - O = orthodox, M = moderate, L = liberal

15 - Glock and Stark, 1965; Stark and Glock, 1968 - F = fundamentalist sects , C =
conservative, M = moderate, L = liberal, EX = excluded

16 - Gay, 1985 - F = fundamentalist, NF = non-fundamentalist

17 - NAE, 1980 - X = member of the  National Association of Evangelicals

18 - NCCC, 1980 - X = member of the National Council of the Churches of Christ

19 - PFNA, 1980 - X = member of the Pentecostal Fellowship of North America

20 - CHA, 1980 - X = member of the Christian Holiness Association





                                  Table 3

                         Denominational Differences
                           on an Orthodoxy Scale


                           % High on Orthodoxy (a)

Sects(b)                        52%        (131)
Other Baptist                   45          (91)
Southern Baptist                44         (186)
Lutheran Missouri Synod         38          (45)
Evangelical Reform              36          (28)
American Baptist                33          (91)
Catholic                        29         (506)
American Lutheran (c)           27         (147)
Presbyterian Church, US         26          (38)
Methodist                       24         (214)
Christian                       23          (39)
Episcopalian                    15          (53)
United Presbyterian             14          (74)
Congregational                   5          (43)



(a) Believing in God, the Devil and life after death, from 1963 NORC anti-
 Semitism study, (Stark and Glock, 1968). Glock and Stark, 1965 also includes
 a similar scale from a Bay area survey. See also Hadaway, 1978.

(b) Assembly of God, Church of Christ, Church of God, Four Square Gospel,
 Free Methodist, Mennonite, Nazarene, Pentecostal, Salvation Army,
 Seventh Day Adventist, Cambellite,  Jehovah's Witness, Christian Missionary
 Alliance, Mission Covenant, and Holiness.

(c) Lutheran Church in America and American Lutheran Church.





                                 TABLE 4

                      DENOMINATIONAL DIFFERENCES ON

                           BIBLICAL INERRANCY

--------------------------------------   ------------------------------------------
Percent                                  Percent
Bible                                    Bible
Literal (a)                              Literal (b)
 (GSS)                                     (SRC)
--------------------------------------   ------------------------------------------
Assembly of God            93.3   (15)   Jehovah's Witness              96.8   (38)
Holiness                   92.3   (13)   Church of Christ               85.9  (149)
Church of Christ           83.7   (43)   Pentecostal/Assem. of God      84.0   (94)
Church of God              76.2   (21)   Other Fundamentalist           82.1   (39)
Natl. Baptist              75.0   (12)   Church of God in Christ        81.8   (11)
Other Baptist              74.0  (104)   Church of God/Holiness         80.4   (56)
Pentecostal                73.5   (34)   Evangelical and Reform         76.9   (13)
American Baptist Church    69.6   (23)   Other Protestants              75.7   (37)
Nazarene                   66.7   (18)   Nazarene/Free Methodist        75.7   (37)
Southern Baptist           65.3  (251)   Baptists (ALL)                 72.5  (637)
African Methodist          65.0   (20)   Seventh Day Adventist          71.4   (21)
Other Presbyterian         61.5   (13)   United, Evangelical Brethern   65.4   (26)
Other Methodist            61.1   (18)   Reformed (ALL)                 60.0   (30)
American Baptist Assoc.    59.3   (54)   Christian                      59.0  (122)
Baptist, Don't Know        57.5  (160)   Non-denominational             58.3   (48)
National Baptist           54.5   (11)   Ouaker                         54.5   (11)
Lutheran, Missouri Synod   53.2   (62)   Lutheran (ALL)                 54.4  (449)
Christian                  53.2   (47)   Disciples of Christ            50.0   (18)
American Lutheran          43.7   (71)   Methodist                      49.2   (18)
Lutheran, Don't know       42.9   (28)   Christian Scientist            45.0   (20)
Non-denominational         41.3  (104)   Catholic                       42.0 (1501)
Other Lutheran             40.0   (15)   Orthodox (ALL)                 40.7   (27)
Disciples of Christ        40.0   (10)   Protestant(Not Specified)      40.0  (165)
United Methodist           35.1  (245)   Presbyterian                   38.1  (315)
Presbyterian, Don't Know   31.6   (38)   United Church of Christ        36.0   (50)
United Presbyterian        30.8   (52)   No preference                  25.8  (322)
Catholic                   27.5  (778)   Congregational                 25.7   (74)
Other                      24.4   (45)   Mormon                         25.4   (67)
Mormon                     20.0   (60)   Other (Non-Christian)          24.3   (37)
Congregational             14.3   (21)   Agnostic/Atheist               18.5   (27)
None                       12.8  (211)   Episcopal                      17.1  (187)
Episcopal                  10.1   (69)   Jewish                         12.0  (158)
Jewish                      3.6   (55)   Unitarian/Universial            7.1   (14)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(a) % believing in Biblical literalness, from combined 1984 and 1985 GSSs.

(b) % believing in Biblical literalness, from combined 1960, '64, '80, '84
    American National Election studies.





                                  TABLE 5

                      DENOMINATIONAL DIFFERENCES ON
                            BEING BORN-AGAIN
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                    % Born Again (a)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Church of God/Holiness                93.8   (32)
Pentecostal/Assem. of God             88.9   (45)
Other Protestant                      80.0   (30)
Other Baptist                         73.9   (46)
Other Fundamentalist                  69.2   (13)
Christian                             65.4   (52)
Seventh Day Adventist                 63.6   (11)
Southern Baptist                      62.3  (260)
Baptist                               58.3  (247)
Mormon                                56.7   (30)
Non-denominational                    56.3   (32)
Church of Christ                      49.1   (53)
Nazarene, Free Methodist              44.4   (18)
Other religions                       42.1   (19)
No preference                         36.5   (74)
Protestant, general                   29.2   (48)
Congregational                        25.0   (25)
Jehovah's Witness                     23.1   (13)
Reform                                23.1   (13)
Presbyterian                          22.0  (109)
United Church of Christ               21.1   (19)
Episcopalian                          16.7   (72)
Lutheran (not Missouri Synod)         14.9  (161)
Catholic                              13.6  (668)
Methodist                             13.0  (285)
Jewish                                 7.1   (42)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
(a) Of whose who said religion was important, % saying they have been born
   again, from combined 1980 and 1984 SRC American National Election Studies.






                                  TABLE 6

                             PREDICTIVE POWER OF
                    TWO FUNDAMENTALIST/LIBERAL VARIABLES

                                  (ETA)

                                                             Three Plus Major
Dependable Variable                   Three Categories (a)    Denomination (b)
-------------------                   --------------------   -----------------
  Bible Inerrancy (BIBLE, BIBLEY)(c)       .362                   .442
  School Prayer (PRAYER)                   .174                   .244
  Church Attendance (ATTEND)               .286                   .404
  Life After Death (POSTLIFE)              .131                   .258
  Abortion for Poor (ABPOOR)               .243                   .290
  Sex Education (SEXEDUC)                  .166                   .182
  Premarital Sex (PREMARSX)                .263                   .319
  Communism Govt. (COMMUN)                 .144                   .201
  Free Speech for Atheists (SPKATH)        .174                   .214
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(a) All denominations classed as Fundamentalist, Moderate, or Liberal, See
    Appendix 2.

(b) All denominations classed as Fundamentalist, Moderate, or Liberal except
    Southern Baptist, Catholic, Jewish, United Methodist, Evangelical,
    Lutheran Church of America, Presbyterian Church, USA, Episcopalian,
    Inter-denominational, Disciples of Christ, Mormons, and No religion which
    are separate categories.

(c) For the exact wordings see Davis and Smith, 1986.






                                 APPENDIX 1:


Denominational Variables on the General Social Survey

     The GSS asks respondents about their current religious preference, the
religion they were raised in, the current religion of their spouse, and what
religion their spouse was raised in. This report discusses and is based on
only the current religion of respondents. But since the variables and codes
are similar for all four sets of questions on religious preference findings
and classifications developed within can be applied to the religions of
spouses and to respondents' religion of origin. The religious preference data
are collected by a two part question. It first asks whehter a person's
"religious preference" is "Protestant, Catholic, Jewish, some other religion,
or no religion." "Protestant" includes any post-Reformation Christian church,
"Catholic" include only the Roman Catholic Church (Latin Rite), "Jewish"
includes all branches of Judaism, and "Other" includes all others mentions.
For Protestants, a follow-up question on "specific denomination" is asked.

     Response are coded into one of three variables. Major religions from the
first question are coded in the variable RELIG. Major Protestant denominations
that are precoded in the variable DENOM. Unlisted Protestant denominations
are coded "60" on DENOM and are also coded in more detail on the variable
OTHER.

     The major religion variable (RELIG) has not changed over the time in
either how it is collected or coded. For DENOM a major change was made in 1984
when the number of categories was expanded from seven (Baptist, Methodist,
Lutheran, Presbyterian, Episcopal, Other, and Inter- or Non-denominational)
to 25 categories (Davis and Smith, 1986). By collapsing into the general
denominational families used prior to 1984, one can produce a consistent
coding scheme across all surveys. (Reasons for the changes are discussed in
the body of this paper.) The OTHER variable has also changed over the years,
growing from 52 entries in 1972 to 126 denominations on the 1972-1986
cumulative file. Typically, a few new denominations are added each year as
small groups are picked up for the first time or new denominations are formed.

     To use the denominational variables (DENOM, DENOM16, SPDEN, SPDEN16) both
prior to 1984 and in 1984 to present, one must adjust for the refinements of
codes. One way of doing this is to collapse the individual denominational
codes used since 1984 into the broad codes used prior to 1984. Under this
procedure codes 10 to 18 equal Baptists, 20 to 28 equal Methodists, 30 to 38
equal Lutherans, and 40 to 48 equal Presbyterians.





                              Appendix 2:


                Summary Classification of All Religions
               on the General Social Surveys, 1972-1986
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Denominations                           Code(a)            Categories(b)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
RELIG

Catholic                                  R2                    M
Jewish                                    R3                    L
None                                      R4                    L
Other                                     R5                    X


DENOM

Baptist                                   D10-l8(c)             F

 American Baptist Association             D10                   F
 American Baptist Churches in the USA     D11                   M
 National Baptist Convention of
   America                                D12                   F
 National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc.   D13                   F
 Southern Baptist Convention              D14                   F
 Other Baptist Churches                   D15                   F
 Baptist, Don't Know Which                D18                   F

Methodist                                 D20-28                M

 African Methodist Episcopal Church       D20                   M
 African Methodist Episcopal
   Zion Church                            D21                   M
 United Methodist Church                  D22                   L
 Other Methodist Churches                 D23                   F
 Methodist, Don't Know Which              D28                   L

Lutheran                                  D30-38                M

 American Lutheran Church                 D30                   M
 Lutheran Church in America               D31                   M
 Lutheran Church -- Missouri Synod        D32                   F
 Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod     D33                   F
 Other Lutheran Churches                  D34                   M
 Lutheran, Don't Know Which               D38                   M

Presbyterian                              D40-48                L

 Presbyterian Church in the
   United States                          D40                   M
 United Presbyterian Church in
   the USA                                D41                   L
 Other Presbyterian Churches              D42                   F
 Presbyterian, Don't Know Which           D48                   L

Episcopal                                 D50                   L

No Denomination/Non-denominational        D70                   M



                              APPENDIX 2 (Continued)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Denominations                            Code (a)        Categories (b)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
OTHER

 Hungarian Reformed.................       01                L
 Evangelical Congregational.........       02                F
 Ind. Bible, Bible, Bible
    Fellowship......................       03                F
 Eckankar...........................       04                X
 Church of Prophecy.................       05                F
 New Testament Christian............       06                X
 Church of God, Saint & Christ......       07                L
 Moravian...........................       08                L
 Christian & Missionary Alliance....       09                F
 Advent Christian...................      010                F
 Spiritualist.......................      011                L
 Assembly of God....................      012                F
 Free Methodist.....................      013                F
 Apostolic Faith....................      014                F
 African Methodist..................      015                M
 Free Will Baptist..................      016                F
 Eden Evangelist....................      017                F
 Holiness (Nazarene)................      018                F
 Baptist (Northern).................      019                L
 Brethren Church, Brethren..........      020                M
 Witness Holiness...................      021                F
 Brethren, Plymouth.................      022                F
 United Brethren, United
     Brethren in Christ.............      023                F
 Independent........................      024                X
 Christian Disciples................      025                M
 Christ in Christian Union..........      026                F
 Open Bible.........................      027                F
 Christian Catholic.................      028                F
 Christ Church Unity................      029                X
 Christ Adelphians..................      030                F
 Christian; Central Christian.......      031                M
 Christian Reform...................      032                F
 Christian Scientist................      033                F
 Church of Christ, Evangelical......      034                F
 Church of Christ...................      035                F
 Churches of God (Except with
     Christ and Holiness)...........      036                F
 Church of God in Christ............      037                F
 Church of God in Christ Holiness...      038                F
 Church of the Living God...........      039                F
 Congregationalist, 1st Congreg.....      040                L
 Community Church...................      041                X
 Covenant...........................      042                F
 Dutch Reform.......................      043                M
 Disciples of Christ................      044                M
 Evangelical, Evangelist............      045                F
 Evangelical Reformed...............      046                F





                              APPENDIX 2 (Continued)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Denominations                             Code (a)       Categories (b)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

OTHER (continued)

 Evangelical Free Church..............     047              F
 First Church.........................     048              X
 First Christian Disciples
   of Christ..........................     049              M
 First Reformed.......................     050              M
 First Christian......................     051              M
 Full Gospel..........................     052              F
 Four Square Gospel...................     053              F
 Friends..............................     054              L
 Holy Roller..........................     055              F
 Holiness; Church of Holiness.........     056              F
 Pilgrim Holiness.....................     057              F
 Jehovah's Witnesses..................     058              F
 LDS..................................     059              F
 LDS--Mormon..........................     060              F
 LDS--Reorganized.....................     061              F
 LDS--Jesus Christ; Church of
   Jesus LDS..........................     062              F
 Mennonite............................     063              F
 Mormon...............................     064              F
 Nazarene.............................     065              F
 Pentecostal Assembly of God..........     066              F
 Pentecostal Church of God............     067              F
 Pentecostal..........................     068              F
 Pentecostal Holiness, Holiness
   Pentecostal........................     069              F
 Quaker...............................     070              L
 Reformed.............................     071              M
 Reformed United Church of Christ.....     072              L
 Reformed Church of Christ............     073              X
 Religious Science....................     074              L
 Mind Science.........................     075              L
 Salvation Army.......................     076              F
 7th Day Adventist....................     077              F
 Sanctified, Sanctification...........     078              F
 United Holiness......................     079              F
 Unitarian, Universalist..............     080              L
 United Church of Christ..............     081              L
 United Church, Unity Church..........     082              X
 Wesleyan.............................     083              F
 Wesleyan Methodist--Pilgrim..........     084              F
 Zion Union...........................     085              M
 Zion Union Apostolic.................     086              M
 Zion Union Apostolic--Reformed.......     087              M
 Disciples of God.....................     088              X
 Grace Reformed.......................     089              X
 Holiness Church of God...............     090              F
 Evangelical Covenant.................     091              F
 Mission Covenant.....................     092              F




                           APPENDIX 2 (Continued)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Denominations                            Code (a)       Categories (b)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

OTHER (continued)

Missionary Baptist...................      093             F
Swedish Mission......................      094             L
Unity................................      095             X
United Church of Christianity........      096             L
Other Fundamentalist.................      097             F
Federated Church.....................      098             X
American Reform......................      099             M
Grace Brethren.......................     0100             F
Christ in God........................     0101             X
Charismatic..........................     0102             F
Pentecostal Apostalic................     0103             F
House of Prayer......................     0104             X
Latvian Lutheran.....................     0105             L
Triumph Church of God................     0106             F
Apostolic Christian..................     0107             F
Christ Cathedral of Truth............     0108             X
Bible Missionary.....................     0109             F
Calvary Bible........................     0110             F
Amish................................     0111             F
Evangelical Methodist................     0112             F
Worldwide Church of God..............     0113             F
Church Universal and Triumphant......     0114             X
Mennonite Brethren...................     0115             F
Church of the First Born.............     0116             X
Missionary Church....................     0117             F
The Way Ministry.....................     0118             X
United Church of Canada..............     0119             L
Evangelical United Brethren..........     0120             L
The Church of God of Prophecy........     0121             F
Chapel of Faith......................     0122             X
Polish National Church...............     0123             L
Faith Gospel Tabernacle..............     0124             F
Christian Calvary Chapel.............     0125             F
Camelite.............................     0126             X
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
NOTES:

(a) R = RELIG, D = DENOM, O = OTHER. The numbers are codes on these GSS
variables, for example, R2 means a code 2 on RELIG, D10 a code of 10 on
DENOM, and O1 a code of 1 on OTHER.

(b)   F = Fundamentalist,
      M = Moderate,
      L = Liberal (not fundamentalist),
      X = Excluded, Don't Know

(C) Prior to 1984 main denominations (Baptist, Methodist, Lutheran,
Presbyterian, and Episcopal) were not broken into individual
denominations. The ranges (D10-18, D20-28, D30-38, D40-48) refer
respectively to these denominational groups in the earlier years.







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