Famous Adherents: INTERNAL USE FILE

Additional Adherent Lists
NOTE: This page is for internal use only, to facilitate certain searches and research methods.
Web browsers: Please use the actual off-site pages we have linked to from http://www.adherents.com/adh_fam.html. Those pages are the original source of the lists below, and they are more up-to-date.

List of Rastafarians

Source: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Rastafarians; viewed 6 July 2005)
Early teachers

*	Leonard Howell
*	Sam Brown (Rastafari)
*	Vernon Carrington
*	Charles Edwards
*	Mortimer Planner


*	Bob Marley, (1945-1981) musician and singer
*	David Marley, (born 1968), musician and singer
*	Peter Tosh, (1944-1987)
*	Winston Rodney, (born 1948) musician and singer
*	Joseph Hill musician and singer
*	Prince Lincoln Thompson 1949-1998 Musician and composer
*	Cedric Myton composer and musician
*	Buju Banton, (born 1973), dancehall and ragga musician and singer


*	Benjamin Zephaniah English poet
*	Nandor Tanczos, (born 1966), New Zealand politician
*	Ben Hana, New Zealand personality

List of Jains

Source: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Jains; viewed 28 October 2005)
*	Siddhasen Diwakar - ancient scholar
*	Devchandra - Monk
*	Som Sundar - 14th Century monk
*	Muni Sundar - 14th Century monk
*	Acharya Tulsiji - Jain Saint
*	Bhadrabahu - Jain Saint from Bengal
*	Haribhadrasuri - 12th Century philosopher
*	Shrimad Rajchandra - 19th Century philosopher/mystic[1]

*	L.M. Singhavi - Former Indian Ambassador to UK, Member of Parliament

*	Suraj Barjatya - Film Producer and Director, Mumbai, India
*	Charles Thompson[2] - Rock Musician
*	Ravindra Jain - Music Director, Mumbai, India
*	Pallavi Kasliwal - Magician
*	Michael Tobias - Producer, Director and Writer, Hollywood
*	Claudia Pastorino - Pop Singer and Writer, Italy

*	Deepak Chougule - Cricketer
*	Chandra Mehta - Ping-pong champion

*	Shrenik Annadate - Editor and Scholar, Mumbai, India
*	Pierre Amiel - Writer and Activist, France
*	Yashwant Malaiya - Living Encyclopedia of Jainism, Colorado, USA
*	S.A. Bhuvanendra Kumar - Jain Scholar and Editor, Canada
*	Dr. Hemlata Pokharna - Scholar and Doctor, Chicago, USA

*	Smt. Indumati Awade - first woman to found Asia's first co-operative
*	Kallappa Anna Awade - Leading personality in Co-Operative movement
*	Dr. Kalyan Gangwal - Jain Activist, Pune, India
*	Shri Veerendra Heggade - Dharmadhikari, Dharmsthal
*	Dr. Urjita Jain - Medical Industrialist
*	Smt. Indu Jain - Businessperson and Jain Activist, New Delhi, India
*	Bapusaheb Patil - Industrialist and activist, Mumbai, India
*	Milind Phade - Social worker, Pune, India
*	Dr. Tansukh Salgia - Jain Activist, USA
*	Asulal Sancheti - Guinness Book of Records Holder

List of Transhumanists

Source: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_transhumanists; viewed 6 July 2005)
List of transhumanists
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The following is a list of people who have identified themselves as advocates of transhumanism.

Some Transhumanists include:

*	Alexander Chislenko
*	Anders Sandberg
*	Antero Coelho Neto
*	Bruce Klein
*	Dale Carrico
*	David Brin
*	David Pearce
*	Edward Smith
*	Eliezer Yudkowsky
*	Erik Aronesty
*	Eugen Leitl
*	FM-2030
*	FM-2030
*	George Dvorsky
*	Giulio Prisco
*	Greg Bear
*	Hans-Georg Michna
*	James Hughes
*	John Hickman
*	John K. Davis
*	Jose Cordeiro [José Cordeiro]
*	Justice De Thezier [Justice De Thßzier]
*	Keith Henson
*	Klaus Jaffe
*	Mark Alan Walker
*	Max More
*	Michael Anissimov
*	Natasha Vita-More
*	Nick Bostrom
*	Pablo Stafforini
*	Padraic I. M. MacUidhir [Pádraic I. M. MacUidhir]
*	Ray Kurzweil
*	Robert A. Freitas Jr.
*	Robert Pepperell
*	Robin Green
*	Santiago Ochoa
*	Tyler Emerson

List of Messianic Jews and Hebrew Christians

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Messianic_Jews_and_Hebrew_Christians (viewed 7 November 2005)

Messianic Jews and Hebrew Christians are mostly persons who consider themselves to be Jewish by birth, ancestry, or culture, but believe that Jesus (whom Messianic Jews generally call Yeshua) is the Messiah, a position rejected by all recognized branches of Judaism. The two movements are distinct but have certain similarities, and there is some overlap between them. Members of congregations and organizations specifically affiliated to the self-described Messianic Jewish movement, which seeks to express its faith in Yeshua in ways that are recognizably Jewish, generally call themselves Messianic Jews. On the other hand, many Catholic and Protestant congregations have members of Jewish birth or ancestry who continue to regard themselves as ethnic Jews: these are generally known as Hebrew Christians, Jewish Christians, or Christian Jews. Although the distinction between Messianic Jews and Hebrew Christians is not rigid, and some persons (such as Moishe Rosen) self-identify in both categories, there are enough differences between the two movements to regard them as separate.

Messianic Jews

*	Jonathan Bernis - evangelist.
*	Ron Cantor - evangelist, now based in Israel. Associated with the Brownsville Revival in Pensacola, Florida.
*	Asher Intrater - Formerly known as Keith Intrater, he is an evangelist and theologian, now based in Israel.
*	Dan Juster - leading Messianic theologian. (He is also widely respected as a theologian by many Pentecostal and Charismatic Christians, but is firmly in the Messianic camp).
*	Larry Feldman - evangelist. Associated with Chosen People Ministries and Rabbi of Congregation Shuvah Yisrael.
*	Joel Chernoff - General Secretary of the MJAA, and lead singer of the music group "Lamb".
*	Martin "Marty" Waldman - past president of UMJC, founder of Toward Jerusalem Council II (TJC II), Congregational Leader of Baruch HaShem Messianic Synagogue in Dallas, Texas.
*	Mitch Glazer - evangelist, President of Chosen People Ministries, former head of Jews for Jesus

Hebrew Christians

*	Boris Berezovsky - exiled Russian billionaire (converted to Russian Orthodoxy)
*	Niels Bohr - Danish physicist; (raised Lutheran; mother Jewish)
*	Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield - British Prime Minister (1868; 1874-1880) (raised as an Anglican)
*	Malcolm Fraser - Prime Minister of Australia (1975-1983) (raised Presbyterian; mother Jewish).
*	Helen Harris - founder member of Spiritual matters for women and their families; Messianic Jew by birth.
*	Jean-Marie Lustiger - Catholic Cardinal and Archbishop of Paris
*	Alexander Men - Russian Orthodox priest and martyr.
*	Felix Mendelssohn - composer (1809-1847)
*	Bernard Nathanson - former abortionist turned pro-life activist. Converted to Catholicism.
*	Robert Novak - journalist; convert to Catholicism; calls himself a "cultural Jew."
*	Harry Oppenheimer - South African billionaire (converted to Anglicanism)
*	Saul of Tarsus, Hellenized Jew, disciple of Jesus
*	Howard Phillips - American conservative activist; founder of U.S. Taxpayers Party / Constitution Party
*	Jay Sekulow - Runs conservative legal group ACLJ.
*	Karl Stern (1906-1975) - neuropsychiatrist and author, convert to Catholicism. Author of Pillar of Fire (1951).
*	Stan Telchin - author. (Formerly a Messianic Jew, but has since written a book and articles critical of the Messianic movement.)
*	Yochanan Ben Yehuda - A Nashville, TN based Italian producer.
*	Mordechai Vanunu - Israeli nuclear technician
*	Richard Wurmbrand (1909-2001) - Romanian underground church leader; founder of Voice of the Martyrs.
*	Israel Zolli - Chief Rabbi of Rome; converted to Catholicism

(Persons who use both labels to describe themselves)

*	Michael Brown - writer and theologian; for several years he was one of the leaders of the Brownsville Revival centered on the Brownsville Assembly of God in Pensacola, Florida.
*	Arnold Fruchtenbaum - theologian, founder of Ariel Ministries
*	Zola Levitt - author and televangelist
*	Steve Myers - conservative political commentator, founder of Radio Steve and The American Renewal Foundation, and publisher of Page One News and From Here to Reality. Once trained as a rabbi; became Christian in 1982.
*	Moishe Rosen - founder of Jews for Jesus
*	Jonathan Sarfati - scientist and young earth creationist author and apologist.

Source: http://poptop.hypermart.net/testimonies.html (viewed 6 November 2005)

Beauty insulted [here]: "Just As I Am"
Biker vs. preacher [here]
Bethel College football team motto, "Love God, hit hard" [here]...all are Christians!
Souper Bowl
"Daddy-boy's" girl: "One Day at a former slave sells slaves [here]: "Amazing Grace"
After the fire, the ship sank [here]: "It is Well With My Soul"
Writing the book changed his life [here]: movie, "Ben-Hur"
Journey to the Cross, Northside Baptist Church, West Columbia, S. C. [here]
This Man Called Jesus, Lake Murray Baptist Church, Lexington Co., S. C. [here]
Behold The Lamb, First Baptist Church of Batesburg, S. C. [here]

In Touch Ministries 26+ portraits of famous believers

Latter-day Saints/Mormons

From following pages on Wikipedia, viewed 12 August 2005:

Aaron Eckhart
Aaron Holker
Aaron Ruell
Aaron Shamy
Abraham H. Cannon
Abraham O. Smoot
Abraham O. Woodruff
Abraham Owen Smoot
Adam S. Bennion
Alan Ashby
Alatini Saulala
Albert Carrington
Albert E. Bowen
Aldon Junior Anderson
Aleisha Cramer Rose
Alexander Hale Smith
Alfred William Brunt
Alice Smith Merrill Horne
Alma Richards
Alonzo A. Hinckley
Alpheus Cutler
Amasa M. Lyman
Andrea Wine
Andrew C. Peterson
Andy Reid
Anne Perry
Annie Thurman
Anthon H. Lund
Anthony Geary
Anthony W. Ivins
Anton Palepoi
April Steiner
Art Acord
Art Lund
Arthur Vivian Watkins
B.J. Flores
Barry Bonnell
Bart Oates
Ben Cahoon
Benjamin Winchester
Berkeley Lloyd Bunker
Bernard DeVoto
Bert McCracken
Betty Eadie
Bill Bates
Billy Barton
Billy Barty
Billy Casper
Bo Gritz
Bo Paraha
Bob Bennett
Boyd K. Packer
Brady Udall
Brain Call
Branden Steineckert
Brandon Doman
Brandon Flowers
Brandon Lyon
Brandon Manumaleuna
Brandyn Akana
Breanne Sandberg
Brent Scowcroft
Brett Helquist
Brian Banks
Brian Crane
Brian David Mitchell
Brigham Henry Roberts
Brigham Young
Bruce Carlson
Bruce Charles Thompson
Bruce Hurst
Bruce R. McConkie
Bruce Summerhays
Bruce Webster
Buck McKeon
Bucky Bradford
Butch Cassidy
Calvin Lewellyn Rampton
Carl McGown
Carmen Rasmusen
Casey Jacobsen
Cecil Heftel
Cecil Landau Heftel
Chad Hermansen
Chad Lewis
Charles A. Callis
Charles C. Rich
Charles Rendell Mabey
Charles Roscoe Savage
Charles W. Penrose
Charlie Clinger
Chris Burgess
Chris Cannon
Chris Hoke
Chris Lybbert
Christian Whitmer
Clair Walter Burgener
Cory Snyder
Creed Haymond
Cyrus Edwin Dallin
D. B. Cooper
D. Michael Quinn
Dale D. Smith
Dale Murphy
Dallin H. Oaks
Dan Blocker
Dan Forsman
Dane Iorg
Daniel H. Wells
Daniel Hanmer Wells
Daniel P. Jones
Daniel Rona
Danny Ainge
Danny White
Dave Veres
Dave Wolverton
David A. Bednar
David Abbott "Ab" Jenkins
David B. Haight
David Bruce Haight
David Calder
David Hoffman
David King Udall
David L. Bush
David M. Kennedy
David Neeleman
David O. McKay
David Sjodahl King
David W. Patten
David Whitmer
David Zindell
Dean Jagger
Dee Picket
Delbert L. Stapley
Delwin Morgan Clawson
Dieter F. Uchtdorf
Don Bluth
Don Kirkham
Don Leo Jonathan
Donald James Cannon
Donny Osmond
Douglas R. Stringfellow
Earl Bascom
Ed Roth
Edwin Catmull
Edwin Mulitalo
Elaine S. Dalton
Elbert Duncan Thomas
Eldridge Cleaver
Elijah Abel
Eliza Dushku
Eliza Roxcy Snow
Elizabeth Jackson
Elizabeth Smart
Emma Hale Smith
Emma Lee French
Eni Faleomavaega
Erastus Snow
Eric Hipple
Eric Larson
Ernest Istook
Ernest James Istook, Jr.
Ezra Taft Benson
Famous Mormons
Fawn M. Brodie
Fay Wray
Francis M. Lyman
Francis W. Cash
Frank Edward Moss
Frank Evans
Frank Jenne Cannon
Franklin D. Richards
Fred Roberts
Fred Sanford
Frederick Madison Smith
G. Margaret Marr
Garrett Stephenson
Garth Iorg
Gary Johnson
Gary Kurtz
Gary L. Crittenden
Gene Fullmer
George A. Smith
George Albert Smith
George Dewey Clyde
George Franklin Richards
George M. Hinkle
George Q. Cannon
George Q. Morris
George Quayle Cannon
George Stoneman
George Teasdale
George Vernon Hansen
George W. Romney
George Wilcken Romney
George Woolf
Gifford Nielsen
Gifford Nielson
Gladys Knight
Glen A. Larson
Glen Titensor
Glenn Beck
Gordon B. Hinckley
Gordon Harold Smith
Gordon Jump
Gordon Smith
Grant MacFarlane
Greg Clark
Gutzon Borglum
Guy Cash
Hal Ashby
Hamer Harold Budge
Harmon Killebrew
Harold B. Lee
Harry M. Reid
Harry Reid
Harvey Fletcher
Heber C. Kimball
Heber J. Grant
Heber Manning Wells
Helmuth Hubener
Henry B. Eyring
Henry D. Moyle
Henry Eyring
Henry Grow
Hiram Page
Hosea Stout
Howard Philip McKeon
Howard W. Hunter
Howard Walter Cannon
Hugh B. Brown
Hugh Nibley
Hyrum M. Smith
Hyrum Smith
Ina Coolbrith
Isaac Albert Smoot
Itula Mili
Ivy Baker Priest
J. Nicholas Udall
J. Reuben Clark
J. Willard Marriott
J.W. Marriott Jr.
Jack Anderson
Jack Dempsey
Jack Kowal
Jack Yerman
Jacob Whitmer
Jake Garn
James Adams
James C. Christensen
James E. Faust
James E. Talmage
James Henry Moyle
James Strang
James Vear Hansen
James William Robinson
Jane Clayson
Jared Hess
Jaret Wright
Jarinn Akana
Jason Brockman
Jason Buck
Jason Johnson
Jason Ray
Jason W. Briggs
Jay North
Jedediah M. Grant
Jedediah Morgan Grant
Jeff Flake
Jeff Kent
Jeff Lindsay
Jeffery Max Jones
Jeffrey Max Jones
Jeffrey R. Holland
Jeremy Guthrie
Jeremy Jones
Jericho Road
Jerry Thomas Twiggs
Jesse Addison Udall
Jessica Holmes
Jim Gibbons
Jim Gott
Jim Jannard
Jim Matheson
Jimmy "Super Fly" Snuka
Jimmy Osmond
Joe Tuipala
John "Cat" Thompson
John A. Widtsoe
John Browning
John Bytheway
John Christopher Cutler
John D. Fitzgerald
John D. Lee
John Doolittle
John E. Page
John F. Boynton
John Gilbert
John Henry Smith
John Milton Bernhisel
John O. Whitaker Jr.
John R. Winder
John Smith
John Tait
John Taylor
John Taylor Doolittle
John W. Shawcroft
John Whitmer
John Whittaker Taylor
John Willard Young
Johnny Longden
Johnny Miller
Jon Heder
Jon Huntsman
Jon Huntsman  Utah
Jon Huntsman Jr.
Jon Peter Lewis
Jonathan C. Coon
Joseph B. Wirthlin
Joseph F. Merrill
Joseph F. Smith
Joseph Fielding Smith
Joseph Smith III
Joseph Smith Jr.
Joseph Smith Sr.
Joshua Reuben Clark, Jr.
Julie Stoffer
Junior Ione
Justin Wilcock
Karl Maesar
Karl-Heinz Schnibbe
Katherine Heigl
Katie Herman
Keith Clearwater
Keith Russell
Keith Russell Head coach
Kelly Downs
Kelly Wiglesworth
Ken Hubbs
Ken Hunt
Ken Jennings
Kenneth Warren Dyal
Keri Russell
Kevin B. Rollins
Kevin Curtis
Kieth Merrill
Kim Peek
Kimball Kjar
Kip Thorne
Koln Gunn McKay
Kristen Rasmussen
Kyle Farnsworth
Kyle Turley
Kyle Whittingham
L. Tom Perry
La Monte Young
Larry H. Miller
Larry Nelson III
Larry Scott
Laurel Thatcher Ulrich
Laurence Junior Burton
Lavina Fielding Anderson
Lee Johnson
LeGrand Richards
Leonard J. Arrington
Les Hulet
Levi Stewart Udall
Lewis Field
Lino Brocka
Liriel Domiciano
Lorenzo Snow
Luis "Louie" Gomez
Luke S. Johnson
Luke Staley
Lyman E. Johnson
Lyman Wight
M. Russell Ballard
Maggie Germane
Makoa Freitas
Marc Wilson
Maren Ord
Marie Osmond
Marie Windsor
Marion G. Romney
Mark "Mad Dog" Madsen
Mark E. Petersen
Mark Hofman
Mark Hofmann
Mark Pope
Mark Schultz
Marriner W. Merrill
Martha Maria Hughes Cannon
Martin Harris
Marvin Goldstein
Marvin J. Ashton
Matthew Cowley
Matthew James Salmon
Matthew Modine
Matthias F. Cowley
Maude Adams
McKay Christensen
Melanie Kosoff
Melvin Dummar
Melvin J. Ballard
Merlin Olsen
Merlin Olson
Merrill Hoge
Meshach Tenney
Michael Dean Crapo
Michael O. Leavitt
Michael Okerlund Leavitt
Michelle Shocked
Mick Ronson
Mikal Gilmore
Mike Allred
Mike Crapo
Mike Fetters
Mike Leavitt
Mike Reid
Mike Simpson
Milton "Tita" Queiroz
Mitch Davis
Mitt Romney
Morris King Udall
Moses Thatcher
N. Eldon Tanner
Natacha Rambova
Nathan Baldwin
Neal A. Maxwell
Neil LaBute
Neleh Dennis
Nelson G. Tisdale
Nolan Bushnell
Norman David Shumway
Olene S. Walker
Olive Osmond
Oliver Cowdery
Orrice Abram Murdock, Jr.
Orrin Grant Hatch
Orrin Hatch
Orson F. Whitney
Orson Hyde
Orson Pratt
Orson Scott Card
Orson Spencer
Orval Carl Finkbeiner
Parley P. Pratt
Paul Bishop
Paul D. Boyer
Paul Ruth
Paul Walker
Paula Hawkins
Peter Vidmar
Peter Whitmer Jr.
Phil Tuckett
Philo T. Farnsworth
Porter Rockwell
Quentin V. Anderson
Randy Thorsteinson
Raymond Knight
Rebecca Pendlebury
Reed Smoot
Rendell N. Mabey
Rex Ellsworth
Richard Bushman
Richard Dutcher
Richard G. Scott
Richard Howard Stallings
Richard L. Evans
Richard L. King
Richard Marriott
Richard Nelson Swett
Richard Paul Evans
Richard R. Lyman
Rick Schroder
Rob Bishop
Rob Morris
Robert D. Hales
Robert F. Bennett
Robert Foster Bennett
Robert Hudson Walker
Robert L. Millet
Robert LeGrand Backman
Robert S. Stevens
Rocky Anderson
Ron Brand
Ron Fellows
Ron Wright
Ronald C. Packard
Rose Marie Reid
Roy Halladay
Rudger Clawson
Rudolf Wobbe
Rulon Gardner
Rulon Jones
Russ Tamblyn
Russell M. Nelson
Ryan Gosling
Saints Unified Voices
Samuel Brannan
Samuel Harrison Smith
Sandy Petersen
Scott Brumfield
Scott Bunker
Scott Mitchell
Scott Pollard
Sean Salisbury
Shakeh Crowfoot
Shawn Bradley
Shawn Davis
Shawn Estes
Sheldon Rampton
Sheri L. Dew
Sidney Rigdon
Skouson Harker
Solon Borglum
Spencer Adams
Spencer W. Kimball
Stanley F. Turley
Stephen Covey
Stephen L. Richards
Steve Benson
Steve Young
Stewart Lee Udall
Sylvester Q. Cannon
Ted Wilson
Terrel Howard Bell
Terry Moore
Terry Rooney
Terry Tempest Williams
Thomas B. Marsh
Thomas S. Monson
Thomas W. Murphy
Thurl Bailey
Tim Hanshaw
Todd Christensen
Todd Heap
Todd Miller
Tom Chambers
Tom Udall
Tommie Sisk
Tracy Hickman
Travis Hall
Travis Knight
Travis Walton
Trent Harris
Trevor Matich
Ty Detmer
Vai Sikahema
Vance Law
Vernon Hatton
Vernon Law
Vernon Romney
Victor Cline
Virginia Sorensen
Wallace Foster Bennett
Wally Herger
Wally Joyner
Walter William Herger
Warren Parrish
Warren Zevon
Wayne LeRoy Sandberg
Wilford Brimley
Wilford Woodruff
Willard Richards
William E. McLellin
William Harrison Folsom
William Henry Hooper
William Henry King
William J. Flake
William Marks
William Orton
William Smith
William Spry
William W. Phelps
Zenna Henderson
Zenos H. Gurley Sr.
Zina D. H. Young
Latter-day Saints from google.com search of www.cnn.com politicians and cgi.cnn.com, "Religion: Mormon":
Merrill Cook
Chris Cannon/Christopher B. Cannon
Harry Reid
Mike Simpson
Gordon Smith
Ron Packard
Ernest Istook
Howard P. "Buck" McKeon
Richard H. Stallings
John T. Doolittle
Matt Salmon
Trice Harvey
Howard McKeon
George Landrith III
James Walker (Texas)
Michael D. Crapo
Horace Thayn
James V. Hansen/James Hansen
Bill Orton
Merrill Cook
Dick Swett
Gregory Sanders
Leonard L. Boswell (RLDS)

More from Scientific Community 16th and 17th Centuries

Search of Galileo Project's database of "Catalog of the Scientific Community in the 16th and 17th Centuries"
http://galileo.rice.edu/lib/catalog.html (27 September 2005)
Choose: "Protestant", "Unknown", "Heterodox", "Sect" for "Religion" field:
******* Protestant *******

Bernard Albinus
Johann Conrad Barchusen
Benjamin Bramer
Charles de L'Ecluse
Gerardus Mercator
Robert Recorde
Adam Zaluzanskyze Zaluzan

******* Unknown *******

Sebastian Basso
Cassegrain Cassegrain
Louis Gayant
Claude Hardy
Pierre Herigone
Andre Du Laurens
Jacques-Alex. LeTenneur
Otto Tachenius
Phillipp Ulstad

******* Heterodox *******

Girolamo Borro
Pierre Michon Bourdelot
Giordano Bruno
Thomas Burnet
Campanella Tommaso
Andrea Cesalpino
Samuel Clarke
Edmond Halley
Thomas Harriot
Thomas Hobbes
Guy de LaBrosse
Guillaume Lamy
John Locke
Benoit de Maillet
Isaac Newton
Archibald Pitcairn
Michael Servetus
Alexander Suchten
Giulio Cesare Vanini
William Whiston
Jacopo Zabarella

Girolamo Borro
Affiliation: Catholic, Heterodox
In 1567 he was implicated in the third heresy trial of Pietro Carnesecchi. In 1582, he again had difficulties with the Roman Inquisition, but was freed through the intercession of Pope Gregory XIII. It seems clear that he held heterodox views, undoubtedly (considering other elements in his career) naturalistic, Aristotelian ones, perhaps reminiscent of Pomponazzi, and that he was saved from their consequences only because he had the protection of the Pope and the Grand Duke.

Pierre Michon Bourdelot
Affiliation: Catholic, Heterodox
In light of Bourdelot's heritage on his mother's side, there is room for ambiguity. Moreover, he required a special dispensation from the Pope to hold the Abbey of Mace. However, this is explained by the fact that Bourdelot was not ordained, and there would surely have been some comment had the Pope granted a dispensation for a Protestant to hold the income from an abbey. Because of Mace, Bourdelot is called the Abbe Bourdelot. In fact he is said to have been an avowed atheist.

Giordano Bruno
Affiliation: Catholic, Heterodox
Bruno entered the Dominican order in 1563. Even during his novitiate, a case had been drawn against him, because he had given away some images of saints, retaining for himself only a crucifix, and again because he had advised a fellow- novice to throw The Seven Delights of the Madonna aside and take rather The Lives of the Fathers or some such book. But the deposition was merely intended to terrify him, and the same day was torn up by the Prior. In 1576, however, the suspicions of his superiors took a more active turn. He was told that the Provincial was proceeding against him for fresh heresy, and was reviving the affair of his novitiate. Bruno left Naples while the process was pending, and went to Rome. His accusers did not leave him in peace, however, a process against him was threatened at Rome with 130 articles. He escaped from Rome, abandoning his Dominican order and casting its habit aside.
In Germany, Bruno got into difficulties with a Protestant pastor at Helmstedt who excommunicated him.
Soon after he retuned to Italy, he was accused of heresy against the Catholic faith, arrested at Venice on 23 May 1592, and eventually burned in Rome on 17 February 1600.

Thomas Burnet
Affiliation: Anglican, Heterodox
The treatment of Scripture in Archaeologiae philosophicae, 1692, forced Burnet to retire from his appointment at the court. Upon the death of Tillotson he was passed over for the Archbishopric of Canterbury because of doubts about his orthodoxy. Toward the end of his life he composed De fide et officiis christianorum and De statu mortuorum, more or less deistic books which Burnet forebore to publish during his life, although they were published after his death.

Campanella Tommaso
Affiliation: Catholic, Heterodox
In May 1592 (or perhaps 91) he was denounced to the Inquisition for heresy and was confined to the Convent of San Domenico (in Venice). Thus began a long series of imprisonments, trials, tortures, and other punishment that ended only with his release in 1629.
In 1634 the Inquisition discovered yet another plot in Naples by one of Campanella's followers and Campanella was implicated. He fled Rome before he could be arrested.
Perhaps it is wrong to list him as heterodox. Campanella always considered himself a Catholic. Nevertheless, he was in trouble with the Inquisition through virtually his entire life.

Andrea Cesalpino
Affiliation: Catholic, Heterodox
Cesalpino's philosophical views tended toward naturalism. He was frequently denounced for heretical ideas, though he was careful and was therefore never prosecuted.

Samuel Clarke
Affiliation: Anglican, Heterodox
Clarke's Arianism became evident in his Scripture-Doctrine of the Trinity, 1712. He was nearly defrocked by Convocation until he recanted and agreed to remain silent on the question. The book aroused a controversy that lasted until his death. He had a handful of followers who defended him, and in fact, despite his promise, he entered the controversy anonymously a couple of times. No one doubts that he continued to hold Arian views.

Edmond Halley
Affiliation: Anglican, Heterodox
All of the smoke about his heterodox views must have come from some fire, though there is cause to suspect that the extent of his free-thinking has been exaggerated. However, it does seem clear that Halley questioned (or better rejected) the universal authority of Scripture--for example, in his famous paper on the cause of the deluge and in his calculation of the age of the earth from the salinity of the sea, which yielded an age well beyond the accepted Scriptural chronology.

Thomas Harriot
Affiliation: Anglican, Heterodox
During his lifetime there were all sorts of stories about Harriot's atheism, centering on the charge that he challenged the universal authority of Scripture. There seems to be no doubt that he held atomistic views, which had the potential at least to be in conflict with orthodoxy. Nevertheless, I list Heterodoxy with grave doubts. Neither I nor anyone else has been able to find solid evidence to support the rumors. The rumors themselves began with a Jesuit diatribe of 1592 against the religious order in England; that hardly increases my confidence in the truth of the rumors.

Thomas Hobbes
Affiliation: Anglican, Heterodox
Hobbes advanced a secular philosophy which insisted, inter alia, on the subjection of church to state. He was vigorously anti-clerical, and he was skeptical about the plenary truth of Scripture. Nevertheless, Hobbes remained within the Anglican Church and took its sacraments. Despite the label of atheist, which was freely applied to him, the exact extent of his heterodoxy is impossible to determine.

Guy de LaBrosse
Affiliation: Calvinist, (Cth,) Heterodox
Various evidence makes it clear that La Brosse's parents were Huguenots.
Although formally Catholic, La Brosse was very close to libertine circles in Paris during the first half of the 17th century.

Guillaume Lamy
Affiliation: Catholic (assumed), Heterodox
Bayle, who was not picky, considered him an extreme epciurean.

John Locke
Affiliation: Anglican, Heterodox
Locke's parents were stern Puritans, but he himself began to shuck off the received faith while he was at Westminster, and was never a Puritan after school days. At the Restoration, he conformed without hesitation and went on to be a Latitudinarian.
Cranston asserts that after 1688 Locke went beyond Latitudinarianism to Socinianism. See especially The Reasonableness of Christianity, 1695. Locke insisted, apparently even to himself, that he was still Anglican; however, he did publish Reasonableness anonymously.

Benoit de Maillet
Affiliation: Catholic, Heterodox
His system was materialistic, and it denied that the Biblical chronology could be correct.

Isaac Newton
Affiliation: Anglican, Heterodox
Newton was born into the Anglican church and publicly conformed to it. At about thirty, he convinced himself that Trinitarianism was a fraud and that Arianism was the true form of primitive Christianity. Newton held these views, very privately, until the end of his life. On his death bed he refused to receive the sacrament of the Anglican church.

Archibald Pitcairn
Affiliation: Anglican, Heterodox
The family tradition was episcopalian. Pitcairn was an outspoken Jacobite after 1689.
Because of his satires against the Calvinist Kirk, Pitcairn came to be reputed an atheist. Authorities seem to think that he was indeed a deist.

Michael Servetus
Affiliation: Catholic, Heterodox
At the age of fifteen Servetus entered the service of a Franciscan friar, Juan de Quintana, an Erasmian.
He was already spreading arianism by 1530. In 1531 he published De trinitatis erroribus and in 1532 De trinitate. As a result of these two works he had to live under the pseudonym, Michel de Villeneuve. In 1553 he published another arian, pantheistic book, Christianismi restitutio, which led first to his condemnation by the Inquisition in France, and then, after he escaped, to his execution at the stake in Geneva.

Alexander Suchten
Affiliation: Catholic, Heterodox
He was excommunicated from the Catholic Church in 1545. In the 50's he became an Aryan (does this mean Socinian?)

Giulio Cesare Vanini
Affiliation: Catholic, Heterodox
Vanini became a Carmelite friar about 1603.
When studying in Padua, Vanini showed himself unambiguously in favor of Venice in the republic's dispute with the Papacy. The general of his order commanded him to return to the house in Naples, where he would have been disciplined, probably severely. Instead Vanini sought refuge with the English ambassador to Venice in 1612, and he went secretly to England where he publicly renounced Catholicism. Already in 1613 the English experience had paled, and he appealed to the Pope to be received back in the Church, not as a friar, but as a secular priest. The request was granted by the Pope himself. When the Archbishop of Canterbury learned of Vanini's plans, he had him imprisoned, but Vanini succeeded in escaping to France.
Well before this Vanini had been flirting with radical ideas, which found expression in two books published in France. He is known as the prince of libertins. He was accused of atheism. Whatever the truth of this, there seems no doubt that he held radically heterodox opinions. He advanced a naturalistic philosophy according to which the world is eternal and governed by immanent laws. For him all of nature with its immanent laws is what divine providence means. He held that the human soul, which is similar to animal souls is mortal. For these ideas Vanini's book was condemned and three years later, in 1619, known under the pseudonym, Pompeo Uciglio, he was savagely executed in Toulouse.

William Whiston
Affiliation: Anglican, Heterodox
At the time he was ordained Whiston was nearly a nonjuror. During the following fifteen years he moved over into Arianism. Because he was not formally excommunicated, he nevertheless remained an Anglican until 1747, when he left the church and became a Baptist.

******* Sect *******

Govard Bidloo
Adam of Bodenstein
Cornelius Drebbel
James Logan
Thomas Newcomen

Govard Bidloo
Affiliation: Sect, Calvinist
Both his parents were Dutch Baptists. Bidloo's career, and the lack of any comment about his religion make it evident that he learned to adhere to the established Calvinist church.

Adam of Bodenstein
Affiliation: Sect
Son of Andreas Bodenstein, professor? theologian, visionary (i.e., the father was). Adam appears to have shared much of his religious outlook.

Cornelius Drebbel
Affiliation: Anabaptist

James Logan
Affiliation: Sect
Friends--classify as Sect.

Thomas Newcomen
Affiliation: Sect
Newcomen's grandfather and father were nonconformists. He himself was a leader of the Baptists of his locality, who frequently preached in their congregations.

List of Occultists

Source: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_occultists; viewed 6 July 2005)
This is a list of notable people, whether contemporary, historical or legendary, who are or were involved in any of the following practices and traditions:

*	paranormal or supernatural magic, black or white
*	witchcraft
*	sorcery
*	wizardry
*	alchemy
*	practical mysticism
*	voodoo
*	divination and fortune-telling
*	theurgy

Ancient world:

*	Apollonius of Tyana, wizard
*	Apuleius, author of a magical novel
*	Elymas, Jewish magus who opposed Paul on Cyprus
*	Heraclitus, philosopher important in occultism
*	Hermes Trismegistus/Thoth
*	Iamblichus, neo-platonist philosopher, espoused theurgy
*	Iannes and Mambres, magicians at Pharaoh's court mentioned in the New Testament
*	Julian, practiced occult theurgy
*	Plato, philosopher important in occultism
*	Plotinus, neo-platonist philosopher important in occultism
*	Pythagoras, philosopher important in occultism
*	Simon Magus, magician mentioned in New Testament
*	The Witch of Endor, Biblical witch and spirit medium

Medieval Europe:

*	Abraham Abulafia, kabalist "messiah"
*	Gilles de Rais, serial killer accused of sorcery
*	Merlin, (probably fictional) Arthurian wizard
*	Nicholas Flamel, alchemist
*	Ramon Llull, syncretic mystic


*	Abramelin the Mage, alleged author of a grimoire
*	Francesco Giuseppe Borri, alchemist
*	Sir Thomas Browne, hermetic author
*	Arthur Dee, hermetic author
*	Athanasius Kircher, Jesuit priest, wrote on magical subjects
*	Benevenuto Cellini, sculptor whose diary relates experience summoning spirits
*	Christina of Sweden, abdicated Queen who dabbled in alchemy
*	Giordano Bruno, occult philosopher
*	Edward Kelley, medium who assisted John Dee
*	Faust, made a pact with the Devil
*	Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa, occult philosopher, astrologer
*	Henry Percy, "Wizard Earl"
*	Johannes Reuchlin, German cabalist magician, summoned angels
*	Johann Weyer (aka Johannes Wierus), German physician, occultist and demonologist.
*	Dr John Dee, seer, astrologer, and occult philosopher
*	Nostradamus, soothsayer, seer, astrologer
*	Olaus Borrichius, alchemist
*	Paracelsus, medical pioneer and occult philosopher
*	Robert Fludd, occult philosopher and astrologer
*	Sir Walter Raleigh, practiced alchemy
*	Rudolph II, Holy Roman Emperor, employed alchemists
*	Johannes Trithemius, cryptographer and magical writer

Enlightenment and early modern period:

*	Adam Weishaupt, founder of the Illuminati
*	Antoine Court de Gebelin, connected tarot and esotericism
*	Martines de Pasqually, theurgist founder of the Ordre des Chevliers Macons Elus Coens de l'Univers [Ordre des Chevliers Maçons Elus Coéns de l'Univers]
*	Louis Claude de Saint Martin, founder of martinism, writer known as the Unknown Philosopher
*	"La Voisin", French sorceress
*	Count of St Germain, alchemist
*	Etteila, fortune-teller
*	Francoise Athenais Rochechouart [Françoise Athenaïs Rochechouart], marquise de Montespan, another royal mistress
*	Giuseppe Balsamo, "Count Alessandro di Cagliostro," occult charlatan
*	Sir Isaac Newton, physicist and alchemist
*	Isobel Gowdie, self-confessed witch
*	Margaret Matson, New Sweden (colony) witch
*	Matthew Hopkins, commissioned English witch-finder

Nineteenth century:

*	Algernon Blackwood, member of the *Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn
*	Allan Kardec, founder of Spiritism
*	Arthur Machen, member of the *Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn
*	Marie-Anne Le Normand, fortune-teller favoured by Josephine de Beauharnais [Joséphine de Beauharnais]
*	Alexis-Vincent-Charles Berbiguier de Terre-Neuve du Thym, French demonologist
*	Arthur Edward Waite, occult author and Golden Dawn member
*	Edgar Cayce
*	Eliphas Levi, occult author [Eliphas Lßvi]
*	Evangeline Adams, astrologer to the famous
*	Francis Barrett, wrote a book on magic
*	Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, founder of Theosophy
*	John George Hohman, American wizard
*	Marie Laveau, American voodoo practitioner
*	Papus, pseudonym for Gerard Encausse, occult author [Gérard Encausse]
*	Pekka Ervast Finnish Theosophist
*	Stanislas de Guaita, occult author
*	Samuel L. MacGregor Mathers, Golden Dawn founder
*	William Blake, poet of the occult
*	Dr. William Wynn Westcott, cofounder of the *Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn

Twentieth century:

*	Anton Szandor LaVey, Founder of The Church of Satan, author of five books on the subject of Satanism, including The Satanic Bible and The Satanic Rituals.
*	Draconis Blackthorne, Satanist, Church of Satan Warlock, author of several books on the subject of Ritual Magic and social commentary, founder of The Order of The Black Dragon.
*	Margot Adler, witch and NPR reporter
*	Kenneth Anger, disciple of Crowley
*	Fairuza Balk, actress and owner of witchcraft store
*	Franz Bardon, occult author, magician
*	Christian Bernard, Imperator of AMORC
*	Ior Bock, Finnish cult leader
*	Isaac Bonewits, occult author
*	Aisling Bronach, editor of Traditions Magazine
*	Raymond Buckland, Wiccan author
*	Zsuzsanna Budapest, feminist witch
*	William S. Burroughs, member of the Illuminates of Thanateros
*	W. E. Butler, occultist and esoteric author
*	William Butler Yeats, poet, Golden Dawn member, astrologer
*	Peter Carroll, occult author, co-founder of the Illuminates of Thanateros
*	Constant Chevillon, the head of FUDOFSI
*	Andrew D. Chumbley, occult author and artist. Magister of the Cultus Sabbatai
*	Andrew Collins, author and noted Psychic Quester
*	Aleister Crowley, occult author, poet, magician, astrologer
*	Maya Deren, filmmaker
*	Ramsey Dukes, occult author
*	Gerina Dunwich, witch and occult author
*	Julius Evola
*	Dion Fortune, occult author
*	Henri Gamache, authority on the Evil Eye
*	Gerald Gardner, founder of Wicca
*	Kenneth Grant, Occult author and Outer Head of the Typhonian OTO
*	Robert Graves, poet and mythographer
*	Rene Guenon
*	Jaq D. Hawkins, occult author
*	Max Heindel, occultist and mystic Christian, founder of The Rosicrucian Fellowship
*	Phil Hine, occult author
*	Frater Adsum Iterum (Auxilior Arti), occult author, magician, a principal of Companions of the Glyph
*	Alejandro Jodorowsky, filmmaker, comic book writer
*	Robert Johnson, allegedly sold soul to Devil for musical talent
*	Albert S. Kivinen, Finnish occultist
*	Gareth Knight, occult author
*	Timothy Leary, member of the Illuminates of Thanateros
*	Dave Lee, occult author
*	Sybil Leek, witch and occult author
*	Ralph Maxwell Lewis, Imperator of AMORC
*	Harvey Spencer Lewis, founder of AMORC
*	Jack Parsons, occultist
*	Israel Regardie, occult Author, magician, pupil of Crowley
*	Virginia Kent Roberts, occult author
*	Ray Sherwin, occult author, co-founder of the Illuminates of Thanateros
*	Pamela Colman Smith, Golden Dawn member, artist, did tarot deck
*	Austin Osman Spare, occult artist
*	Starhawk, witch and occult author
*	Rudolf Steiner, founder of anthroposophy
*	Gary L. Stewart, founder of Confraternity of the Rose Cross, past Imperator of AMORC, Knight Commander of the OMCE
*	Valentin Tomberg, Christian mystic and mage
*	Julian Vayne, occult author
*	John L. Westbrook, former politician
*	Joshua Wetzel, occult author

People subjected to magical legends

These people may or may not have been practicing magicians, mystics, or diviners, but later stories or folklore have arisen that link them to such practices:

*	Albertus Magnus, Roman Catholic writer dubiously credited with several magical texts, notably the Book of the Secrets of Albertus Magnus [1]
*	Roger Bacon, philosopher accused of magic
*	Livingstone Bramble, world champion boxer, suspected of practicing witchcraft before fights
*	Gyges of Lydia, credited by Plato with ownership of the Ring of Gyges, a magical artifact
*	Pope Honorius III, dubiously credited with the grimoire The Sworn Book of Honorius
*	Moses, miracle worker, dubiously credited with the grimoires The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses
*	King Solomon of Israel, falsly credited with the grimoires [[2][The Key of Solomon]] and [[3][The Lemegeton, or the Lesser Key of Solomon]]
*	Virgil, Latin poet who was turned into a wizard in medieval folklore
*	Taliesin, Welsh poet who was turned into a wizard in medieval folklore
*	Merlin, originally the Welsh poet Myrddin, who was turned into a wizard in medieval romance
*	Olaus Wormius, incorporated into H. P. Lovecraft's Cthulhu mythos as the supposed translator of the Necronomicon
*	William Shakespeare, known among occult circles as "The Rosicrucian Mask" (influenced by the same Rosicrucian Initiate as Francis Bacon)
*	Count of St Germain, during the centuries after his disappearence without a trace, numerous myths,
    legends and speculations have surfaced; he has been attributed with occult practices and other legends report
    that he was immortal, alchemist with the elixir of life, a true Rosicrucian ("A man who knows everything and who never dies" according to Voltaire)

Fictional wizards, magicians, and witches:

*	Baba Yaga (Slavic mythology)
*	Belgarath the Sorcerer
*	Doctor Strange (a comic book superhero and wizard appearing in Marvel Comics)
*	Elminster (Forgotten Realms)
*	Elric of Melnibone [Elric of Melniboné]
*	Eric, from Eric by Terry Pratchett
*	Fizban
*	Gandalf the Grey (The Lord of the Rings)
*	Harry Potter
*	Vainamoinen (Kalevala) [Väinämöinen]
*	Polgara the Sorceress
*	Raistlin Majere
*	Rincewind the magically-challenged wizard from Terry Pratchett's Discworld series of books.
*	Prospero, (The Tempest by Shakespeare)
*	Pug from Raymond E. Feist's book Magician, and many others.
*	Sparrowhawk
*	The Wizard from The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
*	The Wicked Witch of the West

List of Pagans

Source: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_pagans; viewed 6 July 2005)

A number of noted individuals have been called Pagans.

The term is sometimes used pejoratively, particularly by Christians, and the people below would not necessarily call themselves pagans. Please refer to Pagan for the difficulties in clearly defining the term.

Note: Some usages of 'pagan' appear to apply to atheists too. This page is not for atheists


*	Rae Beth - author of Hedgewitch and A Witch Alone (Wiccan?)
*	Gael Baudino - author, mostly fantasy
*	Frances Billinghurst - founder of the Temple of the Dark Moon
*	Aisling Bronach - editor of Traditions Magazine
*	Granny Boswell - notable Cornish witch
*	Chas S. Clifton - has published academic explorations into modern Paganism (Wiccan?)
*	Dagonet Dewr - co-founder of Pagan Pride Day International
*	Rosemary Edghill - mystery author
*	Selena Fox - one of the founders of Circle Sanctuary
*	Susan Griffin - artist and jeweler
*	Nicola Griffith - science fiction author
*	Stephan Grundy - fantasy author
*	Gwenc'hlan - bard and druid
*	Heinrich Himmler - Third Reich official
*	Hypatia of Alexandria - mathematician
*	Arun John - author of Link to the Real World
*	Lalli - Legendary Finnish heathen and land owner who killed christian bishop Henry
*	Cassandra Latham - first UK person to register as a 'village witch' with the Inland Revenue
*	Fritz Leiber - science fiction and fantasy author
*	Audre Lorde - black lesbian activist
*	Somerset Maugham - author
*	Brigitte Nielsen - actress
*	Kate Orman - science fiction author
*	Bob Oswald - runemaker and writer
*	Diana Paxson - science fiction author, editor of Idunna the quarterly journal of Asatru organization The Troth
*	Morwynn Rooke - poet and writer
*	Eric Steven Raymond - programmer and author of The Hacker's Dictionary and How to Be a Hacker
*	M. R. Sellars - "pagan" mystery author
*	Cybill Shepherd - actress
*	Starhawk - activist, pagan leader, author
*	Luisah Teish - Yoruban writer/teacher
*	Chris Thompson - teacher and cofounder of the Grove of Sinann
*	Laurence Thompson - cofounder of the Grove of Sinann
*	Alice Walker - poet and author
*	Brian Walsh - writer
*	Martin Williams - Founder of Pagan Association
*	Marion Woolley - writer
*	Virginia Woolf - author
*	Ville Valo - H.I.M.


*	Isaac Bonewits - author and scholar of several Druid and neopagan related books and articles
*	Ronald Hutton - scholar of British history; professor at University of Bristol, and author of books on the history of Neopaganism.


*	Margot Adler - author, journalist, Wiccan Priestess and Elder, NPR correspondent in New York City
*	Paul Beyerl - founder of The Rowan Tree Church
*	Raymond Buckland - author of Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft and many others
*	Z. Budapest - lesbian Pagan teacher writer etc. (Dianic Wicca)
*	Laurie Cabot - the official witch of Salem, author of Power of the Witch and Love Magic
*	Phyliss Curott - author of Book of Shadows
*	Francesca De Grandis - craft elder in the Faerie tradition, writes and teaches on Celtic Shamanism
*	A.J. Drew - author of Wicca for Men
*	Gerina Dunwich - author of Wicca Craft and other books on the details of spellwork
*	Sully Erna - Lead singer of Godsmack
*	Gavin Frost and Yvonne Frost - founders of the Church and School of Wicca
*	Yasmine Galenorn - author of Embracing the Moon and Dancing the Sun
*	Gerald Gardner - founder of Wicca
*	Eileen Holland - author of The Wicca Handbook
*	Doreen Valiente - author and contemporary of Gardner
*	David Rankine - Author of books such as Magick Without Peers, Becoming Magick and many more. The Starsorceror
*	David J. Rust - essayist, journalist, co-founder the Witches' Informational Network
*	Vivienne Crowley - author of Wicca and well known British High Priestess
*	Sorita D'Este - Author and teacher. Avalonia UK
*	Kate West - author of The Real Witches Handbook and several others.
*	Maxine Sanders - co-founder of the Alexandrian tradition
*	Alon Kobets - co-founder of Wicca Israel, the leading Wicca site in Israel. Wicca Israel


*	Raven Grimassi - author on Stregheria and family witchcraft

Famous Pagans

Source: http://www.geocities.com/EnchantedForest/Dell/9880/famous.html; 20 July 2005

Famous Person - How do we know they're pagan?

Donna Haraway (modern philosopher and sociologist) - May not be Pagan; refers to famous Pagan events and experiences in her work.

Audre Lorde (Black Lesbian Activist) - Writes about being a Goddess-worshipper

Alice Walker (bisexual poet and author, most famously of The Color Purple) - Says she is!

Virginia Woolf (1920s lesbian/author, especially of A Room of One's Own, To The Lighthouse, and Orlando) - Described herself and her circle of friends as "neo-pagans"

Adrienne Rich (feminist lesbian poet and activist) - Rumor has it...!

Susan Griffin (Artist and jeweler) - Evident in her work and her explanations of it

Diana Paxson (science fiction author) - Says so herself; was first officer of the Covenant of the Goddess for a while

Joanna Russ (genderbending sci-fi author) - Rumor has it...

Starhawk (Activist, Pagan leader, author) - Open Pagan leader.

Kate Orman (Australian sci-fi author) - Says so!

Z. Budapest (famous lesbian Pagan teacher writer etc.) - Open Pagan leader. (Dianic Wicca, to be exact)

Timothy Leary - Writes of it

Marion Zimmer Bradley - Rumored to be because her books (most notably _The Mists of Avalon_) have so much Pagan content; however, if she is Pagan in her personal life, she hasn't "come out of the broom closet." Known to be Episcopal, but there is a strong "Episco-Pagan" contingent.

Also sisters-in-law with Diana Paxson; don't you love Pagan gossip? :)

Gael Baudino (lesbian author, mostly fantasy novels) - Was openly Wiccan, then left Dianic Wicca to go to the Quakers and worship the Goddess there.

Nicola Griffith (lesbian sci-fi author) - Says so and writes about it

Alix Dobkin (lesbian folksinger/musician) - Writes very Goddess-centered songs

Luisah Teish (Yoruban writer/teacher) - Open Pagan leader

Robert Heinlein (sci-fi author) - Not Pagan himself, but his book, _Stranger In A Strange Land_, spawned a whole new Pagan religion

Rosemary Edghill (lesbian mystery author) - Open Pagan author; her protagonist is a Witch

Andre Norton (fantasy author) - Writes very Pagan books

W. Somerset Maugham (author) - Anton LaVey says he was

Cybill Shepard (sitcom and movie actress) - Came out at the Golden Globe awards in 1995. First she "thanked God". Then she kind of stopped a minute - you could see she was making up her mind. She took a deep breath and said "And I want to thank the Great Mother Goddess for the gift of righteous anger and for all Her strength and inspiration. Blessed Be!" Later when she was interviewed she was asked what she was going to do after she got home, and she said "have a drink, get laid and cast a spell or two".

Terry Pratchett (hysterical surreal British fantasy author) - According to _Contemporary Paganism_ by Graham Harvey; Pratchett's books, especially _Lords and Ladies_, are full of Pagan humor.

Guy Gavriel Kay (sci-fantasy author) - Rumored to be

Brigitte Nielsen - According to a news article at Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance.

Fritz Leiber (sci-fantasy author) - Member of the Pagan group Freya's Folk; his obituary was listed in Circle Network News.

Last updated January 9th, 1998.

List of Unificationists

Source: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Unificationists; viewed 6 July 2005)

This page is for prominent members of the Unification Church, followers of Sun Myung Moon and supporters of the Unification Movement in general.


*	Sun Myung Moon (Father Moon) - founder
*	Hak Ja Han Moon (Mother Moon) - founder's wife and officially-designated successor
*	Hyo Jin Moon - their first son
*	Heung Jin Moon - their second son (deceased: 'king of the spirit world')
*	Hyun Jin Moon - their third son (businessman, youth leader, and possible successor)
*	Bo Hi Pak - founder's right-hand man, 1960s through 1990s
*	Michael Jenkins -- President of US church
*	Neil Salonen - former President of US church, now president of the University of Bridgeport
*	Mose Durst - former President of US church
*	Tyler Hendricks - former President of US church, now president of Unification Theological Seminary (UTS)


*	Andrew Wilson - professor at UTS
*	Mark Anderson - Arizona state representative
*	Bill Gertz - Best-selling author and investigative journalist
*	Jonathan Wells intelligent design advocate, senior fellow of the Discovery Institute's Center for Science and Culture.
*	Chung Hwan Kwak- Chairman and President, United Press International Chairman and President, News World Communications, Inc.
*	Nicholas Chiaia, United Press International Senior Vice President
*	Larry Moffitt - United Press International Vice President of Planning and Development
*	Michael Marshall- UPI Editor In Chief


*	Steve Hassan - author and "exit consultant"
*	Craig Maxim - website creator and talk-show guest
*	Tim Folzenlogen - Painter
*	Graham Lester - blogger and limericist

Notable Gnostics

Source: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gnosticism#Notable_Gnostics; viewed 6 July 2005)
Roughly in chronological order:

Simon Magus, had Gnostic leanings, could be called proto-Gnostic
"Leucius Charinus" the legendary author of a cycle of late "Acts" of Apostles.
Carpocrates, his wife Alexandra and his son Epiphanes
Bardaisan of Edessa
Ptolemy and Colorbasus
Valentinius, the most famous and influential Gnostic
Basilides of Alexandria
Marcion of Sinope, had gnostic tendencies

List of Satanists

Source: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Satanists; viewed 6 July 2005)
A number of noted individuals have been Satanists.

*	Michael Aquino - founder of Temple of Set
*	Kenneth Anger - author and filmmaker
*	Glen Benton - bassist and vocalist of Deicide
*	David Berkowitz - serial killer
*	Anton LaVey - founder of Church of Satan
*	Anton Long - Grand Master of the Order of Nine Angles
*	Marilyn Manson - singer - Self described Satanist, though does not believe in Satan as a physical entity. Met with Anton LaVey, High Priest of the Church of Satan
*	Richard Ramirez - "Night Stalker", serial killer and rapist
*	John L. Westbrook - Oklahoma politician and self-professed founder of the Order of Mars

Alleged honorary members:

*	Sammy Davis, Jr. - entertainer

The following people are claimed to be Satanists but are not:

*	Beck - singer, songwriter; made an "honorary member" by Church of Satan but has never belonged
*	Aleister Crowley - poet, mystic; popularly but incorrectly labelled "Satanist"
*	Moshe Dayan - Israeli military hero and politician, said to have been a Satanist in Blanche Barton's biography of Anton LaVey, The Secret Life of A Satanist; in reality, was a friend of LaVey's but not a member of the Church of Satan
*	Jayne Mansfield - actress - was involved in publicity stunt with Anton LaVey
*	Jack Parsons - rocket scientist, follower of Crowley and member of the Ordo Templi Orientis; he seems to have confused Satanism with Paganism

Category: Atheists

[NOTE: This listing is from a Wikipedia-format open-edit format webpage that anybody can modify. Many of these listings have been found to be incorrect.]

Source: http://www.celebatheists.com/wiki/index.php?title=Category:Atheist; viewed 2 September 2005

Persons who identify themselves as 'atheist' or 'godless' or lacking theistic belief. Alternatively, a quote that clearly meets the strong or weak definition [1] of the term is acceptable for assignment to this category.

Forrest J. Ackerman
Douglas Adams
Phillip Adams
Ayaan Hirsi Ali
Tariq Ali
Woody Allen
Shulamit Aloni
Thomas J. Altizer
Natalie Angier
Lance Armstrong
Liv Arnesen
Madison Arnold
Darren Aronofsky
Isaac Asimov
Peter William Atkins
David Attenborough
Julian Baggini
Russell Baker
Iain M. Banks
Clive Barker
Dan Barker
MC Paul Barman
Dave Barry
Richard Bartle
Bill Bass
Matt Bellamy
Steve Benson
Ingmar Bergman
Pierre Berton
Matt Besser
Lewis Black
Susan Blackmore
Bill Blass
Jim Bohanan
Sir Herman Bondi
Pierre Boulez
T. Coraghessan Boyle
Nathaniel Branden
Marlon Brando
Richard Branson
Berkeley Breathed
Julia Hartley Brewer
Rodney Brooks
Andrew Brown
Bill Bryson
Peter Buck
Warren Buffett
John Byrne
Dean Cameron
George Carlin
John Carmack
Adam Carolla
John Carpenter
Asia Carrera
Fidel Castro
Dick Cavett
Stephen Chapman
Vic Chesnutt
Noam Chomsky
Mohammed Choukri
Robin Christopher
Alexander Cockburn
Billy Connolly
John Conway
Alex Cox
Francis Crick
David Cronenberg
David Cross
Alan Cumming
Justin Currie
Ron Dakron
Rodney Dangerfield
Julia Darling
Mark Jonathan Davis
William B. Davis
Richard Dawkins
Jeff Dee
Daniel Dennett
David Deutsch
Ani DiFranco
Micky Dolenz
Amanda Donohoe
Phil Donahue
Roddy Doyle
Roger Ebert
Christopher Eccleston
Dean Edell
Paul Edwards
Greg Egan
Barbara Ehrenreich
Paul Ehrlich
Albert Einstein
Albert Ellis
Bret Easton Ellis
Warren Ellis
Harlan Ellison
William Empson
Garth Ennis
Brian Eno
Diane Farr
David Feherty
Jules Feiffer
Larry Fessenden
Harvey Fierstein
Bob Fingerman
Reginald Finley
Brian Flemming
Larry Flynt
Dario Fo
Dave Foley
James Forman
Jodie Foster
John Fowles
Robin Lane Fox
Kinky Friedman
Janeane Garofalo
Bill Gates
Bob Geldof
Jack Germond
Ricky Gervais
Prabhir Ghosh
Ira Glass
James Gleick
Jean Luc Godard
Al Goldstein
Nadine Gordimer
Greg Graffin
Seth Green
Stephen Greenblatt
Susan Greenfield
Germaine Greer
Kathy Griffin
Rachel Griffiths
Joe Haldeman
Kathleen Hanna
Harry Harrison
Nina Hartley
Roy Hattersley
James A. Haught
Bill Hayden
Judith Hayes
Robert Heinlein
Nat Hentoff
Katharine Hepburn
Richard Herring
Paul Hester
Christopher Hitchens
Philip Hobsbaum
Douglas Hofstadter
General Choi Hong-Hi
Derek Humphry
Penn Jillette
Billy Joel
Angelina Jolie
Kirk Jones
Lionel Jospin
Joachim Kahl
Wendy Kaminer
Jonathan Katz
Kawaljeet Kaur
Diane Keaton
Ludovic Kennedy
Eli Khamarov
Margot Kidder
Kim Il-Sung
Florence King
Neil Kinnock
W. P. Kinsella
Michael Kinsley
Melvin Konner
Frank Kozik
Paul Krassner
Ron Kuby
Milan Kundera
Paul Kurtz
Ring Lardner Jr.
Mr. Lavanam
Richard Leakey
Alexander I. Lebed
Bruce Lee
Stewart Lee
Tom Lehrer
Mike Leigh
Stanislaw Lem
Vladimir Lenin
Gerda Lerner
Michael Lewis
Tom Leykis
James Lipton
Denis Loubet
H.P. Lovecraft
John Malkovich
Barry Manilow
Mao Zedong
Michael Martin
Karl Marx
Nick Mason
Armistead Maupin
John McCarthy
Malachy McCourt
Ian McEwan
Todd McFarlane
Montana McGlynn
Sir Ian McKellen
Alexander McQueen
Jonathan Meades
Antonio Mendoza
Tom Metzger
Arthur Miller
Frank Miller
Jonathan Miller
Mike Mills
Marvin Minsky
Warren Mitchell
China Mieville
John Money
Julianne Moore
Hans Moravec
Henry Morgentaler
Desmond Morris
James Morrow
John Mortimer
Markos 'Kos' Moulitsas Zuniga
Frank Mullen
Taslima Nasrin
Ramendra Nath
Ted Nelson
Randy Newman
Mike Nichols
Jack Nicholson
Kai Nielsen
Oscar Niemeyer
Robert Nozick
Gary Numan
Ronald Numbers
Bob Odenkirk
Patton Oswalt
Camille Paglia
Andy Partridge
Mark Pauline
Leonard Peikoff
Paul Pfalzner
Julia Phillips
Ferdinand Piech
Steven Pinker
Neal Pollack
Katha Pollitt
Paula Poundstone
Vladimir Pozner
Terry Pratchett
Paul Provenza
Philip Pullman
Ayn Rand
James Randi
Ron Reagan Jr.
Keanu Reeves
Rick Reynolds
Trent Reznor
Griff Rhys-Jones
Mordecai Richler
Christopher Ricks
Matt Ridley
Brian Ritchie
Brad Roberts
Chris Robinson
Gene Roddenberry
Joe Rogan
Neil Rogers
Henry Rollins
Andy Rooney
Richard Rorty
Arundhati Roy
Jane Rule
Salman Rushdie
Karen Russell
Mona Sahlin
Sebastiao Salgado
Robert Sapolsky
Jose Saramago
Pamela Sargent
Max Sawicky
John Sayles
Tom Schulman
Eugenie Scott
Captain Sensible
Nick Seymour
Robert I. Sherman
Michael Shermer
Robert Silverberg
Bob Simon
Claude Simon
J.R. Simplot
Peter Singer
J.J.C. Smart
Robert Smith (football)
George H. Smith
Robert Smith
Lee Smolin
Steven Soderbergh
Todd Solondz
George Soros
Joseph Stalin
Richard Stallman
Peter Steele
Bruce Sterling
Howard Stern
J. Michael Straczynski
Ken Stringfellow
Julia Sweeney
Matthew Sweet
Annika Sorenstam
Studs Terkel
Louis Theroux
Tom Tomorrow
Linus Torvalds
Solomon Tulbure
Eddie Vedder
Paul Verhoeven
Gore Vidal
Kurt Vonnegut Jr.
Sarah Vowell
Matt Wagner
Annika Walter
James Watson
Steven Weinberg
Gene Weingarten
Joss Whedon
Earl Wild
Harland Williams
Sean Williams
Ted Williams
Ian Wilmut
Rabbi Sherwin T. Wine
Lewis Wolpert
Steve Wozniak
Bruce Wright
Irvin D. Yalom
Nick Zedd

Category: Agnostics

[NOTE: This listing is from a Wikipedia-format open-edit format webpage that anybody can modify. Many of these listings have been found to be incorrect.]

Source: http://www.celebatheists.com/wiki/index.php?title=Category:Agnostic; viewed 2 September 2005

Those who have described themselves as 'agnostic.' Alternatively they can have stated that the question of whether or not gods exist is unknowable.

Atheists who identify themselves as agnostic can be included in this category as well.

The rare theists who identifies himself (or herself) as agnostic can be included in this category, but their theism should be prominently mentioned.

The other major categories are Atheist and Ambiguous.

Note: this category (and the entries within) are provisional. They may be removed from this site if their presence proves troubling due to confusion, legal threats, etc.

Amy Alkon
Martin Amis
Piers Anthony
Margaret Atwood
Richard Avedon
Nick Becker
Burton C. Bell
Sir Harrison Birtwistle
Susie Bright
Vincent Bugliosi
Gene Burns
Kurt Busiek
Robert X. Cringely
Clarence Darrow
Charles Darwin
Alan Dershowitz
Richard Dreyfuss
Umberto Eco
Timothy Ferris
Carrie Fisher
William Friedkin
Robbie Fulks
Candace Gingrich
Stephen Jay Gould
Matt Groening
Bob Guccione
Robert (Bob) James Lee Hawke
David Horowitz
Bob Hoskins
Robert Jastrow
Matt Johnson
Jack Kevorkian
Larry King
Tony Kushner
Rick London
Dave Matthews
Larry Niven
Neil Peart
Sean Penn
Roman Polanski
Vilayanur S. Ramachandran
Bertrand Russell
Carl Sagan
Dan Savage
Robert J. Sawyer
Adrienne Shelly
Michael Shermer
Rod Steiger
Al Stewart
James Taylor
Charles Templeton
Uma Thurman
Ted Turner
Robert Anton Wilson

Category: Ambiguous

Source: http://www.celebatheists.com/wiki/index.php?title=Category:Ambiguous; viewed 2 September 2005

Those who have expressed skepticism regarding theism, but who cannot be fairly classified as either Atheist or Agnostic.

Note that skepticism towards organized religion is insufficient, as there are plenty of theists who dislike the church, mosque, etc. but nevertheless believe in god(s).

The other major categories are Atheist and Agnostic.

Note: this category (and the entries within) are provisional. They may be removed from this site if their presence proves troubling due to confusion, legal threats, etc.

Skunk Anansie
Trey Anastasio
Richard Dean Anderson
John Perry Barlow
Carla Bley
David Bowie
Branden Boyd
Michael Caine
Jerry Casale
Nick Cave
Paul and Patricia Churchland
Arthur C. Clarke
George Clooney
Larry Cohen
Billy Corgan
Dalai Lama
Wade Davis
Phyllis Diller
Paul Draper
David Duchovny
Patrick Duffy
Pat Duffy-Hutcheon
Danny Elfman
George Fernandes
Ed Fredkin
Ed Sorel
Liam Gallagher
Noel Gallagher
Mikhail Gorbachev
Laurence Gough
Spalding Gray
Dave Grohl
Alan Hale
Peter Hall
Stephen Hawking
Taylor Hawkins
Hugh Hefner
Robert Heilbroner
Doug Henwood
Sir Edmund Hillary
Nicholas Humphrey
John Irving
Molly Ivins
Stephan Jenkins
Neil Jordan
Mark Knopfler
Stan Lee
John Lennon
Monica Lewinsky
G. Gordon Liddy
Jim Lindberg
James Lovelock
John Lydon
Bill Maher
Marilyn Manson
Shirley Manson
Sarah McLachlan
Rita Levi Montalcini
Max More
Scott Mosier
Gaylord Nelson
Kim Newman
Mojo Nixon
Timothy Noah
Krist Novoselic
John Passmore
Robert Patrick
Emo Philips
Sarah Polley
Natalie Portman
Ted Rall
Christopher Reeve
Andy Richter
Tom Robbins
Oliver Sacks
Laetitia Sadier
John Ralston Saul
William Shatner
Neil Simon
Mira Sorvino
John Shelby Spong
Donald Sutherland
Dame Tanni Grey Thompson
Tool (rock band)
Mark Twain
David Twohy
Paul Watson
Gene Wilder
Bruce Willis
Edward O. Wilson
Terry Wogan

Religion: Agnostic

Source: NNDB.com (http://www.nndb.com/lists/288/000092012/; viewed 5 July 2005)

NOTE: Consult the following list cautiously. The NNDB.com "religion" field has been known to be inaccurate at times.

John Betjeman
Ford Madox Brown
Clarence Darrow
Arthur Conan Doyle
Emmanuel Goldstein
Philip Johnson
James Mill
John Stuart Mill
Andy Rooney
Bertrand Russell
Alfred North Whitehead

List of agnostics

Source: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_agnostics; viewed 6 July 2005)
The Unofficial and Incomplete List of Agnostics

A number of noted individuals have been agnostics.

A partial list of persons believed to be, or who have claimed to be, agnostics:

*	Douglas Adams, (1952-2001), author
*	Anaxagoras, (d. 462 BCE), philosopher
*	Susan B. Anthony, (1820-1906), US feminist
*	Emile Berliner, (1851-1929), inventor
*	Jorge Luis Borges, (1899-1986), Argentine writer
*	Helen Clark, (b. 1950), prime minister of New Zealand
*	Clarence Darrow, (1857-1938), American lawyer
*	Charles Darwin, (1809-1882), founder of the theory of evolution
*	Heinz Fischer, (b. 1938), President of Austria
*	Bill Gates, (b. 1955), founder of Microsoft and richest person in the world
*	Matt Groening, (b. 1954), creator of Life in Hell, the Simpsons and Futurama
*	Robert Heinlein, (1907-1988), (refused on various occasions to commit to a firm belief in any theological or metaphysical propositions)
*	Thomas Henry Huxley, (1825-1895), coiner of the term agnosticism
*	Robert Ingersoll, (1833 - 1899), American political leader and orator
*	Larry King, (b. 1933), American broadcast personality
*	Mark Latham, (b.1961), Australian politician and Opposition Leader
*	Dave Matthews, (b. 1967), recording artist
*	Protagoras, (d.420 BCE), Greek Sophist and first major Humanist
*	Andy Rooney, (b. 1919), broadcast personality
*	Bertrand Russell, (1872-1970), Welsh philosopher and mathematician
*	Carl Sagan, (1934-1996), astronomer and skeptic
*	Charles Templeton, (1915-2001) former evangelist, author of A Farewell to God
*	Robert Anton Wilson. (b. 1932), author, futurologist, cryptocracy historian
*	Rabbi Sherwin T. Wine, (b. 1928), founder of The Society for Humanistic Judaism, coined the term ignosticism
*	Lee Kuan Yew, Singapore Minister Mentor
*	Frank Zappa, American composer and satirist
*	Bob Hawke*, Former Australian Prime Minister and Trade Unionist

Religion: Atheist

Source: NNDB.com (http://www.nndb.com/lists/282/000069075/; viewed 5 July 2005)

NOTE: Consult the following list cautiously. The NNDB.com "religion" field has been known to be inaccurate at times.

Douglas Adams
Steve Albini
Salvador Allende
José Pedro Almodovar [Pedro Almodóvar]
Barbara Amiel
Isaac Asimov
David Attenborough
Clive Barker
Dave Barry
William Bennett
Jeremy Bentham
Ingmar Bergman
Jello Biafra
Susan Blackmore
Pierre Boulez
Marlon Brando
Richard Branson
Susie Bright
Peter Buck
Warren Buffett
Charles Bukowski
Luis Bunuel [Luis Buñuel]
George Carlin
John Carmack
Adam Carolla
John Carpenter
Asia Carrera
Fidel Castro
Dick Cavett
David Chalmers
Noam Chomsky
Arthur C. Clarke
Alexander Cockburn
John Conway
Francis Crick
David Cronenberg
David Cross
Alan Cumming
Ivor Cutler
Richard Dawkins
Marquis de Sade
Daniel C. Dennett
Ani DiFranco
Phyllis Diller
Walt Disney [this is totally false: Disney was not an atheist]
Cory Doctorow
Micky Dolenz
Umberto Eco
Dr. Dean Edell
Barbara Ehrenreich
Paul R. Ehrlich
Albert Einstein
Warren Ellis
Harlan Ellison
Brian Eno
Ludwig Feuerbach
Richard Feynman
Larry Flynt
Dario Fo
Dave Foley
Jodie Foster
Frederick the Great
Anna Freud
Janeane Garofalo
Bill Gates
Bob Geldof
Sarah Michelle Gellar
Jack Germond
Vitaly L. Ginzburg
Jean-Luc Godard
Whoopi Goldberg
Al Goldstein
Mikhail Gorbachev
Nadine Gordimer
Spalding Gray
Seth Green
Rachel Griffiths
Che Guevara
Kathleen Hanna
Harry Harrison
Nina Hartley
Stephen Hawking
Katharine Hepburn
Christopher Hitchens
Douglas Hofstadter
A. E. Housman
David Hume
Robert G. Ingersoll
John Irving
Stephan Jenkins
Penn Jillette
Angelina Jolie
Neil Jordan
Ted Kaczynski
Paul Kammerer
Jack Kevorkian
Margot Kidder
Mark Tapio Kines
Alfred Kinsey
Paul Krassner
Paul Kurtz
Ray Kurzweil
Chris Langton
Ring Lardner, Jr.
Stanislaw Lem
Michael Lewis
Tom Leykis
H. P. Lovecraft
Heather Mac Donald
John Malkovich
Marilyn Manson
Christopher Marlowe
Ernst Mayr
John McCarthy
Malachy McCourt
Michael McDermott
Todd McFarlane
Ian McKellen
Tom Metzger
Marvin Minsky
Thomas Nagel
Ted Nelson
Michael Newdow
Randy Newman
Jack Nicholson
Robert Nozick
Gary Numan
Madalyn Murray O'Hair
Bernardo O'Higgins
Bob Odenkirk
Patton Oswalt
Kerry Packer
Harrison Page
Camille Paglia
Andy Partridge
Pier Paolo Pasolini
Robert Patrick
Mark Pauline
Leonard Peikoff
Harvey Pekar
Steven Pinker
Paula Poundstone
Terry Pratchett
Robin Quivers
Ted Rall
Ayn Rand
James Randi
Ron Reagan
Wilhelm Reich
Diego Rivera
Geraldo Rivera
Rene Rivkin
Chris Robinson
Murray Rothbard
Arundhati Roy
Jane Rule
Douglas Rushkoff
Carl Sagan
Margaret Sanger
Jose Saramago [José Saramago]
Jean-Paul Sartre
Dan Savage
John Sayles
Martin Scorsese
John Searle
Mobutu Sese Seko
Captain Sensible
Percy Bysshe Shelley
Michael Shermer
Claude Simon
B. F. Skinner
Robert Smith
Steven Soderbergh
George Soros
Mira Sorvino
Richard Stallman
Peter Steele
Bruce Sterling
Howard Stern
Oliver Stone
Leo Strauss
Kim Il Sung
Donald Sutherland
Julia Sweeney
Algernon Charles Swinburne
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand
Studs Terkel
Linus Torvalds
Alan Turing
Ted Turner
Mark Twain
Jesse Ventura
Gore Vidal
Kurt Vonnegut
Sarah Vowell
James Watson
Randy Weaver
Edward O. Wilson
Steve Wozniak
Wilhelm Wundt
Frank Zappa
Philip Zimbardo

List of atheists

Source: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_atheists; viewed 6 July 2005)

The people in this list have been included because they are/were atheists, that is, they do not or did not believe in gods, and this disbelief can be asserted because they themselves have expressed it openly (on the record), or in their works, personal corresponce, diaries, etc. Presumed atheists are not included here.

Given the different possible qualifications of the word atheist and its varied uses through time, some people listed here would be called agnostics or anti-religionists rather than simply atheists, but the list attempts to be inclusive on this matter. The reader should consult the relevant biographical articles for details.

The list has two sections. The first one is for atheists who are or were notable defenders of the cause of atheism, or who advocated views of the human condition, society, economy, etc., that were compatible with atheism. In short, these people are or were important for other atheists, since they contribute(d) to the popularization, understanding, and acceptance of atheism in society, either through their works or through their deeds.

The other section is for famous people who just happen/happened to be atheists, and whose unbelief is/was relevant in their life, but who do not/did not actively fight for its cause.

There might not be a consensus on whether a given person belongs in the second section, since obviously there is no way of listing all famous people who just happen to be atheists (there is no point, either). Many of these profess their atheism as just a peripheral issue in their lives, or simply keep quiet about it, and they will not be listed here.

Influential or outspoken atheists

* Phillip Adams (1939-) - Australian broadcaster, writer, film-maker, left-wing radical thinker, iconoclast, Australian Humanist of the Year 1987.
* Ingmar Bergman (1918-) - Swedish film director and playwright.
* George Carlin (1937-) - American comedian, actor and author, wrote a number of monologues about the non-existence of God.
* Penn and Teller - American magicians and hosts of Bullshit!, Teller (born 1948 as Raymond Joseph Teller) and Penn Fraser Jillette (1955-).
* Andre Comte-Sponville [André Comte-Sponville] (1952-) - French materialist philosopher.
* Richard Dawkins (1941-) - British zoologist, biologist, creator of the concept of the selfish gene and the meme; outspoken atheist and popularizer of science.
* Daniel Dennett (1942-) - American philosopher, leading figure in evolutionary biology and cognitive science, well-known for his book Darwin's Dangerous Idea.
* Paul Kurtz (1926-) - American philosopher, skeptic, founder of Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP) and the Council for Secular Humanism.
* Ellen Johnson - current president of American Atheists.
* Michael Newdow - American citizen, sued his daughter's school claiming that the words "under God" in the U.S. Pledge of Allegiance constitute a breach in church-state separation.
* Camille Paglia (1947-) - American post-feminist literary and cultural critic.
* Matt Ridley (1958-) - British zoologist, science writer and journalist, open supporter of libertarianism in politics and reductionism in biology.
* Richard Rorty (1931-) - American philosopher, whose ideas combine pragmatism with a Wittgensteinian ontology that declares that meaning is a social-linguistic product.
* Peter Singer (1946-) - Australian philosopher and teacher, working on practical ethics from a utilitarian perspective, controversial for his opinions on abortion and euthanasia.
* Barbara Smoker (1923-) - British humanist activist and freethought advocate. Wrote the book Freethoughts: Atheism, Secularism, Humanism - Selected Egotistically from "The Freethinker".
* James D. Watson (1929- ) - Nobel Prize laureate, co-discoverer of the structure of DNA
* Ali Sina - Founder of FaithFreedom International, a movement that denounces Islam.


* Alfred Adler (1870-1937) - Austrian psychiatrist, believed that God was a psychological projection, though helpful.
* Mikhail Bakunin (1814-1876) - Russian philosopher, writer and anarchist leader.
* Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) - British jurist, eccentric, philosopher and social reformer, founder of utilitarianism. He had John Stuart Mill as his disciple.
* Ambrose Bierce (1842-1914?) - American writer, author The Devil's Dictionary.
* Charles Bradlaugh (1833-1891) - British Member of Parliament, political activist, secularist, freethinker, advocate of trade unionism, republicanism and women's suffrage.
* Albert Camus (1913-1960) - French philosopher and novelist, a luminary of existentialism.
* Auguste Comte (1798-1857) - French philosopher, considered the father of sociology.
* Clarence Darrow (1857-1938) - American lawyer and civil libertarian, defense attorney at the Scopes Monkey Trial, where he defended a school teacher who taught the theory of evolution.
* Denis Diderot (1713-1784) - French philosopher, author, editor of the first encyclopedia.
* Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach (1804-1872) - German philosopher, postulated that God is merely a projection by humans of their own best qualities.
* Joseph Fletcher (1905-1991) - founder of the theory of situational ethics, pioneer in the field of bioethics, transhumanist.
* Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) - Austrian neurologist, father of psychoanalysis, considered the belief in God to stem from an unconscious fear of one's own biological father.
* Paul Henry Thiry, Baron d'Holbach (1723-1789) - French homme de lettres, philosopher and encyclopedist, member of the philosophical movement of French materialism, attacked Christianity and religion as counter to the moral advancement of humanity.
* David Hume (1711-1776) - Scottish philosopher and historian, a figure in the Scottish Enlightenment and the most radical of the British Empiricists, whose philosophy includes scepticism and naturalism.
* Primo Levi (1919-1987) - Italian novelist and chemist, survivor of Auschwitz concentration camp.
* Karl Marx (1818-1883) - German philosopher, sociologist, political economist, journalist and revolutionary, founder of Marxism. His famous formulation was: "Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people."
* Joseph McCabe (1867-1955) - English writer, anti-religion campaigner.
* Henry Louis Mencken (usually "H. L. Mencken") (1880-1956) - American editor, journalist and social critic.
* Jean Meslier (1678-1733) - French erstwhile priest.
* James Mill (1773-1836) - British historian and philosopher, father of John Stuart Mill; he supported the utilitarian principles of Jeremy Bentham.
* John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) - British philosopher and political economist, liberal thinker, advocate of utilitarianism, who proposed the harm principle (people should be free to engage in whatever behavior they wish as long as it does not harm others).
* Madalyn Murray O'Hair (1919-1995) - American militant atheist, founder of American Atheists, campaigner for the separation of church and state; filed the lawsuit that led the US Supreme Court to ban teacher-led prayer and Bible reading in public schools.
* Julien Offray de La Mettrie (1709-1751) - French physician and philosopher, earliest of the materialist writers of the Enlightenment.
* Periyar (1879-1973) - Indian rationalist, freedom fighter and activist against the caste system.
* Karl Popper (1902-1994) - Austrian-born British philosopher of science, who claimed that empirical falsifiability should be the criterion for distinguishing scientific theory from non-science.
* Ayn Rand (1905-1982) - American novelist and philosopher, founder of Objectivism. Her philosophy and her fiction emphasize her notions of individualism, egoism, "rational self-interest" and capitalism.
* M. N. Roy (1887-1954) - Indian political thinker, founder his Radical Humanism school of philosophy.
* Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) - British mathematician, philosopher, logician, political liberal, activist, populariser of philosophy, and 1950 Nobel Laureate in Literature. On the issue of atheism/agnosticism, he wrote the essay "Why I Am Not a Christian".
* Mark Twain (pen-name of Samuel Clemens) (1835-1910) - American writer and humorist.
* Marquis de Sade (Donatien Alphonse Francois de Sade [Donatien Alphonse François de Sade]) (1740-1814) - French aristocrat, writer of philosophy-laden pornography and pure philosophy, who denied the existence of morality based on a mandate from divine authority.
* Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) - French existentialist philosopher, dramatist, novelist and critic.
* Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822) - British Romantic poet, contemporary and associate of John Keats and Lord Byron, author of The Necessity of Atheism.
* Henry Sidgwick (1838-1900) - British philosopher, follower of utilitarianism.
* Burrhus Frederic Skinner (1904-1990) - American psychologist and author, a pioneer on experimental psychology, advocate of behaviorism, and writer of two books on social engineering.
* Max Stirner (1806-1856) - German philosopher, Young Hegelian, one of the literary grandfathers of nihilism, existentialism and anarchism.
* Nanasaheb Gore () - Indian freedom fighter and political thinker.


* Anaxagoras (500?-428? BCE) - Greek philosopher, freethinker, regarded the conventional gods as mythic abstractions endowed with anthropomorphic attributes.
* Diagoras (called Diagoras the Atheist of Melos) (5th cent. BCE) - Greek poet and sophist.
* Protagoras (481?-411 BCE) - Greek philosopher.
* Democritus (460?-357 BCE) - Greek philosopher, father of materialism, viewed everything as matter composed of indestructible particles ("atoms").
* Epicurus (341-270 BCE) - Greek materialist philosopher.
* Lucretius (96?-55 BCE) - Roman philosopher and poet, Epicurean atomist, wrote On the Nature of Things.
* Lucius Annaeus Seneca "the Younger" (4-65 CE) - Roman stoic philosopher, writer and politician.

Other atheists


* Tariq Ali (1943-) - British author, filmmaker, historian, one of the founders of the New Left, and spokesman for anti-imperialism.
* Peter Atkins (1940-) - chemist, former husband of Susan Greenfield, professor at Oxford University.
* David Attenborough (1926-) - British natural history presenter and anthropologist.
* Robert Bruce Avakian - American political activist, Chairman of the Revolutionary Communist Party.
* Iain Banks (1954-) - Scottish writer and left-wing activist.
* Jello Biafra (1958-) - Punk rock musician and political activist.
* Nathaniel Branden (1930-) - Canadian psychologist and philosopher, associated with Objectivism.
* Mario Bunge (1919-) - Argentine philosopher and physicist, left-wing liberal, author of a monumental Treatise on Basic Philosophy.
* Fidel Castro (1926-) - Cuban dictator since 1959.
* Noam Chomsky (1928-) - American philosopher, linguist, radical left-wing political activist, describes himself as "libertarian socialist" and "anarcho-syndicalist".
* David Cross (1964-) - Actor and stand-up comedian.
* Kamal Haasan (1954-) - Indian actor, self-professed rationalist, atheist, activist, and a follower of Periyar.
* Jonathan Miller (1934-) - British physician, theatre and opera director and television presenter; wrote and presented a series on atheism.
* James Randi (1928-) - American professional magician and debunker of psychics and other kinds of pseudoscience; has also denounced blasphemy laws.
* Ron Reagan (1958-) - American magazine journalist, board member of the politically activistic Creative Coalition, son of former U. S. President Ronald Reagan.
* Richard M. Stallman (1953-) - American computer programmer and founder of the Free Software Foundation.


* Douglas Adams (1951-2001) - British comic radio dramatist and novelist, self-avowed "radical atheist".
* Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906) - American civil-rights activist, who led the effort to grant women the right to vote in the United States.
* Isaac Asimov (1920-1992) - Russian-born American writer of fiction and nonfiction works, scientist and science popularizer.
* Bela Bartok [Béla Bartók] (1881-1945) - Hungarian composer and pianist, one of the founders of the field of ethnomusicology.
* Luis Bunuel [Luis Buñuel] (1900-1983) - Spanish filmmaker and important activist of the surrealist movement.
* George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron (1788-1824) - British Romantic poet.
* Voltairine de Cleyre (1866-1912) - American feminist and activist.
* Joseph Conrad (1857-1924) - Polish-born English author.
* Francis Crick (1916-2004) - Nobel Prize laureate biophysicist, co-discoverer of the structure of DNA, a figure of molecular biology and also neuroscience.
* Zoran Djindjic (1952-2003) - Serbian philosopher, politician, statesman and former Prime Minister, assassinated.
* Thomas Edison (1847-1931) - American inventor and businessman.
* Richard Feynman (1918-1988) - American physicist and expert lecturer, Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on quantum electrodynamics.
* Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882) - Italian general and nationalist leader.
* Enver Hoxha (1908-1985) - Albanian Stalinist dictator, declared Albania "the first atheist state in history".
* James Joyce (1882-1941) - Irish writer.
* Alfred Kinsey (1894-1956) - Researcher in the field of human sexuality and entomology.
* Pierre Simon de Laplace (1749-1827) - French mathematician and astronomer.
* Vladimir Ilich Lenin (1870-1924) - Russian revolutionary leader.
* H.P. Lovecraft (1890-1937) - American author of fantasy and horror fiction.
* Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593), English dramatist and poet.
* Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964) - Indian statesman.
* Culbert Olson (1876-1962) - American politician, former governor of California, then president of the United Secularists of America.
* Diego Rivera (1886-1982) - Mexican muralist painter.
* Gene Roddenberry (1921-1991) - American television producer.
* Margaret Sanger (1883-1966) - American birth control activist, founder of Planned Parenthood.
* George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) - Irish-born English playwright.
* Josef Stalin (1879-1953) - Soviet politician, dictator of the USSR.
* Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902) - American suffragist.
* Leon Trotsky (1879-1940) - Russian revolutionary and Soviet statesman.
* Mao Zedong (1893-1976) - Chinese revolutionary and statesman, former chairman of the Communist Party of China and dictator of the People's Republic of China, creator of the variant of Marxist-Leninist theory called Maoism.


Tom Ender (LIBERT) of Stoughton

*	Born: October 11, 1950, LaCrosse.
*	Education: U. of Wisconsin, LaCrosse, B.S., 1976.
*	Military Service: None.
*	Occupation: Freelance writer; computer consultant; state employee.
*	Family: Wife, Julie Cordry; two children.
*	Religion: Non-Denominational.
*	Political Career: Candidate for Wis. Assembly, 1994; Dane County Libertarian Party co-chairman, 1995-96; candidate for Wis. Assembly, 1996; Dane County Libertarian Party chairman, 1996-97.

Tom Reynolds (R) of West Allis

*	Born: December 16, 1956, Milwaukee.
*	Education: Nathan Hale H.S., graduated, 1975.
*	Military Service: None.
*	Occupation: Printing company owner.
*	Family: Wife, Sandy; four children.
*	Religion: non-denominational.
*	Political Career: Republican nominee for U.S. House, 1994, 1996.

Justin Raimondo (R)
District 8
BORN: Nov. 18, 1951, White Plains, N.Y.
EDUCATION: Franconia College, 1970-71
FAMILY: Single
POLITICAL CAREER: Libertarian nominee for U.S. House, 1982
Raimondo says he's not a single-issue candidate, but his only reason for running against Nancy Pelosi is her vote to send U.S. troops to Bosnia. "Nothing but a prelude to war," he called the deployment. Even his attacks on Pelosi's stands on medical care and budget cuts are framed by the Bosnia debate. Raimondo does oppose NAFTA and affirmative action, however, without reference to Bosnia.

Diane Trautman (D)
District 25
BORN: Aug. 10, 1954, Fort Lauderdale, Fla.
EDUCATION: Broward Community College, A.A., 1976; California Institute of the Arts, B.F.A., 1980
FAMILY: Husband, Allan; two children
RELIGION: Unaffiliated
Running against a popular incumbent in a heavily Republican district, Trautman has her work cut out for her. Though she moved into the Valley only three years ago, she has gained visibility as a political columnist for the local paper and an active member of the Democratic Club. She decided to run because it was time to "walk my talk": that economic success depends on education and training. Employees are resources, she says, not disposable commodities.

Randy Whitman (R)
District 9
BORN: Aug. 28, 1952, Toledo
EDUCATION: U of Toledo, 1970-73; Lourdes College, 1992
FAMILY: Wife, Sharon Ann; three children
RELIGION: Roman Catholic and evangelical Christian
OCCUPATION: Mortgage banker, lay minister
POLITICAL CAREER: Candidate for U.S. House, 1994
Deeply religious, Whitman combines strong moral beliefs with conservative politics--he wants more God and less government. He also wants welfare to be a "hand up, instead of a handout," voluntary prayer in school, a balanced budget and a $500 tax deduction for each child.


List of Christian thinkers in science

This list concerns the issue of The relationship between religion and science, but is specific to Christian history. As a list this is only supplementary to the issue as lists are by themselves not equipped to answer questions on this topic. The purpose is to act as a guide on this issue. The names, annotations, and or links are to provide use for further study on this topic. A small section on science or scientists repressed by Christians is also included to avoid imbalance and aid study of negative appraisals.

To achieve its goals each name must have a credible source or in least an explanatory note. If you can find multiple sources this is better, but it is not a requirement. However sourcing is necessary to show that they contributed to both religious and scientific history. It is also preferred, but not required, that the people named here wrote or lectured on the topic of Christianity's relationship to science. A sense of denomination of each scientist is listed by color, but uncertainty can be acknowled hence the "other or unspecified" option.

All these provisos noted there are aids to ease the adding of names to this list. At the bottom of this page potential sources are listed that you can use. Added to this several McTutor mathematician biographies mention if the mathematician or scientist did Christian religious or theological works. An effort should be made to assure the sources section of tables are not blank, but additions are welcome.

Finally because of religious freedom issues and the evolution of the concept of science names from before the seventeenth century will be noted as such. This will be done by placing their names in italics and adding an asterix next to their name. Also: www.thewordbook.com/List_of_Christian_thinkers_in_science

Before the Nineteenth Century

Those born before the seventeenth century have asterixes and their names are italicized.

Key:	Roman Catholic Church	Eastern Christianity
Name	Image	Reason for inclusion
Maria Gaetana Agnesi	A mathematician appointed to a position by	[http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Agnesi.html McTutor] and
	Pope Benedict XIV	Catholic Encyclopedia
	, she later became a nun studying the	[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01214b.htm]
	Church Fathers
*	A German scholar, real name Georg Bauer, who was known as the "Father of mineralogy." Although he supported	Catholic Encyclopedia
Georg Agricola	Martin Luther	[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01231a.htm] and
	's initial ideas he stayed firm to Catholicism. This caused him to face hostility after his region switched to	11th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica
	Lutheranism	[http://38.1911encyclopedia.org/A/AG/AGRICOLA.htm]
Antoine Arnauld	Jansenist	[http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Arnauld.html McTutor] and the
	theologian who wrote New Elements of Geometry and was compared to	11th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica
*	A noted geometer on ellipses and conic sections. Also a church architect who worked on the	11th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica
Anthemius of Tralles	Hagia Sophia	and [http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Anthemius.html McTutor Archives]
	. The picture shows what it may hace looked like before becoming a
*	He was an	Catholic Encyclopedia[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13111b.htm]
Roger Bacon	English
	who placed considerable emphasis on
	, and has been presented as one of the earliest advocates of the modern
	scientific method
Isaac Barrow	English divine, scientist, and mathematician. He wrote Expositions of the Creed, The Lord's Prayer, Decalogue, and Sacraments and Lectiones Opticae et Geometricae.	A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature
		and [http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Barrow.html MacTutor]
Laura Bassi	A woman physicist who worked in an elite group for	[http://hypatiamaze.org/laura/bassi.html Hypatia maze]
	Pope Benedict XIV
Thomas Bayes	Presbyterian	[http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Bayes.html McTutor]
	Bayes' theorem
	and Divine Benevolence, or an Attempt to Prove That the Principal End of the Divine Providence and Government is the Happiness of His Creatures.
Rudjer Boscovich	He was a	[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02691a.htm Catholic Encyclopedia] [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9080803 Encyclopedia Britannica]
	and became famous for his
	atomic theory
	, given as a clear, precisely-formulated system utilizing principles of
	Newtonian mechanics
	. He also persuaded
	Pope Benedict XIV
	to remove the obsolete decree of the
Robert Boyle	Scientist and theologian who argued that the study of science could improve glorification of God.	[http://www.asa3.org/ASA/PSCF/1997/PSCF3-97Woodall.html ASA] and
		Stanford University
*	He was an	[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14693b.htm Catholic Encyclopedia]
Thomas Bradwardine	English
	, often called "the Profound Doctor". He developed studies as one of the Oxford Calculators, of Merton College, Oxford University. These studies would lead to important developments in mechanics.
	He was a Catholic
Jean Buridan		priest
		who sowed the seeds of religious
		. He developed the theory of
		, that was the first step toward the modern concept of
Juan Caramuel y Lobkowitz	Cistercian monk	[http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Caramuel.html McTutor]
	who once tried to solve theological problems by mathematical rules.
Temple Chevallier	70px	Priest and astronomer who did Of the proofs of the divine power and wisdom derived from the study of astronomy.
Humphry Ditton	He published, Discourse on the Resurrection of Jesus Christ and wrote on	[ University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign]
	. He also was elected mathematical master at
	Christ's Hospital
	, although the painting shows it as it was 55 years after his death.
*	A Catholic bishop.	Catholic Encyclopedia[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07037a.htm]
Robert Grosseteste	A.C. Crombie
	calls him "the real founder of the tradition of scientific thought in mediaeval Oxford, and in some ways, of the modern English intellectual tradition".
*	A professor of astronomy and	[http://www.astro.uu.se/history/gothus.html Uppsala University]
Laurentius Paulinus Gothus	Archbishop of Uppsala
	. He wrote on astronomy and theology.
Johan Ernst Gunnerus	He was a	Norwegian University of Science and Technology
	Church of Norway	[http://sok.ntnu.no/index.php?type=all&query=Johan%20Ernst%20Gunnerus]
	bishop and botanist. The plant genus
	is named for him, he researched sea creatures as well as birds, and he helped found The Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters. He also was a professor of theology at the
	University of Copenhagen
Athanasius Kircher	Jesuit who had a theory seen as one of the antecedents to	[http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/jmac/sj/scientists/kircher.htm Fairfield University]
	germ theory
	and helped rebuild a shrine to
	Mother Mary
Colin Maclaurin	Briefly a	[http://www.maclaurin.org/about_us.php The Maclaurin Institute]
	Divinity student
	, had a Christian institute named for him.
*	Patron saint	Catholic Encyclopedia[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01264a.htm]
Albertus Magnus	of scientists in Catholicism, may have been the first to isolate
*	70px	For four years he devoted himself to theology writing Quaestiones celeberrimae in Genesim (
Marin Mersenne
		1623) and L'Impiete des deistes (1624). These were theological essays against atheism and deism. 
		He is more remembered for the work he did corresponding with mathematicians and concerning
		Mersenne prime
		s. The picture is of
		where he taught.
Isaac Newton	He wrote Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel and	[http://www.gutenberg.org/files/16878/16878-h/16878-h.htm Gutenberg.org copy of that book]
	the Apocalypse of St. John
*	Theologian who made contributions to the field of mathematics by developing the concepts of the infinitesimal and of relative motion.	[http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Cusa.html McTutor] and Catholic Encyclopedia[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11060b.htm]
Nicholas of Cusa
*	Passionate theologian and Bishop of	Catholic Encyclopedia[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11296a.htm]
Nicolas Oresme	Lisieux
	, he was one of the principal founders and popularizers of modern sciences, and probably the most original thinker of the 14th century.
Blaise Pascal	Convert to Jansenism known for	[http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Pascal.html McTutor]
	Pascal's law
	Pascal's theorem
	(math), and
	Pascal's Wager
*	His criticism of Aristotelian physics was important to Medieval science. He also theorized about the nature of light and the stars. He was also called John of Alexandria, hence the picture. As a theologian he rejected the	Cornell University
John Philoponus	Council of Chalcedon	[http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0031-8108(199001)99%3A1%3C107%3APATROA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-J] and
	so was a figure in the	Stanford University
	Monophysitism	[http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/philoponus/]
	minority of Eastern Christianity.
Joseph Priestley	Nontrinitarianism	[http://online.sksm.edu/ouh/chapter/32_XXXII.html Starr King school for the ministry]
	clergyman who wrote the controversial work History of the Corruptions of Christianity. He is also credited with discovering
	. (Although
	Carl Wilhelm Scheele
	did so years before)
John Ray	An English botanist who wrote The Wisdom of God manifested in the Works of the Creation. (	University of California, Berkeley
	1691	[http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/ray.html] and [http://www.asa3.org/ASA/PSCF/1989/PSCF6-89Armstrong.html ASA]
	) The [http://www.jri.org.uk/ John Ray Initiative] of Environment and Christianity is also named for him.
*	He was a	[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13040a.htm Catholic Encyclopedia]
Giovanni Battista Riccioli	Jesuit
	and an
	. He extensively studied the
	, much of the nomenclature of lunar features still in use today is due to him. He was the first to measure the rate of acceleration of a falling body. In religion he taught theology and worked against the Copernican system in accordance with Church requirements of the era. Despite, or perhaps because of, that he named
	Copernicus crater
	which is the crater pictured.
Gaspar Schott	Jesuit who wrote Mechanica Hydraulio-pneumatica and gave an early description of a	[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13589a.htm Catholic Encyclopedia], [http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/jmac/sj/scientists/schott.htm Fairfield University], and [ University of Florida]
	Universal joint
	, object pictured. He also taught moral theology at the Jesuit college at
Anton Maria Schyrleus of Rheita	70px	Capuchin
		astronomer. He dedicated one of his astronomy books to
		Jesus Christ
		, a "theo-astronomy" work was dedicated to the
		Blessed Virgin Mary
		, and he wondered if beings on other planets were "cursed by
		original sin
		like humans are."
Nicolas Steno	Lutheran convert to Catholicism, his	[http://dlibrary.acu.edu.au/research/theology/ejournal/aejt_5/Sobiech.htm Australian E-Journal of Theology] and
	in that faith occurred in
*	Led to the development of	[ University of Florida], [http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/stifel.html Galileo Project at Rice University], and [http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Stifel.html McTutor]
Michael Stifel	Logarithm
	s, hence the picture. He was also among
	Martin Luther
	's earlier followers and wrote on Biblical prophecies.
Emanuel Swedenborg	His writing is the basis of the	[http://www.theheavenlydoctrines.org/ Swedenborgian site]
	religion and several of his theological works contained some science hypotheses.
*	He influenced the teaching of math and astronomy in church-ran schools.	[http://math.truman.edu/~thammond/history/Gerbert.html Truman University] and an article by William Wallace, O.P. Visiting Professor, Philosophy and History, Committee on History and Philosophy and Science at
Pope Sylvester II		University of Maryland, College Park
Samuel Vince	Cambridge astronomer and clergyman. He wrote Observations on the Theory of the Motion and Resistance of Fluids and The credibility of Christianity vindicated, in answer to Mr. Hume?s objections.	[http://www.royalsoc.ac.uk/page.asp?id=1794 Royal Society] and [http://www.thoemmes.com/18cphil/humeresp_relig.htm Thoemmes]
John Wilkins	He was a	[http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Wilkins.html McTutor]
	Bishop of Chester
	and wrote Mathematical Magick, or the wonders that may be performed by mechanical geometry.
Christopher Wren	He designed	[http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Wren.html McTutor]
	St Paul's Cathedral
	and held the
	Savilian Chair of Astronomy
	at Oxford. He spoke of astronomical arguments use in Biblical accounts, studied
	, and wrote on
	geometric progression
Nineteenth century to present

An exclamation point before the name indicates those who are still living.

Name	Image	Reason for inclusion
Charles Babbage	The	[http://www.victorianweb.org/science/science_texts/bridgewater/babbage_intro.htm Victorian Web] and
	Difference Engine
	and the Ninth Bridgewater Treatise.
!	A graduate of	Templeton Prize
Ian Barbour	Duke University	site.[http://www.templetonprize.org/bios_recent.html]
	, their logo is seen in the preceding image, who wrote Christianity and the Scientists in
	, and When Science Meets Religion ISBN 006060381X in
Ernest William Barnes	70px	Theologian and mathematician. He was
		Bishop of Birmingham
		. His The Rise of Christianity angered
		due to its
		outlook. In math he is linked to the
		Barnes G-function
		and wrote 29 papers before
!	70px	He is a former president of both the
R.J. Berry		Linnean Society of London
		and the Christians in Science group. He also wrote
Francesco Faa di Bruno	An Italian mathematician most linked to	[http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Faa_di_Bruno.html McTutor] and the Catholic Encyclopedia[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05740a.htm]
	. He is known for
	Faa di Bruno's formula
	and being a spiritual writer beatified in
William Buckland	Anglican priest/geologist who wrote Vindiciae Geologiae; or the Connexion of Geology with Religion explained.	University of Oxford
Georg Cantor	Lutheran	IUPUI
	who wrote on religious topics and had an interest in Medieval	[http://www.engr.iupui.edu/~orr/webpages/cpt120/mathbios/gcant.htm]
Teilhard de Chardin	A member of the	Fairfield University
	Society of Jesus	[http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/jmac/sj/scientists/teilhard.htm]
	, a
	linked to the finding of
	Peking Man
	, and a philosopher linked to the
	Omega Point
!	70px	Jesuit who works at the
Guy Consolmagno		Vatican Observatory
		and speaks on religion and science.(Image is of the
Charles Coulson	Methodist	[http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Coulson.html McTutor]
	who wrote Science and Christian Belief in 1955.
!	70px	Jesuit, Director of
George V. Coyne		Vatican Observatory
James Dwight Dana	Important figure in mineralogy and geology who won the	[http://www.geology.yale.edu/graduate/history.html Yale Geology Department] and the [http://www.gsajournals.org/gsaonline/?request=get-document&issn=1052-5173&volume=013&issue=02&page=0020 Gelogy Society of America]'s bio.
	Copley Medal
	. He also led Bible studies and played the piano for his church choir. On a different note his strong Protestant/Congregational background hindered his acceptance of evolution.
!	Mathematician, theologian, and	His own article.
William Dembski	Intelligent Design
!	70px	A scientist at
Laurance Doyle		SETI
		who argues that his faith,
		Christian Science
		, encouraged a scientific revolution.
Pierre Duhem	He worked on	[http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Duhem.html McTutor] and Scientist and Catholic: Pierre Duhem by
	Thermodynamic potentials	Stanley Jaki
	and wrote histories advocating that the	[http://pirate.shu.edu/~jakistan/JakisBooks/PierreDuhem.htm]
	Roman Catholic Church
	helped advance science.
Henry Eyring	Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints	National Academy of Sciences
	member whose interactions with LDS President	[http://www.nap.edu/html/biomems/heyring.html]
	Joseph Fielding Smith
	on science and faith are a part of LDS history.
Michael Faraday	A	BBC
	Glasite	[http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/faraday_michael.shtml] and[http://www.adherents.com/people/pf/Michael_Faraday.html Adherents.com]
	church elder for a time, he discussed the relationship of science to religion in a lecture opposing
Pavel Florensky	Russian Orthodox	Second paragraph of Page 26 in a paper from
	saint who wrote a book on	Middlesex University
	Dielectric	[]
	s and wrote of
	imaginary numbers
	having a relationship to the Kingdom of God.
!	Mennonite	Space.com[http://www.space.com/colleges/college_gingerich_profile_000921.html] and Cambridge Christians in Science.[http://www.st-edmunds.cam.ac.uk/cis/gingerich/index.html] The proceeding picture is of a house linked to
Owen Gingerich	who has written about people of faith in science history.	Menno Simons
Philip Henry Gosse	Marine biologist who wrote Aquarium (1854), and A Manual of Marine Zoology (1855-56). He is more famous, or infamous, as a Christian Fundamentalist who coined the idea of	University of Houston
	Omphalos (theology)	hosted article.[http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi1864.htm]
Asa Gray	His Gray's Manual remains a pivotal work in botany. His Darwiniana has sections titled "Natural selection not inconsistent with Natural theology", "Evolution and theology", and "Evolutionary teleology." The preface indicates his adherence to the	[http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext04/drwna10.txt Gutenberg text of Darwiniana] and [http://www.asa3.org/ASA/PSCF/2001/PSCF9-01Miles.html ASA]
	Nicene Creed
	in concerning these religious issues.
Edward Hitchcock	Geologist, paleontologist, and Congregationalist pastor. He worked on	[http://58.1911encyclopedia.org/H/HI/HITCHCOCK_EDWARD.htm 1911 encyclopedia] and
	Natural theology	Amherst College
	and was third President of	[http://www.amherst.edu/~rjyanco/amherst/history/1894tyler-ws/chapter07/menu.html#p1]
	Amherst College
	, it's seal is pictured.(Born in
	, but the work by him was done in the nineteenth century.
!	He is the co-chair of the	[http://www.cis.org.uk/about/vice_presidents.shtml Christians in Science]
John T. Houghton	Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
	and won a gold medal from the
	Royal Astronomical Society
	. He's also former Vice President of Christians in Science.
!	Benedictine	Seton Hall University
Stanley Jaki	who won a	site.[http://pirate.shu.edu/~jakistan/JakisBooks/SaviorOfScience.htm]
	Templeton Prize
	and advocates the idea modern science could only have arisen in a Christian society.
Lord Kelvin	He gave a famous address to the	Institute of Physics
	Christian Evidence Society	[http://physicsweb.org/articles/world/15/12/6] and his own article.
	. In science he won the
	Copley Medal
	, the
	Royal Medal
	, ans was important in
!	(Lutheran)	His website.[http://www-cs-faculty.stanford.edu/~knuth/316.html]
Donald Knuth	The Art of Computer Programming
	and 3:16 Bible Texts Illuminated (1991), ISBN 0895792524
Lars Levi Laestadius	A	[ University of Texas article pages 9 to 11]
	who started a revival movement within
	. This movement is among the strictest forms of Lutheranism. As a botanist he has the
	author citation
	Laest and discovered four species.
Henrietta Swan Leavitt	A minister's daughter and noted astronomer who was the head of	Miss Leavitt's Stars by George Johnson ISBN 0393051285
	Photometry (astronomy)
	at Harvard. (She is sometimes listed as Jewish due to her last name[http://www.adherents.com/people/100_scientists.html], but in least religiously this is misleading)
Georges Lemaitre	His advocacy of the	The New York Times
	Big Bang	[,+a+Catholic%22&hl=en]
	theory raised theological and credibility issues as he was a Catholic priest.
Matthew Fontaine Maury	Oceanographer who made many important new contributions to charting wind and ocean currents. Most of his writings and speeches included scriptural references. He was raised with this at dinner every night and he also created his own prayer that he used every day.	Scientists of Faith
		and his own Physical Geography of the Sea and its Meteorology.
James Clerk Maxwell	He wrote	[http://silas.psfc.mit.edu/Maxwell/maxwell.html MIT] and
	A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field	Scientists of Faith
	A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism
	, and has been listed as one of Britain's greatest scientists. The
	Bishop of Gloucester
	also consulted him on matters of faith and science.
Gregor Mendel	Augustinian	Catholic Encyclopedia.[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/10180b.htm]
	who argued in favor of his monastery during a taxation dispute.
!	A biology professor at	St. Petersburg Times
Kenneth R. Miller	Brown University	[http://www.sptimes.com/2005/11/05/State/Intelligent_design_ma.shtml]
	who wrote Finding Darwin's God ISBN 0060930497
!	70px	Anglican priest and
Arthur Peacocke		biochemist
		, whose ideas may have influenced Anglican and
		views of evolution.
Michael Polanyi	He was born Jewish, but became a	[http://www.asa3.org/ASA/PSCF/1980/JASA6-80Neidhardt.html ASA] and [http://www.chemonet.hu/polanyi/9601/after1.html Polyaniana]
	and was also married in a
	Roman Catholic Church
	. In
	he wrote Science, Faith, and Society ISBN 0226672905 (Merton College, where he had a fellowship, is pictured)
!	70px	Anglican
John Polkinghorne		priest
		who wrote Science and the Trinity (
		) ISBN 0300104456
George Stokes	A minister's son, he wrote a book on	Gifford Lectures
	Natural Theology	site.[http://www.giffordlectures.org/Author.asp?AuthorID=160][http://www.giffordlectures.org/Search.asp?PubID=TPNATT&Volume=0&Issue=0&ArticleID=1]
	. He was also one of the
	Presidents of the Royal Society
	and made contributions to
	Fluid dynamics
!	In	University of California, Berkeley
Charles Townes	1964	[http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2005/06/17_townes.shtml] and Templeton Prize's site.[http://www.templetonprize.org/townes_pressrelease.html]
	he won the
	Nobel Prize in Physics
	and in
	he wrote The Convergence of Science and Religion.
Henry Baker Tristram	A founding member of the	[http://www.dur.ac.uk/m.d.eddy/HoSinDurhamTristram.html University of Durham]
	British Ornithologists' Union
	. His publications included The Natural History of the Bible (1867) and The Fauna and Flora of Palestine (1884).
William Whewell	A professor of mineralogy and moral philosophy. He wrote An Elementary Treatise on Mechanics in	[http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2004/entries/whewell/#1 Stanford philosophy site] and [ Middlesex University article]
	and Astronomy and General Physics considered with reference to Natural Theology in
E. T. Whittaker	Converted to Catholicism in	[http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Whittaker.html McTutor]
	and member of the
	Pontifical Academy of Sciences
	. His
	Donnellan Lecture was entitled on Space and Spirit. Theories of the Universe and the Arguments for the Existence of God. He also received the
	Copley Medal
	and had written on
	Mathematical physics
	before conversion.
Dr. John Williams		A hydrologist who was chief of the land and water division of the	CSIRO
		Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
		, their logo is pictured. He is currently chief scientist for
		New South Wales
		's Department of Infrastructure Planning and Natural Resources (DIPNR). He is also a member of the
		Uniting Church in Australia
		who did formal study in theology.
Theodor Wulf	About the radiation of high penetration capacity contained in the atmosphere, taught at the pictured	[http://neutrino.phys.washington.edu/~berns/WALTA/hess/wulf_1909_transl.html Physics article by him]
	, and was a Jesuit who taught at a Jesuit school.
Negatives and critical appraisals

Science or Scientists repressed by Christians

The Academy of Athens
-Closed by Christians.

Comte de Buffon
-Catholic officials burned his books for suggesting the Earth could be as much as 75,000 years old.

Galileo Galilei
-Excommunicated for heliocentrism.

-Repressed by the Catholic Church.

Hypatia of Alexandria
-Killed by a Christian mob.

Library of Alexandria
-Destroyed in a purging of paganism.

George Jackson Mivart
-Active convert excommunicated for his views on faith and science.

Michael Servetus
-Killed by Calvinists for being a unitarian.

Links skeptical of Christians role in science

[http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v394/n6691/full/394313a0_fs.html Leading scientists still reject God]

[http://www.secularhumanism.org/index.php?section=library&page=avalos_18_4 Secular Humanism.org article on Science and Religion]

[http://www.positiveatheism.org/writ/huascar.htm Positive Atheism article critical of Lemaitre]

See also

Scientists of Faith
-An article relating to the book Scientists of Faith by Dan Graves ISBN 082542724X

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