Early teachers * Leonard Howell * Sam Brown (Rastafari) * Vernon Carrington * Charles Edwards * Mortimer Planner Music * Bob Marley, (1945-1981) musician and singer * David Marley, (born 1968), musician and singer * Peter Tosh, (1944-1987) * Winston Rodney, (born 1948) musician and singer * Joseph Hill musician and singer * Prince Lincoln Thompson 1949-1998 Musician and composer * Cedric Myton composer and musician * Buju Banton, (born 1973), dancehall and ragga musician and singer Other * Benjamin Zephaniah English poet * Nandor Tanczos, (born 1966), New Zealand politician * Ben Hana, New Zealand personality
Historical * Siddhasen Diwakar - ancient scholar * Devchandra - Monk * Som Sundar - 14th Century monk * Muni Sundar - 14th Century monk * Acharya Tulsiji - Jain Saint * Bhadrabahu - Jain Saint from Bengal * Haribhadrasuri - 12th Century philosopher * Shrimad Rajchandra - 19th Century philosopher/mystic Politicians * L.M. Singhavi - Former Indian Ambassador to UK, Member of Parliament Entertainment * Suraj Barjatya - Film Producer and Director, Mumbai, India * Charles Thompson - Rock Musician * Ravindra Jain - Music Director, Mumbai, India * Pallavi Kasliwal - Magician * Michael Tobias - Producer, Director and Writer, Hollywood * Claudia Pastorino - Pop Singer and Writer, Italy Sports * Deepak Chougule - Cricketer * Chandra Mehta - Ping-pong champion Authors * Shrenik Annadate - Editor and Scholar, Mumbai, India * Pierre Amiel - Writer and Activist, France * Yashwant Malaiya - Living Encyclopedia of Jainism, Colorado, USA * S.A. Bhuvanendra Kumar - Jain Scholar and Editor, Canada * Dr. Hemlata Pokharna - Scholar and Doctor, Chicago, USA Other * Smt. Indumati Awade - first woman to found Asia's first co-operative * Kallappa Anna Awade - Leading personality in Co-Operative movement * Dr. Kalyan Gangwal - Jain Activist, Pune, India * Shri Veerendra Heggade - Dharmadhikari, Dharmsthal * Dr. Urjita Jain - Medical Industrialist * Smt. Indu Jain - Businessperson and Jain Activist, New Delhi, India * Bapusaheb Patil - Industrialist and activist, Mumbai, India * Milind Phade - Social worker, Pune, India * Dr. Tansukh Salgia - Jain Activist, USA * Asulal Sancheti - Guinness Book of Records Holder
List of transhumanists From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The following is a list of people who have identified themselves as advocates of transhumanism. Some Transhumanists include: * Alexander Chislenko * Anders Sandberg * Antero Coelho Neto * Bruce Klein * Dale Carrico * David Brin * David Pearce * Edward Smith * Eliezer Yudkowsky * Erik Aronesty * Eugen Leitl * FM-2030 * FM-2030 * George Dvorsky * Giulio Prisco * Greg Bear * Hans-Georg Michna * James Hughes * John Hickman * John K. Davis * Jose Cordeiro [José Cordeiro] * Justice De Thezier [Justice De Thßzier] * Keith Henson * Klaus Jaffe * Mark Alan Walker * Max More * Michael Anissimov * Natasha Vita-More * Nick Bostrom * Pablo Stafforini * Padraic I. M. MacUidhir [Pádraic I. M. MacUidhir] * Ray Kurzweil * Robert A. Freitas Jr. * Robert Pepperell * Robin Green * Santiago Ochoa * Tyler Emerson
Messianic Jews and Hebrew Christians are mostly persons who consider themselves to be Jewish by birth, ancestry, or culture, but believe that Jesus (whom Messianic Jews generally call Yeshua) is the Messiah, a position rejected by all recognized branches of Judaism. The two movements are distinct but have certain similarities, and there is some overlap between them. Members of congregations and organizations specifically affiliated to the self-described Messianic Jewish movement, which seeks to express its faith in Yeshua in ways that are recognizably Jewish, generally call themselves Messianic Jews. On the other hand, many Catholic and Protestant congregations have members of Jewish birth or ancestry who continue to regard themselves as ethnic Jews: these are generally known as Hebrew Christians, Jewish Christians, or Christian Jews. Although the distinction between Messianic Jews and Hebrew Christians is not rigid, and some persons (such as Moishe Rosen) self-identify in both categories, there are enough differences between the two movements to regard them as separate.
Messianic Jews * Jonathan Bernis - evangelist. * Ron Cantor - evangelist, now based in Israel. Associated with the Brownsville Revival in Pensacola, Florida. * Asher Intrater - Formerly known as Keith Intrater, he is an evangelist and theologian, now based in Israel. * Dan Juster - leading Messianic theologian. (He is also widely respected as a theologian by many Pentecostal and Charismatic Christians, but is firmly in the Messianic camp). * Larry Feldman - evangelist. Associated with Chosen People Ministries and Rabbi of Congregation Shuvah Yisrael. * Joel Chernoff - General Secretary of the MJAA, and lead singer of the music group "Lamb". * Martin "Marty" Waldman - past president of UMJC, founder of Toward Jerusalem Council II (TJC II), Congregational Leader of Baruch HaShem Messianic Synagogue in Dallas, Texas. * Mitch Glazer - evangelist, President of Chosen People Ministries, former head of Jews for Jesus Hebrew Christians * Boris Berezovsky - exiled Russian billionaire (converted to Russian Orthodoxy) * Niels Bohr - Danish physicist; (raised Lutheran; mother Jewish) * Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield - British Prime Minister (1868; 1874-1880) (raised as an Anglican) * Malcolm Fraser - Prime Minister of Australia (1975-1983) (raised Presbyterian; mother Jewish). * Helen Harris - founder member of Spiritual matters for women and their families; Messianic Jew by birth. * Jean-Marie Lustiger - Catholic Cardinal and Archbishop of Paris * Alexander Men - Russian Orthodox priest and martyr. * Felix Mendelssohn - composer (1809-1847) * Bernard Nathanson - former abortionist turned pro-life activist. Converted to Catholicism. * Robert Novak - journalist; convert to Catholicism; calls himself a "cultural Jew." * Harry Oppenheimer - South African billionaire (converted to Anglicanism) * Saul of Tarsus, Hellenized Jew, disciple of Jesus * Howard Phillips - American conservative activist; founder of U.S. Taxpayers Party / Constitution Party * Jay Sekulow - Runs conservative legal group ACLJ. * Karl Stern (1906-1975) - neuropsychiatrist and author, convert to Catholicism. Author of Pillar of Fire (1951). * Stan Telchin - author. (Formerly a Messianic Jew, but has since written a book and articles critical of the Messianic movement.) * Yochanan Ben Yehuda - A Nashville, TN based Italian producer. * Mordechai Vanunu - Israeli nuclear technician * Richard Wurmbrand (1909-2001) - Romanian underground church leader; founder of Voice of the Martyrs. * Israel Zolli - Chief Rabbi of Rome; converted to Catholicism Marginal (Persons who use both labels to describe themselves) * Michael Brown - writer and theologian; for several years he was one of the leaders of the Brownsville Revival centered on the Brownsville Assembly of God in Pensacola, Florida. * Arnold Fruchtenbaum - theologian, founder of Ariel Ministries * Zola Levitt - author and televangelist * Steve Myers - conservative political commentator, founder of Radio Steve and The American Renewal Foundation, and publisher of Page One News and From Here to Reality. Once trained as a rabbi; became Christian in 1982. * Moishe Rosen - founder of Jews for Jesus * Jonathan Sarfati - scientist and young earth creationist author and apologist.
Testimony group #3, STORIES BEHIND BOOKS, HYMNS, MOVIES, ORGANIZATIONS, EVENTS, HOLIDAYS, etc.:
Beauty insulted [here]: "Just As I Am"
Biker vs. preacher [here]
Bethel College football team motto, "Love God, hit hard" [here]...all are Christians!
"Daddy-boy's" girl: "One Day at a former slave sells slaves [here]: "Amazing Grace"
After the fire, the ship sank [here]: "It is Well With My Soul"
Writing the book changed his life [here]: movie, "Ben-Hur"
Journey to the Cross, Northside Baptist Church, West Columbia, S. C. [here]
This Man Called Jesus, Lake Murray Baptist Church, Lexington Co., S. C. [here]
Behold The Lamb, First Baptist Church of Batesburg, S. C. [here]
In Touch Ministries 26+ portraits of famous believers
Aaron Eckhart Aaron Holker Aaron Ruell Aaron Shamy Abraham H. Cannon Abraham O. Smoot Abraham O. Woodruff Abraham Owen Smoot Adam S. Bennion Alan Ashby Alatini Saulala Albert Carrington Albert E. Bowen Aldon Junior Anderson Aleisha Cramer Rose Alexander Hale Smith Alfred William Brunt Alice Smith Merrill Horne Alma Richards Alonzo A. Hinckley Alpheus Cutler Amasa M. Lyman Andrea Wine Andrew C. Peterson Andy Reid Anne Perry Annie Thurman Anthon H. Lund Anthony Geary Anthony W. Ivins Anton Palepoi April Steiner Art Acord Art Lund Arthur Vivian Watkins Article B.J. Flores Barry Bonnell Bart Oates Ben Cahoon Benjamin Winchester Berkeley Lloyd Bunker Bernard DeVoto Bert McCracken Betty Eadie Bill Bates Billy Barton Billy Barty Billy Casper Bo Gritz Bo Paraha Bob Bennett Boyd K. Packer Brady Udall Brain Call Branden Steineckert Brandon Doman Brandon Flowers Brandon Lyon Brandon Manumaleuna Brandyn Akana Breanne Sandberg Brent Scowcroft Brett Helquist Brian Banks Brian Crane Brian David Mitchell Brigham Henry Roberts Brigham Young Bruce Carlson Bruce Charles Thompson Bruce Hurst Bruce R. McConkie Bruce Summerhays Bruce Webster Buck McKeon Bucky Bradford Butch Cassidy Calvin Lewellyn Rampton Carl McGown Carmen Rasmusen Casey Jacobsen Category Cecil Heftel Cecil Landau Heftel Chad Hermansen Chad Lewis Charles A. Callis Charles C. Rich Charles Rendell Mabey Charles Roscoe Savage Charles W. Penrose Charlie Clinger Chris Burgess Chris Cannon Chris Hoke Chris Lybbert Christian Whitmer Clair Walter Burgener Cory Snyder Creed Haymond Cyrus Edwin Dallin D. B. Cooper D. Michael Quinn Dale D. Smith Dale Murphy Dallin H. Oaks Dan Blocker Dan Forsman Dane Iorg Daniel H. Wells Daniel Hanmer Wells Daniel P. Jones Daniel Rona Danny Ainge Danny White Dave Veres Dave Wolverton David A. Bednar David Abbott "Ab" Jenkins David B. Haight David Bruce Haight David Calder David Hoffman David King Udall David L. Bush David M. Kennedy David Neeleman David O. McKay David Sjodahl King David W. Patten David Whitmer David Zindell Dean Jagger Dee Picket Delbert L. Stapley Delwin Morgan Clawson Dieter F. Uchtdorf Disclaimers Discussion Don Bluth Don Kirkham Don Leo Jonathan Donald James Cannon Donations Donny Osmond Douglas R. Stringfellow Earl Bascom Ed Roth Edwin Catmull Edwin Mulitalo Elaine S. Dalton Elbert Duncan Thomas Eldridge Cleaver Elijah Abel Eliza Dushku Eliza Roxcy Snow Elizabeth Jackson Elizabeth Smart Emma Hale Smith Emma Lee French Eni Faleomavaega Erastus Snow Eric Hipple Eric Larson Ernest Istook Ernest James Istook, Jr. Ezra Taft Benson Famous Mormons Fawn M. Brodie Fay Wray Francis M. Lyman Francis W. Cash Frank Edward Moss Frank Evans Frank Jenne Cannon Franklin D. Richards Fred Roberts Fred Sanford Frederick Madison Smith G. Margaret Marr Garrett Stephenson Garth Iorg Gary Johnson Gary Kurtz Gary L. Crittenden Gene Fullmer George A. Smith George Albert Smith George Dewey Clyde George Franklin Richards George M. Hinkle George Q. Cannon George Q. Morris George Quayle Cannon George Stoneman George Teasdale George Vernon Hansen George W. Romney George Wilcken Romney George Woolf Gifford Nielsen Gifford Nielson Gladys Knight Glen A. Larson Glen Titensor Glenn Beck Gordon B. Hinckley Gordon Harold Smith Gordon Jump Gordon Smith Grant MacFarlane Greg Clark Gutzon Borglum Guy Cash Hal Ashby Hamer Harold Budge Harmon Killebrew Harold B. Lee Harry M. Reid Harry Reid Harvey Fletcher Heber C. Kimball Heber J. Grant Heber Manning Wells Helmuth Hubener Henry B. Eyring Henry D. Moyle Henry Eyring Henry Grow Herreys Hiram Page Hosea Stout Howard Philip McKeon Howard W. Hunter Howard Walter Cannon Hugh B. Brown Hugh Nibley Hyrum M. Smith Hyrum Smith Ina Coolbrith Isaac Albert Smoot Itula Mili Ivy Baker Priest J. Nicholas Udall J. Reuben Clark J. Willard Marriott J.W. Marriott Jr. Jack Anderson Jack Dempsey Jack Kowal Jack Yerman Jacob Whitmer Jake Garn James Adams James C. Christensen James E. Faust James E. Talmage James Henry Moyle James Strang James Vear Hansen James William Robinson Jane Clayson Jared Hess Jaret Wright Jarinn Akana Jason Brockman Jason Buck Jason Johnson Jason Ray Jason W. Briggs Jay North Jedediah M. Grant Jedediah Morgan Grant Jeff Flake Jeff Kent Jeff Lindsay Jeffery Max Jones Jeffrey Max Jones Jeffrey R. Holland Jeremy Guthrie Jeremy Jones Jericho Road Jerry Thomas Twiggs Jesse Addison Udall Jessica Holmes Jewel Jim Gibbons Jim Gott Jim Jannard Jim Matheson Jimmy "Super Fly" Snuka Jimmy Osmond Joe Tuipala John "Cat" Thompson John A. Widtsoe John Browning John Bytheway John Christopher Cutler John D. Fitzgerald John D. Lee John Doolittle John E. Page John F. Boynton John Gilbert John Henry Smith John Milton Bernhisel John O. Whitaker Jr. John R. Winder John Smith John Tait John Taylor John Taylor Doolittle John W. Shawcroft John Whitmer John Whittaker Taylor John Willard Young Johnny Longden Johnny Miller Jon Heder Jon Huntsman Jon Huntsman Utah Jon Huntsman Jr. Jon Peter Lewis Jonathan C. Coon Joseph B. Wirthlin Joseph F. Merrill Joseph F. Smith Joseph Fielding Smith Joseph Smith III Joseph Smith Jr. Joseph Smith Sr. Joshua Reuben Clark, Jr. Julie Stoffer Junior Ione Justin Wilcock Karl Maesar Karl-Heinz Schnibbe Katherine Heigl Katie Herman Keith Clearwater Keith Russell Keith Russell Head coach Kelly Downs Kelly Wiglesworth Ken Hubbs Ken Hunt Ken Jennings Kenneth Warren Dyal Keri Russell Kevin B. Rollins Kevin Curtis Kieth Merrill Kim Peek Kimball Kjar Kip Thorne Koln Gunn McKay Kristen Rasmussen Kyle Farnsworth Kyle Turley Kyle Whittingham L. Tom Perry La Monte Young Larry H. Miller Larry Nelson III Larry Scott Laurel Thatcher Ulrich Laurence Junior Burton Lavina Fielding Anderson Lee Johnson LeGrand Richards Leonard J. Arrington Les Hulet Levi Stewart Udall Lewis Field Lino Brocka Liriel Domiciano Lorenzo Snow Luis "Louie" Gomez Luke S. Johnson Luke Staley Lyman E. Johnson Lyman Wight M. Russell Ballard Maggie Germane Makoa Freitas Marc Wilson Maren Ord Marie Osmond Marie Windsor Marion G. Romney Mark "Mad Dog" Madsen Mark E. Petersen Mark Hofman Mark Hofmann Mark Pope Mark Schultz Marriner W. Merrill Martha Maria Hughes Cannon Martin Harris Marvin Goldstein Marvin J. Ashton Matthew Cowley Matthew James Salmon Matthew Modine Matthias F. Cowley Maude Adams McKay Christensen Melanie Kosoff Melvin Dummar Melvin J. Ballard Merlin Olsen Merlin Olson Merrill Hoge Meshach Tenney Michael Dean Crapo Michael O. Leavitt Michael Okerlund Leavitt Michelle Shocked Mick Ronson Mikal Gilmore Mike Allred Mike Crapo Mike Fetters Mike Leavitt Mike Reid Mike Simpson Milton "Tita" Queiroz Mitch Davis Mitt Romney Morris King Udall Moses Thatcher N. Eldon Tanner Natacha Rambova Nathan Baldwin Neal A. Maxwell Neil LaBute Neleh Dennis Nelson G. Tisdale Nolan Bushnell Norman David Shumway Olene S. Walker Olive Osmond Oliver Cowdery Orrice Abram Murdock, Jr. Orrin Grant Hatch Orrin Hatch Orson F. Whitney Orson Hyde Orson Pratt Orson Scott Card Orson Spencer Orval Carl Finkbeiner Parley P. Pratt Paul Bishop Paul D. Boyer Paul Ruth Paul Walker Paula Hawkins Peter Vidmar Peter Whitmer Jr. Phil Tuckett Philo T. Farnsworth Porter Rockwell Quentin V. Anderson Randy Thorsteinson Raymond Knight Rebecca Pendlebury Reed Smoot Rendell N. Mabey Rex Ellsworth Richard Bushman Richard Dutcher Richard G. Scott Richard Howard Stallings Richard L. Evans Richard L. King Richard Marriott Richard Nelson Swett Richard Paul Evans Richard R. Lyman Rick Schroder Rob Bishop Rob Morris Robert D. Hales Robert F. Bennett Robert Foster Bennett Robert Hudson Walker Robert L. Millet Robert LeGrand Backman Robert S. Stevens Rocky Anderson Ron Brand Ron Fellows Ron Wright Ronald C. Packard Rose Marie Reid Roy Halladay Rudger Clawson Rudolf Wobbe Rulon Gardner Rulon Jones Russ Tamblyn Russell M. Nelson Ryan Gosling Saints Unified Voices Samuel Brannan Samuel Harrison Smith Sandy Petersen Scott Brumfield Scott Bunker Scott Mitchell Scott Pollard Sean Salisbury Shakeh Crowfoot Shawn Bradley Shawn Davis Shawn Estes Sheldon Rampton Sheri L. Dew Sidney Rigdon Skouson Harker Solon Borglum Spencer Adams Spencer W. Kimball Stanley F. Turley Stephen Covey Stephen L. Richards Steve Benson Steve Young Stewart Lee Udall Sylvester Q. Cannon Ted Wilson Terrel Howard Bell Terry Moore Terry Rooney Terry Tempest Williams Thomas B. Marsh Thomas S. Monson Thomas W. Murphy Thurl Bailey Tim Hanshaw Todd Christensen Todd Heap Todd Miller Tom Chambers Tom Udall Tommie Sisk Tracy Hickman Travis Hall Travis Knight Travis Walton Trent Harris Trevor Matich Ty Detmer Vai Sikahema Vance Law Vernon Hatton Vernon Law Vernon Romney Victor Cline Virginia Sorensen Wallace Foster Bennett Wally Herger Wally Joyner Walter William Herger Warren Parrish Warren Zevon Wayne LeRoy Sandberg Wilford Brimley Wilford Woodruff Willard Richards William E. McLellin William Harrison Folsom William Henry Hooper William Henry King William J. Flake William Marks William Orton William Smith William Spry William W. Phelps Zenna Henderson Zenos H. Gurley Sr. Zina D. H. Young
Latter-day Saints from google.com search of www.cnn.com politicians and cgi.cnn.com, "Religion: Mormon": Merrill Cook Chris Cannon/Christopher B. Cannon Harry Reid Mike Simpson Gordon Smith Ron Packard Ernest Istook Howard P. "Buck" McKeon Richard H. Stallings John T. Doolittle Matt Salmon Trice Harvey Howard McKeon George Landrith III James Walker (Texas) Michael D. Crapo Horace Thayn James V. Hansen/James Hansen Bill Orton Merrill Cook Dick Swett Gregory Sanders Leonard L. Boswell (RLDS)
******* Protestant ******* Bernard Albinus Johann Conrad Barchusen Benjamin Bramer Charles de L'Ecluse Gerardus Mercator Robert Recorde Adam Zaluzanskyze Zaluzan ******* Unknown ******* Sebastian Basso Cassegrain Cassegrain Louis Gayant Claude Hardy Pierre Herigone Andre Du Laurens Jacques-Alex. LeTenneur Otto Tachenius Phillipp Ulstad ******* Heterodox ******* Girolamo Borro Pierre Michon Bourdelot Giordano Bruno Thomas Burnet Campanella Tommaso Andrea Cesalpino Samuel Clarke Edmond Halley Thomas Harriot Thomas Hobbes Guy de LaBrosse Guillaume Lamy John Locke Benoit de Maillet Isaac Newton Archibald Pitcairn Michael Servetus Alexander Suchten Giulio Cesare Vanini William Whiston Jacopo Zabarella http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/borro.html Girolamo Borro Religion Affiliation: Catholic, Heterodox In 1567 he was implicated in the third heresy trial of Pietro Carnesecchi. In 1582, he again had difficulties with the Roman Inquisition, but was freed through the intercession of Pope Gregory XIII. It seems clear that he held heterodox views, undoubtedly (considering other elements in his career) naturalistic, Aristotelian ones, perhaps reminiscent of Pomponazzi, and that he was saved from their consequences only because he had the protection of the Pope and the Grand Duke. http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/bourdlot.html Pierre Michon Bourdelot Religion Affiliation: Catholic, Heterodox In light of Bourdelot's heritage on his mother's side, there is room for ambiguity. Moreover, he required a special dispensation from the Pope to hold the Abbey of Mace. However, this is explained by the fact that Bourdelot was not ordained, and there would surely have been some comment had the Pope granted a dispensation for a Protestant to hold the income from an abbey. Because of Mace, Bourdelot is called the Abbe Bourdelot. In fact he is said to have been an avowed atheist. http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/bruno.html Giordano Bruno Religion Affiliation: Catholic, Heterodox Bruno entered the Dominican order in 1563. Even during his novitiate, a case had been drawn against him, because he had given away some images of saints, retaining for himself only a crucifix, and again because he had advised a fellow- novice to throw The Seven Delights of the Madonna aside and take rather The Lives of the Fathers or some such book. But the deposition was merely intended to terrify him, and the same day was torn up by the Prior. In 1576, however, the suspicions of his superiors took a more active turn. He was told that the Provincial was proceeding against him for fresh heresy, and was reviving the affair of his novitiate. Bruno left Naples while the process was pending, and went to Rome. His accusers did not leave him in peace, however, a process against him was threatened at Rome with 130 articles. He escaped from Rome, abandoning his Dominican order and casting its habit aside. In Germany, Bruno got into difficulties with a Protestant pastor at Helmstedt who excommunicated him. Soon after he retuned to Italy, he was accused of heresy against the Catholic faith, arrested at Venice on 23 May 1592, and eventually burned in Rome on 17 February 1600. http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/burnet.html Thomas Burnet Religion Affiliation: Anglican, Heterodox The treatment of Scripture in Archaeologiae philosophicae, 1692, forced Burnet to retire from his appointment at the court. Upon the death of Tillotson he was passed over for the Archbishopric of Canterbury because of doubts about his orthodoxy. Toward the end of his life he composed De fide et officiis christianorum and De statu mortuorum, more or less deistic books which Burnet forebore to publish during his life, although they were published after his death. http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/campnela.html Campanella Tommaso Religion Affiliation: Catholic, Heterodox In May 1592 (or perhaps 91) he was denounced to the Inquisition for heresy and was confined to the Convent of San Domenico (in Venice). Thus began a long series of imprisonments, trials, tortures, and other punishment that ended only with his release in 1629. In 1634 the Inquisition discovered yet another plot in Naples by one of Campanella's followers and Campanella was implicated. He fled Rome before he could be arrested. Perhaps it is wrong to list him as heterodox. Campanella always considered himself a Catholic. Nevertheless, he was in trouble with the Inquisition through virtually his entire life. http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/ceslpino.html Andrea Cesalpino Religion Affiliation: Catholic, Heterodox Cesalpino's philosophical views tended toward naturalism. He was frequently denounced for heretical ideas, though he was careful and was therefore never prosecuted. http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/clarke.html Samuel Clarke Religion Affiliation: Anglican, Heterodox Clarke's Arianism became evident in his Scripture-Doctrine of the Trinity, 1712. He was nearly defrocked by Convocation until he recanted and agreed to remain silent on the question. The book aroused a controversy that lasted until his death. He had a handful of followers who defended him, and in fact, despite his promise, he entered the controversy anonymously a couple of times. No one doubts that he continued to hold Arian views. http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/halley.html Edmond Halley Religion Affiliation: Anglican, Heterodox All of the smoke about his heterodox views must have come from some fire, though there is cause to suspect that the extent of his free-thinking has been exaggerated. However, it does seem clear that Halley questioned (or better rejected) the universal authority of Scripture--for example, in his famous paper on the cause of the deluge and in his calculation of the age of the earth from the salinity of the sea, which yielded an age well beyond the accepted Scriptural chronology. http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/harriot.html Thomas Harriot Religion Affiliation: Anglican, Heterodox During his lifetime there were all sorts of stories about Harriot's atheism, centering on the charge that he challenged the universal authority of Scripture. There seems to be no doubt that he held atomistic views, which had the potential at least to be in conflict with orthodoxy. Nevertheless, I list Heterodoxy with grave doubts. Neither I nor anyone else has been able to find solid evidence to support the rumors. The rumors themselves began with a Jesuit diatribe of 1592 against the religious order in England; that hardly increases my confidence in the truth of the rumors. http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/hobbes.html Thomas Hobbes Religion Affiliation: Anglican, Heterodox Hobbes advanced a secular philosophy which insisted, inter alia, on the subjection of church to state. He was vigorously anti-clerical, and he was skeptical about the plenary truth of Scripture. Nevertheless, Hobbes remained within the Anglican Church and took its sacraments. Despite the label of atheist, which was freely applied to him, the exact extent of his heterodoxy is impossible to determine. http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/labrosse.html Guy de LaBrosse Religion Affiliation: Calvinist, (Cth,) Heterodox Various evidence makes it clear that La Brosse's parents were Huguenots. Although formally Catholic, La Brosse was very close to libertine circles in Paris during the first half of the 17th century. http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/lamy_gui.html Guillaume Lamy Religion Affiliation: Catholic (assumed), Heterodox Bayle, who was not picky, considered him an extreme epciurean. http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/locke.html John Locke Religion Affiliation: Anglican, Heterodox Locke's parents were stern Puritans, but he himself began to shuck off the received faith while he was at Westminster, and was never a Puritan after school days. At the Restoration, he conformed without hesitation and went on to be a Latitudinarian. Cranston asserts that after 1688 Locke went beyond Latitudinarianism to Socinianism. See especially The Reasonableness of Christianity, 1695. Locke insisted, apparently even to himself, that he was still Anglican; however, he did publish Reasonableness anonymously. http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/maillet.html Benoit de Maillet Religion Affiliation: Catholic, Heterodox His system was materialistic, and it denied that the Biblical chronology could be correct. http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/newton.html Isaac Newton Religion Affiliation: Anglican, Heterodox Newton was born into the Anglican church and publicly conformed to it. At about thirty, he convinced himself that Trinitarianism was a fraud and that Arianism was the true form of primitive Christianity. Newton held these views, very privately, until the end of his life. On his death bed he refused to receive the sacrament of the Anglican church. http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/pitcairn.html Archibald Pitcairn Religion Affiliation: Anglican, Heterodox The family tradition was episcopalian. Pitcairn was an outspoken Jacobite after 1689. Because of his satires against the Calvinist Kirk, Pitcairn came to be reputed an atheist. Authorities seem to think that he was indeed a deist. http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/servetus.html Michael Servetus Religion Affiliation: Catholic, Heterodox At the age of fifteen Servetus entered the service of a Franciscan friar, Juan de Quintana, an Erasmian. He was already spreading arianism by 1530. In 1531 he published De trinitatis erroribus and in 1532 De trinitate. As a result of these two works he had to live under the pseudonym, Michel de Villeneuve. In 1553 he published another arian, pantheistic book, Christianismi restitutio, which led first to his condemnation by the Inquisition in France, and then, after he escaped, to his execution at the stake in Geneva. http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/suchten.html Alexander Suchten Religion Affiliation: Catholic, Heterodox He was excommunicated from the Catholic Church in 1545. In the 50's he became an Aryan (does this mean Socinian?) http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/vanini.html Giulio Cesare Vanini Religion Affiliation: Catholic, Heterodox Vanini became a Carmelite friar about 1603. When studying in Padua, Vanini showed himself unambiguously in favor of Venice in the republic's dispute with the Papacy. The general of his order commanded him to return to the house in Naples, where he would have been disciplined, probably severely. Instead Vanini sought refuge with the English ambassador to Venice in 1612, and he went secretly to England where he publicly renounced Catholicism. Already in 1613 the English experience had paled, and he appealed to the Pope to be received back in the Church, not as a friar, but as a secular priest. The request was granted by the Pope himself. When the Archbishop of Canterbury learned of Vanini's plans, he had him imprisoned, but Vanini succeeded in escaping to France. Well before this Vanini had been flirting with radical ideas, which found expression in two books published in France. He is known as the prince of libertins. He was accused of atheism. Whatever the truth of this, there seems no doubt that he held radically heterodox opinions. He advanced a naturalistic philosophy according to which the world is eternal and governed by immanent laws. For him all of nature with its immanent laws is what divine providence means. He held that the human soul, which is similar to animal souls is mortal. For these ideas Vanini's book was condemned and three years later, in 1619, known under the pseudonym, Pompeo Uciglio, he was savagely executed in Toulouse. http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/whiston.html William Whiston Religion Affiliation: Anglican, Heterodox At the time he was ordained Whiston was nearly a nonjuror. During the following fifteen years he moved over into Arianism. Because he was not formally excommunicated, he nevertheless remained an Anglican until 1747, when he left the church and became a Baptist. ******* Sect ******* Govard Bidloo Adam of Bodenstein Cornelius Drebbel James Logan Thomas Newcomen http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/bidloo.html Govard Bidloo Religion Affiliation: Sect, Calvinist Both his parents were Dutch Baptists. Bidloo's career, and the lack of any comment about his religion make it evident that he learned to adhere to the established Calvinist church. http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/adam.html Adam of Bodenstein Religion Affiliation: Sect Son of Andreas Bodenstein, professor? theologian, visionary (i.e., the father was). Adam appears to have shared much of his religious outlook. http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/drebbel.html Cornelius Drebbel Religion Affiliation: Anabaptist http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/logan.html James Logan Religion Affiliation: Sect Friends--classify as Sect. [Quaker] http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/newcomen.html Thomas Newcomen Religion Affiliation: Sect Newcomen's grandfather and father were nonconformists. He himself was a leader of the Baptists of his locality, who frequently preached in their congregations.
This is a list of notable people, whether contemporary, historical or legendary, who are or were involved in any of the following practices and traditions: * paranormal or supernatural magic, black or white * witchcraft * sorcery * wizardry * alchemy * practical mysticism * voodoo * divination and fortune-telling * theurgy Ancient world: * Apollonius of Tyana, wizard * Apuleius, author of a magical novel * Elymas, Jewish magus who opposed Paul on Cyprus * Heraclitus, philosopher important in occultism * Hermes Trismegistus/Thoth * Iamblichus, neo-platonist philosopher, espoused theurgy * Iannes and Mambres, magicians at Pharaoh's court mentioned in the New Testament * Julian, practiced occult theurgy * Plato, philosopher important in occultism * Plotinus, neo-platonist philosopher important in occultism * Pythagoras, philosopher important in occultism * Simon Magus, magician mentioned in New Testament * The Witch of Endor, Biblical witch and spirit medium Medieval Europe: * Abraham Abulafia, kabalist "messiah" * Gilles de Rais, serial killer accused of sorcery * Merlin, (probably fictional) Arthurian wizard * Nicholas Flamel, alchemist * Ramon Llull, syncretic mystic Renaissance: * Abramelin the Mage, alleged author of a grimoire * Francesco Giuseppe Borri, alchemist * Sir Thomas Browne, hermetic author * Arthur Dee, hermetic author * Athanasius Kircher, Jesuit priest, wrote on magical subjects * Benevenuto Cellini, sculptor whose diary relates experience summoning spirits * Christina of Sweden, abdicated Queen who dabbled in alchemy * Giordano Bruno, occult philosopher * Edward Kelley, medium who assisted John Dee * Faust, made a pact with the Devil * Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa, occult philosopher, astrologer * Henry Percy, "Wizard Earl" * Johannes Reuchlin, German cabalist magician, summoned angels * Johann Weyer (aka Johannes Wierus), German physician, occultist and demonologist. * Dr John Dee, seer, astrologer, and occult philosopher * Nostradamus, soothsayer, seer, astrologer * Olaus Borrichius, alchemist * Paracelsus, medical pioneer and occult philosopher * Robert Fludd, occult philosopher and astrologer * Sir Walter Raleigh, practiced alchemy * Rudolph II, Holy Roman Emperor, employed alchemists * Johannes Trithemius, cryptographer and magical writer Enlightenment and early modern period: * Adam Weishaupt, founder of the Illuminati * Antoine Court de Gebelin, connected tarot and esotericism * Martines de Pasqually, theurgist founder of the Ordre des Chevliers Macons Elus Coens de l'Univers [Ordre des Chevliers Maçons Elus Coéns de l'Univers] * Louis Claude de Saint Martin, founder of martinism, writer known as the Unknown Philosopher * "La Voisin", French sorceress * Count of St Germain, alchemist * Etteila, fortune-teller * Francoise Athenais Rochechouart [Françoise Athenaïs Rochechouart], marquise de Montespan, another royal mistress * Giuseppe Balsamo, "Count Alessandro di Cagliostro," occult charlatan * Sir Isaac Newton, physicist and alchemist * Isobel Gowdie, self-confessed witch * Margaret Matson, New Sweden (colony) witch * Matthew Hopkins, commissioned English witch-finder Nineteenth century: * Algernon Blackwood, member of the *Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn * Allan Kardec, founder of Spiritism * Arthur Machen, member of the *Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn * Marie-Anne Le Normand, fortune-teller favoured by Josephine de Beauharnais [Joséphine de Beauharnais] * Alexis-Vincent-Charles Berbiguier de Terre-Neuve du Thym, French demonologist * Arthur Edward Waite, occult author and Golden Dawn member * Edgar Cayce * Eliphas Levi, occult author [Eliphas Lßvi] * Evangeline Adams, astrologer to the famous * Francis Barrett, wrote a book on magic * Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, founder of Theosophy * John George Hohman, American wizard * Marie Laveau, American voodoo practitioner * Papus, pseudonym for Gerard Encausse, occult author [Gérard Encausse] * Pekka Ervast Finnish Theosophist * Stanislas de Guaita, occult author * Samuel L. MacGregor Mathers, Golden Dawn founder * William Blake, poet of the occult * Dr. William Wynn Westcott, cofounder of the *Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn Twentieth century: * Anton Szandor LaVey, Founder of The Church of Satan, author of five books on the subject of Satanism, including The Satanic Bible and The Satanic Rituals. * Draconis Blackthorne, Satanist, Church of Satan Warlock, author of several books on the subject of Ritual Magic and social commentary, founder of The Order of The Black Dragon. * Margot Adler, witch and NPR reporter * Kenneth Anger, disciple of Crowley * Fairuza Balk, actress and owner of witchcraft store * Franz Bardon, occult author, magician * Christian Bernard, Imperator of AMORC * Ior Bock, Finnish cult leader * Isaac Bonewits, occult author * Aisling Bronach, editor of Traditions Magazine * Raymond Buckland, Wiccan author * Zsuzsanna Budapest, feminist witch * William S. Burroughs, member of the Illuminates of Thanateros * W. E. Butler, occultist and esoteric author * William Butler Yeats, poet, Golden Dawn member, astrologer * Peter Carroll, occult author, co-founder of the Illuminates of Thanateros * Constant Chevillon, the head of FUDOFSI * Andrew D. Chumbley, occult author and artist. Magister of the Cultus Sabbatai * Andrew Collins, author and noted Psychic Quester * Aleister Crowley, occult author, poet, magician, astrologer * Maya Deren, filmmaker * Ramsey Dukes, occult author * Gerina Dunwich, witch and occult author * Julius Evola * Dion Fortune, occult author * Henri Gamache, authority on the Evil Eye * Gerald Gardner, founder of Wicca * Kenneth Grant, Occult author and Outer Head of the Typhonian OTO * Robert Graves, poet and mythographer * Rene Guenon * Jaq D. Hawkins, occult author * Max Heindel, occultist and mystic Christian, founder of The Rosicrucian Fellowship * Phil Hine, occult author * Frater Adsum Iterum (Auxilior Arti), occult author, magician, a principal of Companions of the Glyph * Alejandro Jodorowsky, filmmaker, comic book writer * Robert Johnson, allegedly sold soul to Devil for musical talent * Albert S. Kivinen, Finnish occultist * Gareth Knight, occult author * Timothy Leary, member of the Illuminates of Thanateros * Dave Lee, occult author * Sybil Leek, witch and occult author * Ralph Maxwell Lewis, Imperator of AMORC * Harvey Spencer Lewis, founder of AMORC * Jack Parsons, occultist * Israel Regardie, occult Author, magician, pupil of Crowley * Virginia Kent Roberts, occult author * Ray Sherwin, occult author, co-founder of the Illuminates of Thanateros * Pamela Colman Smith, Golden Dawn member, artist, did tarot deck * Austin Osman Spare, occult artist * Starhawk, witch and occult author * Rudolf Steiner, founder of anthroposophy * Gary L. Stewart, founder of Confraternity of the Rose Cross, past Imperator of AMORC, Knight Commander of the OMCE * Valentin Tomberg, Christian mystic and mage * Julian Vayne, occult author * John L. Westbrook, former politician * Joshua Wetzel, occult author People subjected to magical legends These people may or may not have been practicing magicians, mystics, or diviners, but later stories or folklore have arisen that link them to such practices: * Albertus Magnus, Roman Catholic writer dubiously credited with several magical texts, notably the Book of the Secrets of Albertus Magnus  * Roger Bacon, philosopher accused of magic * Livingstone Bramble, world champion boxer, suspected of practicing witchcraft before fights * Gyges of Lydia, credited by Plato with ownership of the Ring of Gyges, a magical artifact * Pope Honorius III, dubiously credited with the grimoire The Sworn Book of Honorius * Moses, miracle worker, dubiously credited with the grimoires The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses * King Solomon of Israel, falsly credited with the grimoires [[The Key of Solomon]] and [[The Lemegeton, or the Lesser Key of Solomon]] * Virgil, Latin poet who was turned into a wizard in medieval folklore * Taliesin, Welsh poet who was turned into a wizard in medieval folklore * Merlin, originally the Welsh poet Myrddin, who was turned into a wizard in medieval romance * Olaus Wormius, incorporated into H. P. Lovecraft's Cthulhu mythos as the supposed translator of the Necronomicon * William Shakespeare, known among occult circles as "The Rosicrucian Mask" (influenced by the same Rosicrucian Initiate as Francis Bacon) * Count of St Germain, during the centuries after his disappearence without a trace, numerous myths, legends and speculations have surfaced; he has been attributed with occult practices and other legends report that he was immortal, alchemist with the elixir of life, a true Rosicrucian ("A man who knows everything and who never dies" according to Voltaire) Fictional wizards, magicians, and witches: * Baba Yaga (Slavic mythology) * Belgarath the Sorcerer * Doctor Strange (a comic book superhero and wizard appearing in Marvel Comics) * Elminster (Forgotten Realms) * Elric of Melnibone [Elric of Melniboné] * Eric, from Eric by Terry Pratchett * Fizban * Gandalf the Grey (The Lord of the Rings) * Harry Potter * Vainamoinen (Kalevala) [Väinämöinen] * Polgara the Sorceress * Raistlin Majere * Rincewind the magically-challenged wizard from Terry Pratchett's Discworld series of books. * Prospero, (The Tempest by Shakespeare) * Pug from Raymond E. Feist's book Magician, and many others. * Sparrowhawk * The Wizard from The Wonderful Wizard of Oz * The Wicked Witch of the West
A number of noted individuals have been called Pagans.
The term is sometimes used pejoratively, particularly by Christians, and the people below would not necessarily call themselves pagans. Please refer to Pagan for the difficulties in clearly defining the term.
Note: Some usages of 'pagan' appear to apply to atheists too. This page is not for atheists
Unclassified * Rae Beth - author of Hedgewitch and A Witch Alone (Wiccan?) * Gael Baudino - author, mostly fantasy * Frances Billinghurst - founder of the Temple of the Dark Moon * Aisling Bronach - editor of Traditions Magazine * Granny Boswell - notable Cornish witch * Chas S. Clifton - has published academic explorations into modern Paganism (Wiccan?) * Dagonet Dewr - co-founder of Pagan Pride Day International * Rosemary Edghill - mystery author * Selena Fox - one of the founders of Circle Sanctuary * Susan Griffin - artist and jeweler * Nicola Griffith - science fiction author * Stephan Grundy - fantasy author * Gwenc'hlan - bard and druid * Heinrich Himmler - Third Reich official * Hypatia of Alexandria - mathematician * Arun John - author of Link to the Real World * Lalli - Legendary Finnish heathen and land owner who killed christian bishop Henry * Cassandra Latham - first UK person to register as a 'village witch' with the Inland Revenue * Fritz Leiber - science fiction and fantasy author * Audre Lorde - black lesbian activist * Somerset Maugham - author * Brigitte Nielsen - actress * Kate Orman - science fiction author * Bob Oswald - runemaker and writer * Diana Paxson - science fiction author, editor of Idunna the quarterly journal of Asatru organization The Troth * Morwynn Rooke - poet and writer * Eric Steven Raymond - programmer and author of The Hacker's Dictionary and How to Be a Hacker * M. R. Sellars - "pagan" mystery author * Cybill Shepherd - actress * Starhawk - activist, pagan leader, author * Luisah Teish - Yoruban writer/teacher * Chris Thompson - teacher and cofounder of the Grove of Sinann * Laurence Thompson - cofounder of the Grove of Sinann * Alice Walker - poet and author * Brian Walsh - writer * Martin Williams - Founder of Pagan Association * Marion Woolley - writer * Virginia Woolf - author * Ville Valo - H.I.M. Neo-druidism * Isaac Bonewits - author and scholar of several Druid and neopagan related books and articles * Ronald Hutton - scholar of British history; professor at University of Bristol, and author of books on the history of Neopaganism. Wicca * Margot Adler - author, journalist, Wiccan Priestess and Elder, NPR correspondent in New York City * Paul Beyerl - founder of The Rowan Tree Church * Raymond Buckland - author of Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft and many others * Z. Budapest - lesbian Pagan teacher writer etc. (Dianic Wicca) * Laurie Cabot - the official witch of Salem, author of Power of the Witch and Love Magic * Phyliss Curott - author of Book of Shadows * Francesca De Grandis - craft elder in the Faerie tradition, writes and teaches on Celtic Shamanism * A.J. Drew - author of Wicca for Men * Gerina Dunwich - author of Wicca Craft and other books on the details of spellwork * Sully Erna - Lead singer of Godsmack * Gavin Frost and Yvonne Frost - founders of the Church and School of Wicca * Yasmine Galenorn - author of Embracing the Moon and Dancing the Sun * Gerald Gardner - founder of Wicca * Eileen Holland - author of The Wicca Handbook * Doreen Valiente - author and contemporary of Gardner * David Rankine - Author of books such as Magick Without Peers, Becoming Magick and many more. The Starsorceror * David J. Rust - essayist, journalist, co-founder the Witches' Informational Network * Vivienne Crowley - author of Wicca and well known British High Priestess * Sorita D'Este - Author and teacher. Avalonia UK * Kate West - author of The Real Witches Handbook and several others. * Maxine Sanders - co-founder of the Alexandrian tradition * Alon Kobets - co-founder of Wicca Israel, the leading Wicca site in Israel. Wicca Israel Stregheria * Raven Grimassi - author on Stregheria and family witchcraft
Famous Person - How do we know they're pagan?
Donna Haraway (modern philosopher and sociologist) - May not be Pagan; refers to famous Pagan events and experiences in her work.
Audre Lorde (Black Lesbian Activist) - Writes about being a Goddess-worshipper
Alice Walker (bisexual poet and author, most famously of The Color Purple) - Says she is!
Virginia Woolf (1920s lesbian/author, especially of A Room of One's Own, To The Lighthouse, and Orlando) - Described herself and her circle of friends as "neo-pagans"
Adrienne Rich (feminist lesbian poet and activist) - Rumor has it...!
Susan Griffin (Artist and jeweler) - Evident in her work and her explanations of it
Diana Paxson (science fiction author) - Says so herself; was first officer of the Covenant of the Goddess for a while
Joanna Russ (genderbending sci-fi author) - Rumor has it...
Starhawk (Activist, Pagan leader, author) - Open Pagan leader.
Kate Orman (Australian sci-fi author) - Says so!
Z. Budapest (famous lesbian Pagan teacher writer etc.) - Open Pagan leader. (Dianic Wicca, to be exact)
Timothy Leary - Writes of it
Marion Zimmer Bradley - Rumored to be because her books (most notably _The Mists of Avalon_) have so much Pagan content; however, if she is Pagan in her personal life, she hasn't "come out of the broom closet." Known to be Episcopal, but there is a strong "Episco-Pagan" contingent.
Also sisters-in-law with Diana Paxson; don't you love Pagan gossip? :)
Gael Baudino (lesbian author, mostly fantasy novels) - Was openly Wiccan, then left Dianic Wicca to go to the Quakers and worship the Goddess there.
Nicola Griffith (lesbian sci-fi author) - Says so and writes about it
Alix Dobkin (lesbian folksinger/musician) - Writes very Goddess-centered songs
Luisah Teish (Yoruban writer/teacher) - Open Pagan leader
Robert Heinlein (sci-fi author) - Not Pagan himself, but his book, _Stranger In A Strange Land_, spawned a whole new Pagan religion
Rosemary Edghill (lesbian mystery author) - Open Pagan author; her protagonist is a Witch
Andre Norton (fantasy author) - Writes very Pagan books
W. Somerset Maugham (author) - Anton LaVey says he was
Cybill Shepard (sitcom and movie actress) - Came out at the Golden Globe awards in 1995. First she "thanked God". Then she kind of stopped a minute - you could see she was making up her mind. She took a deep breath and said "And I want to thank the Great Mother Goddess for the gift of righteous anger and for all Her strength and inspiration. Blessed Be!" Later when she was interviewed she was asked what she was going to do after she got home, and she said "have a drink, get laid and cast a spell or two".
Terry Pratchett (hysterical surreal British fantasy author) - According to _Contemporary Paganism_ by Graham Harvey; Pratchett's books, especially _Lords and Ladies_, are full of Pagan humor.
Guy Gavriel Kay (sci-fantasy author) - Rumored to be
Brigitte Nielsen - According to a news article at Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance.
Fritz Leiber (sci-fantasy author) - Member of the Pagan group Freya's Folk; his obituary was listed in Circle Network News.
Last updated January 9th, 1998.
This page is for prominent members of the Unification Church, followers of Sun Myung Moon and supporters of the Unification Movement in general.
Leaders * Sun Myung Moon (Father Moon) - founder * Hak Ja Han Moon (Mother Moon) - founder's wife and officially-designated successor * Hyo Jin Moon - their first son * Heung Jin Moon - their second son (deceased: 'king of the spirit world') * Hyun Jin Moon - their third son (businessman, youth leader, and possible successor) * Bo Hi Pak - founder's right-hand man, 1960s through 1990s * Michael Jenkins -- President of US church * Neil Salonen - former President of US church, now president of the University of Bridgeport * Mose Durst - former President of US church * Tyler Hendricks - former President of US church, now president of Unification Theological Seminary (UTS) Members * Andrew Wilson - professor at UTS * Mark Anderson - Arizona state representative * Bill Gertz - Best-selling author and investigative journalist * Jonathan Wells intelligent design advocate, senior fellow of the Discovery Institute's Center for Science and Culture. * Chung Hwan Kwak- Chairman and President, United Press International Chairman and President, News World Communications, Inc. * Nicholas Chiaia, United Press International Senior Vice President * Larry Moffitt - United Press International Vice President of Planning and Development * Michael Marshall- UPI Editor In Chief Ex-members * Steve Hassan - author and "exit consultant" * Craig Maxim - website creator and talk-show guest * Tim Folzenlogen - Painter * Graham Lester - blogger and limericist
Roughly in chronological order: Simon Magus, had Gnostic leanings, could be called proto-Gnostic "Leucius Charinus" the legendary author of a cycle of late "Acts" of Apostles. Menander Saturninus Monoimus Carpocrates, his wife Alexandra and his son Epiphanes Bardaisan of Edessa Ptolemy and Colorbasus Valentinius, the most famous and influential Gnostic Basilides of Alexandria Marcion of Sinope, had gnostic tendencies
A number of noted individuals have been Satanists. * Michael Aquino - founder of Temple of Set * Kenneth Anger - author and filmmaker * Glen Benton - bassist and vocalist of Deicide * David Berkowitz - serial killer * Anton LaVey - founder of Church of Satan * Anton Long - Grand Master of the Order of Nine Angles * Marilyn Manson - singer - Self described Satanist, though does not believe in Satan as a physical entity. Met with Anton LaVey, High Priest of the Church of Satan * Richard Ramirez - "Night Stalker", serial killer and rapist * John L. Westbrook - Oklahoma politician and self-professed founder of the Order of Mars Alleged honorary members: * Sammy Davis, Jr. - entertainer The following people are claimed to be Satanists but are not: * Beck - singer, songwriter; made an "honorary member" by Church of Satan but has never belonged * Aleister Crowley - poet, mystic; popularly but incorrectly labelled "Satanist" * Moshe Dayan - Israeli military hero and politician, said to have been a Satanist in Blanche Barton's biography of Anton LaVey, The Secret Life of A Satanist; in reality, was a friend of LaVey's but not a member of the Church of Satan * Jayne Mansfield - actress - was involved in publicity stunt with Anton LaVey * Jack Parsons - rocket scientist, follower of Crowley and member of the Ordo Templi Orientis; he seems to have confused Satanism with Paganism
Source: http://www.celebatheists.com/wiki/index.php?title=Category:Atheist; viewed 2 September 2005
Persons who identify themselves as 'atheist' or 'godless' or lacking theistic belief. Alternatively, a quote that clearly meets the strong or weak definition  of the term is acceptable for assignment to this category.
Forrest J. Ackerman Douglas Adams Phillip Adams Ayaan Hirsi Ali Tariq Ali Woody Allen Shulamit Aloni Thomas J. Altizer Natalie Angier Lance Armstrong Liv Arnesen Madison Arnold Darren Aronofsky Isaac Asimov Peter William Atkins David Attenborough Julian Baggini Russell Baker Iain M. Banks Clive Barker Dan Barker MC Paul Barman Dave Barry Richard Bartle Bill Bass Matt Bellamy Steve Benson Ingmar Bergman Pierre Berton Matt Besser Bjork Lewis Black Susan Blackmore Bill Blass Jim Bohanan Sir Herman Bondi Pierre Boulez T. Coraghessan Boyle Nathaniel Branden Marlon Brando Richard Branson Berkeley Breathed Julia Hartley Brewer Rodney Brooks Andrew Brown Bill Bryson Peter Buck Warren Buffett John Byrne Dean Cameron George Carlin John Carmack Adam Carolla John Carpenter Asia Carrera Fidel Castro Dick Cavett Stephen Chapman Vic Chesnutt Noam Chomsky Mohammed Choukri Robin Christopher Chumbawamba Alexander Cockburn Billy Connolly John Conway Alex Cox Francis Crick David Cronenberg David Cross Alan Cumming Justin Currie Ron Dakron Rodney Dangerfield Julia Darling Mark Jonathan Davis William B. Davis Richard Dawkins Jeff Dee Daniel Dennett David Deutsch Ani DiFranco Micky Dolenz Amanda Donohoe Phil Donahue Roddy Doyle Roger Ebert Christopher Eccleston Dean Edell Paul Edwards Greg Egan Barbara Ehrenreich Paul Ehrlich Albert Einstein Albert Ellis Bret Easton Ellis Warren Ellis Harlan Ellison William Empson Garth Ennis Brian Eno Diane Farr David Feherty Jules Feiffer Larry Fessenden Harvey Fierstein Bob Fingerman Reginald Finley Brian Flemming Larry Flynt Dario Fo Dave Foley James Forman Jodie Foster John Fowles Robin Lane Fox Kinky Friedman Janeane Garofalo Bill Gates Bob Geldof Jack Germond Ricky Gervais Prabhir Ghosh Ira Glass James Gleick Jean Luc Godard Al Goldstein Nadine Gordimer Greg Graffin Seth Green Stephen Greenblatt Susan Greenfield Germaine Greer Kathy Griffin Rachel Griffiths Joe Haldeman Kathleen Hanna Harry Harrison Nina Hartley Roy Hattersley James A. Haught Bill Hayden Judith Hayes Robert Heinlein Nat Hentoff Katharine Hepburn Richard Herring Paul Hester Christopher Hitchens Philip Hobsbaum Douglas Hofstadter General Choi Hong-Hi Derek Humphry Penn Jillette Billy Joel Angelina Jolie Kirk Jones Lionel Jospin Joachim Kahl Wendy Kaminer Jonathan Katz Kawaljeet Kaur Diane Keaton Ludovic Kennedy Eli Khamarov Margot Kidder Kim Il-Sung Florence King Neil Kinnock W. P. Kinsella Michael Kinsley Melvin Konner Frank Kozik Kramer Paul Krassner Ron Kuby Milan Kundera Paul Kurtz Ring Lardner Jr. Mr. Lavanam Richard Leakey Alexander I. Lebed Bruce Lee Stewart Lee Tom Lehrer Mike Leigh Stanislaw Lem Vladimir Lenin Gerda Lerner Michael Lewis Tom Leykis James Lipton Denis Loubet H.P. Lovecraft John Malkovich 'Manda Barry Manilow Mao Zedong Michael Martin Karl Marx Nick Mason Armistead Maupin John McCarthy Malachy McCourt Ian McEwan Todd McFarlane Montana McGlynn Sir Ian McKellen Alexander McQueen Jonathan Meades Antonio Mendoza Tom Metzger Arthur Miller Frank Miller Jonathan Miller Mike Mills Marvin Minsky Warren Mitchell China Mieville John Money Julianne Moore Hans Moravec Henry Morgentaler Desmond Morris James Morrow John Mortimer Markos 'Kos' Moulitsas Zuniga Frank Mullen Taslima Nasrin Ramendra Nath Ted Nelson Randy Newman Mike Nichols Jack Nicholson Kai Nielsen Oscar Niemeyer Robert Nozick Gary Numan Ronald Numbers Bob Odenkirk Patton Oswalt Camille Paglia Andy Partridge Mark Pauline Leonard Peikoff Paul Pfalzner Julia Phillips Ferdinand Piech Steven Pinker Neal Pollack Katha Pollitt Paula Poundstone Vladimir Pozner Terry Pratchett Paul Provenza Philip Pullman Ayn Rand James Randi Ron Reagan Jr. Keanu Reeves Rick Reynolds Trent Reznor Griff Rhys-Jones Mordecai Richler Christopher Ricks Matt Ridley Brian Ritchie Brad Roberts Chris Robinson Gene Roddenberry Joe Rogan Neil Rogers Henry Rollins Andy Rooney Richard Rorty Arundhati Roy Jane Rule Salman Rushdie Karen Russell Mona Sahlin Sebastiao Salgado Robert Sapolsky Jose Saramago Pamela Sargent Max Sawicky John Sayles Tom Schulman Eugenie Scott Captain Sensible Nick Seymour Robert I. Sherman Michael Shermer Robert Silverberg Bob Simon Claude Simon J.R. Simplot Peter Singer Slayer J.J.C. Smart Robert Smith (football) George H. Smith Robert Smith Lee Smolin Steven Soderbergh Todd Solondz George Soros Joseph Stalin Richard Stallman Peter Steele Bruce Sterling Howard Stern J. Michael Straczynski Ken Stringfellow Julia Sweeney Matthew Sweet Annika Sorenstam Teller Studs Terkel Louis Theroux Tom Tomorrow Linus Torvalds Solomon Tulbure Eddie Vedder Paul Verhoeven Gore Vidal Kurt Vonnegut Jr. Sarah Vowell Matt Wagner Annika Walter James Watson Steven Weinberg Gene Weingarten Joss Whedon Earl Wild Harland Williams Sean Williams Ted Williams Ian Wilmut Rabbi Sherwin T. Wine Lewis Wolpert Steve Wozniak Bruce Wright Irvin D. Yalom Zarkov Nick Zedd
Source: http://www.celebatheists.com/wiki/index.php?title=Category:Agnostic; viewed 2 September 2005
Those who have described themselves as 'agnostic.' Alternatively they can have stated that the question of whether or not gods exist is unknowable.
Atheists who identify themselves as agnostic can be included in this category as well.
The rare theists who identifies himself (or herself) as agnostic can be included in this category, but their theism should be prominently mentioned.
The other major categories are Atheist and Ambiguous.
Note: this category (and the entries within) are provisional. They may be removed from this site if their presence proves troubling due to confusion, legal threats, etc.
Amy Alkon Martin Amis Piers Anthony Margaret Atwood Richard Avedon Nick Becker Burton C. Bell Sir Harrison Birtwistle Susie Bright Vincent Bugliosi Gene Burns Kurt Busiek Robert X. Cringely Clarence Darrow Charles Darwin Alan Dershowitz Richard Dreyfuss Umberto Eco Timothy Ferris Carrie Fisher William Friedkin Robbie Fulks Candace Gingrich Stephen Jay Gould Matt Groening Bob Guccione Robert (Bob) James Lee Hawke David Horowitz Bob Hoskins Robert Jastrow Matt Johnson Jack Kevorkian Larry King Tony Kushner Rick London Dave Matthews Larry Niven Neil Peart Sean Penn Roman Polanski Vilayanur S. Ramachandran Bertrand Russell Carl Sagan Dan Savage Robert J. Sawyer Adrienne Shelly Michael Shermer Rod Steiger Al Stewart James Taylor Charles Templeton Uma Thurman Ted Turner Robert Anton Wilson
Those who have expressed skepticism regarding theism, but who cannot be fairly classified as either Atheist or Agnostic.
Note that skepticism towards organized religion is insufficient, as there are plenty of theists who dislike the church, mosque, etc. but nevertheless believe in god(s).
The other major categories are Atheist and Agnostic.
Note: this category (and the entries within) are provisional. They may be removed from this site if their presence proves troubling due to confusion, legal threats, etc.
Skunk Anansie Trey Anastasio Richard Dean Anderson John Perry Barlow Carla Bley David Bowie Branden Boyd Michael Caine Jerry Casale Nick Cave Paul and Patricia Churchland Arthur C. Clarke George Clooney Larry Cohen Billy Corgan Dalai Lama Wade Davis Deicide Phyllis Diller Paul Draper David Duchovny Patrick Duffy Pat Duffy-Hutcheon Danny Elfman George Fernandes Filter Ed Fredkin Ed Sorel Liam Gallagher Noel Gallagher Mikhail Gorbachev Laurence Gough Spalding Gray Dave Grohl Alan Hale Peter Hall Stephen Hawking Taylor Hawkins Hugh Hefner Robert Heilbroner Doug Henwood Sir Edmund Hillary Nicholas Humphrey John Irving Molly Ivins Stephan Jenkins Neil Jordan Mark Knopfler Stan Lee John Lennon Monica Lewinsky G. Gordon Liddy Jim Lindberg James Lovelock John Lydon Bill Maher Marilyn Manson Shirley Manson Sarah McLachlan Momus Rita Levi Montalcini Max More Scott Mosier Gaylord Nelson Kim Newman Mojo Nixon Timothy Noah Krist Novoselic John Passmore Robert Patrick Emo Philips Sarah Polley Natalie Portman Ted Rall Christopher Reeve Andy Richter Tom Robbins Oliver Sacks Laetitia Sadier John Ralston Saul William Shatner Neil Simon Mira Sorvino John Shelby Spong Donald Sutherland Dame Tanni Grey Thompson Tool (rock band) Mark Twain David Twohy Paul Watson Gene Wilder Bruce Willis Edward O. Wilson Terry Wogan
NOTE: Consult the following list cautiously. The NNDB.com "religion" field has been known to be inaccurate at times.
John Betjeman Ford Madox Brown Clarence Darrow Arthur Conan Doyle Emmanuel Goldstein Philip Johnson James Mill John Stuart Mill Andy Rooney Bertrand Russell Alfred North Whitehead
The Unofficial and Incomplete List of Agnostics A number of noted individuals have been agnostics. A partial list of persons believed to be, or who have claimed to be, agnostics: * Douglas Adams, (1952-2001), author * Anaxagoras, (d. 462 BCE), philosopher * Susan B. Anthony, (1820-1906), US feminist * Emile Berliner, (1851-1929), inventor * Jorge Luis Borges, (1899-1986), Argentine writer * Helen Clark, (b. 1950), prime minister of New Zealand * Clarence Darrow, (1857-1938), American lawyer * Charles Darwin, (1809-1882), founder of the theory of evolution * Heinz Fischer, (b. 1938), President of Austria * Bill Gates, (b. 1955), founder of Microsoft and richest person in the world * Matt Groening, (b. 1954), creator of Life in Hell, the Simpsons and Futurama * Robert Heinlein, (1907-1988), (refused on various occasions to commit to a firm belief in any theological or metaphysical propositions) * Thomas Henry Huxley, (1825-1895), coiner of the term agnosticism * Robert Ingersoll, (1833 - 1899), American political leader and orator * Larry King, (b. 1933), American broadcast personality * Mark Latham, (b.1961), Australian politician and Opposition Leader * Dave Matthews, (b. 1967), recording artist * Protagoras, (d.420 BCE), Greek Sophist and first major Humanist * Andy Rooney, (b. 1919), broadcast personality * Bertrand Russell, (1872-1970), Welsh philosopher and mathematician * Carl Sagan, (1934-1996), astronomer and skeptic * Charles Templeton, (1915-2001) former evangelist, author of A Farewell to God * Robert Anton Wilson. (b. 1932), author, futurologist, cryptocracy historian * Rabbi Sherwin T. Wine, (b. 1928), founder of The Society for Humanistic Judaism, coined the term ignosticism * Lee Kuan Yew, Singapore Minister Mentor * Frank Zappa, American composer and satirist * Bob Hawke*, Former Australian Prime Minister and Trade Unionist
NOTE: Consult the following list cautiously. The NNDB.com "religion" field has been known to be inaccurate at times.
Douglas Adams Steve Albini Salvador Allende José Pedro Almodovar [Pedro Almodóvar] Barbara Amiel Isaac Asimov David Attenborough Clive Barker Dave Barry William Bennett Jeremy Bentham Ingmar Bergman Jello Biafra Bjork Susan Blackmore Pierre Boulez Marlon Brando Richard Branson Susie Bright Peter Buck Warren Buffett Charles Bukowski Luis Bunuel [Luis Buñuel] George Carlin John Carmack Adam Carolla John Carpenter Asia Carrera Fidel Castro Dick Cavett David Chalmers Noam Chomsky Arthur C. Clarke Alexander Cockburn John Conway Francis Crick David Cronenberg David Cross Alan Cumming Ivor Cutler Richard Dawkins Marquis de Sade Daniel C. Dennett Ani DiFranco Phyllis Diller Walt Disney [this is totally false: Disney was not an atheist] Cory Doctorow Micky Dolenz Umberto Eco Dr. Dean Edell Barbara Ehrenreich Paul R. Ehrlich Albert Einstein Warren Ellis Harlan Ellison Brian Eno Ludwig Feuerbach Richard Feynman Larry Flynt Dario Fo Dave Foley Jodie Foster Frederick the Great Anna Freud Janeane Garofalo Bill Gates Bob Geldof Sarah Michelle Gellar Jack Germond Vitaly L. Ginzburg Jean-Luc Godard Whoopi Goldberg Al Goldstein Mikhail Gorbachev Nadine Gordimer Spalding Gray Seth Green Rachel Griffiths Che Guevara Kathleen Hanna Harry Harrison Nina Hartley Stephen Hawking Katharine Hepburn Christopher Hitchens Douglas Hofstadter A. E. Housman David Hume Robert G. Ingersoll John Irving Stephan Jenkins Penn Jillette Angelina Jolie Neil Jordan Ted Kaczynski Paul Kammerer Jack Kevorkian Margot Kidder Mark Tapio Kines Alfred Kinsey Paul Krassner Paul Kurtz Ray Kurzweil Chris Langton Ring Lardner, Jr. Stanislaw Lem Lemmy Lenin Michael Lewis Tom Leykis H. P. Lovecraft Heather Mac Donald John Malkovich Marilyn Manson Christopher Marlowe Ernst Mayr John McCarthy Malachy McCourt Michael McDermott Todd McFarlane Ian McKellen Tom Metzger Marvin Minsky Momus Thomas Nagel Ted Nelson Michael Newdow Randy Newman Jack Nicholson Robert Nozick Gary Numan Madalyn Murray O'Hair Bernardo O'Higgins Bob Odenkirk Patton Oswalt Kerry Packer Harrison Page Camille Paglia Andy Partridge Pier Paolo Pasolini Robert Patrick Mark Pauline Leonard Peikoff Harvey Pekar Steven Pinker Paula Poundstone Terry Pratchett Robin Quivers Ted Rall Ayn Rand James Randi Rands Ron Reagan Wilhelm Reich Diego Rivera Geraldo Rivera Rene Rivkin Chris Robinson Murray Rothbard Arundhati Roy Jane Rule Douglas Rushkoff Carl Sagan Margaret Sanger Jose Saramago [José Saramago] Jean-Paul Sartre Dan Savage John Sayles Martin Scorsese John Searle Mobutu Sese Seko Captain Sensible Percy Bysshe Shelley Michael Shermer Claude Simon B. F. Skinner Robert Smith Steven Soderbergh George Soros Mira Sorvino Stalin Richard Stallman Peter Steele Bruce Sterling Howard Stern Oliver Stone Leo Strauss Kim Il Sung Donald Sutherland Julia Sweeney Algernon Charles Swinburne Charles Maurice de Talleyrand Teller Studs Terkel Linus Torvalds Alan Turing Ted Turner Mark Twain Jesse Ventura Gore Vidal Kurt Vonnegut Sarah Vowell James Watson Randy Weaver Edward O. Wilson Steve Wozniak Wilhelm Wundt Frank Zappa Philip Zimbardo
The people in this list have been included because they are/were atheists, that is, they do not or did not believe in gods, and this disbelief can be asserted because they themselves have expressed it openly (on the record), or in their works, personal corresponce, diaries, etc. Presumed atheists are not included here.
Given the different possible qualifications of the word atheist and its varied uses through time, some people listed here would be called agnostics or anti-religionists rather than simply atheists, but the list attempts to be inclusive on this matter. The reader should consult the relevant biographical articles for details.
The list has two sections. The first one is for atheists who are or were notable defenders of the cause of atheism, or who advocated views of the human condition, society, economy, etc., that were compatible with atheism. In short, these people are or were important for other atheists, since they contribute(d) to the popularization, understanding, and acceptance of atheism in society, either through their works or through their deeds.
The other section is for famous people who just happen/happened to be atheists, and whose unbelief is/was relevant in their life, but who do not/did not actively fight for its cause.
There might not be a consensus on whether a given person belongs in the second section, since obviously there is no way of listing all famous people who just happen to be atheists (there is no point, either). Many of these profess their atheism as just a peripheral issue in their lives, or simply keep quiet about it, and they will not be listed here.
Influential or outspoken atheists
* Phillip Adams (1939-) - Australian broadcaster, writer, film-maker, left-wing radical thinker, iconoclast, Australian Humanist of the Year 1987.
* Ingmar Bergman (1918-) - Swedish film director and playwright.
* George Carlin (1937-) - American comedian, actor and author, wrote a number of monologues about the non-existence of God.
* Penn and Teller - American magicians and hosts of Bullshit!, Teller (born 1948 as Raymond Joseph Teller) and Penn Fraser Jillette (1955-).
* Andre Comte-Sponville [André Comte-Sponville] (1952-) - French materialist philosopher.
* Richard Dawkins (1941-) - British zoologist, biologist, creator of the concept of the selfish gene and the meme; outspoken atheist and popularizer of science.
* Daniel Dennett (1942-) - American philosopher, leading figure in evolutionary biology and cognitive science, well-known for his book Darwin's Dangerous Idea.
* Paul Kurtz (1926-) - American philosopher, skeptic, founder of Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP) and the Council for Secular Humanism.
* Ellen Johnson - current president of American Atheists.
* Michael Newdow - American citizen, sued his daughter's school claiming that the words "under God" in the U.S. Pledge of Allegiance constitute a breach in church-state separation.
* Camille Paglia (1947-) - American post-feminist literary and cultural critic.
* Matt Ridley (1958-) - British zoologist, science writer and journalist, open supporter of libertarianism in politics and reductionism in biology.
* Richard Rorty (1931-) - American philosopher, whose ideas combine pragmatism with a Wittgensteinian ontology that declares that meaning is a social-linguistic product.
* Peter Singer (1946-) - Australian philosopher and teacher, working on practical ethics from a utilitarian perspective, controversial for his opinions on abortion and euthanasia.
* Barbara Smoker (1923-) - British humanist activist and freethought advocate. Wrote the book Freethoughts: Atheism, Secularism, Humanism - Selected Egotistically from "The Freethinker".
* James D. Watson (1929- ) - Nobel Prize laureate, co-discoverer of the structure of DNA
* Ali Sina - Founder of FaithFreedom International, a movement that denounces Islam.
* Alfred Adler (1870-1937) - Austrian psychiatrist, believed that God was a psychological projection, though helpful.
* Mikhail Bakunin (1814-1876) - Russian philosopher, writer and anarchist leader.
* Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) - British jurist, eccentric, philosopher and social reformer, founder of utilitarianism. He had John Stuart Mill as his disciple.
* Ambrose Bierce (1842-1914?) - American writer, author The Devil's Dictionary.
* Charles Bradlaugh (1833-1891) - British Member of Parliament, political activist, secularist, freethinker, advocate of trade unionism, republicanism and women's suffrage.
* Albert Camus (1913-1960) - French philosopher and novelist, a luminary of existentialism.
* Auguste Comte (1798-1857) - French philosopher, considered the father of sociology.
* Clarence Darrow (1857-1938) - American lawyer and civil libertarian, defense attorney at the Scopes Monkey Trial, where he defended a school teacher who taught the theory of evolution.
* Denis Diderot (1713-1784) - French philosopher, author, editor of the first encyclopedia.
* Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach (1804-1872) - German philosopher, postulated that God is merely a projection by humans of their own best qualities.
* Joseph Fletcher (1905-1991) - founder of the theory of situational ethics, pioneer in the field of bioethics, transhumanist.
* Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) - Austrian neurologist, father of psychoanalysis, considered the belief in God to stem from an unconscious fear of one's own biological father.
* Paul Henry Thiry, Baron d'Holbach (1723-1789) - French homme de lettres, philosopher and encyclopedist, member of the philosophical movement of French materialism, attacked Christianity and religion as counter to the moral advancement of humanity.
* David Hume (1711-1776) - Scottish philosopher and historian, a figure in the Scottish Enlightenment and the most radical of the British Empiricists, whose philosophy includes scepticism and naturalism.
* Primo Levi (1919-1987) - Italian novelist and chemist, survivor of Auschwitz concentration camp.
* Karl Marx (1818-1883) - German philosopher, sociologist, political economist, journalist and revolutionary, founder of Marxism. His famous formulation was: "Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people."
* Joseph McCabe (1867-1955) - English writer, anti-religion campaigner.
* Henry Louis Mencken (usually "H. L. Mencken") (1880-1956) - American editor, journalist and social critic.
* Jean Meslier (1678-1733) - French erstwhile priest.
* James Mill (1773-1836) - British historian and philosopher, father of John Stuart Mill; he supported the utilitarian principles of Jeremy Bentham.
* John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) - British philosopher and political economist, liberal thinker, advocate of utilitarianism, who proposed the harm principle (people should be free to engage in whatever behavior they wish as long as it does not harm others).
* Madalyn Murray O'Hair (1919-1995) - American militant atheist, founder of American Atheists, campaigner for the separation of church and state; filed the lawsuit that led the US Supreme Court to ban teacher-led prayer and Bible reading in public schools.
* Julien Offray de La Mettrie (1709-1751) - French physician and philosopher, earliest of the materialist writers of the Enlightenment.
* Periyar (1879-1973) - Indian rationalist, freedom fighter and activist against the caste system.
* Karl Popper (1902-1994) - Austrian-born British philosopher of science, who claimed that empirical falsifiability should be the criterion for distinguishing scientific theory from non-science.
* Ayn Rand (1905-1982) - American novelist and philosopher, founder of Objectivism. Her philosophy and her fiction emphasize her notions of individualism, egoism, "rational self-interest" and capitalism.
* M. N. Roy (1887-1954) - Indian political thinker, founder his Radical Humanism school of philosophy.
* Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) - British mathematician, philosopher, logician, political liberal, activist, populariser of philosophy, and 1950 Nobel Laureate in Literature. On the issue of atheism/agnosticism, he wrote the essay "Why I Am Not a Christian".
* Mark Twain (pen-name of Samuel Clemens) (1835-1910) - American writer and humorist.
* Marquis de Sade (Donatien Alphonse Francois de Sade [Donatien Alphonse François de Sade]) (1740-1814) - French aristocrat, writer of philosophy-laden pornography and pure philosophy, who denied the existence of morality based on a mandate from divine authority.
* Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) - French existentialist philosopher, dramatist, novelist and critic.
* Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822) - British Romantic poet, contemporary and associate of John Keats and Lord Byron, author of The Necessity of Atheism.
* Henry Sidgwick (1838-1900) - British philosopher, follower of utilitarianism.
* Burrhus Frederic Skinner (1904-1990) - American psychologist and author, a pioneer on experimental psychology, advocate of behaviorism, and writer of two books on social engineering.
* Max Stirner (1806-1856) - German philosopher, Young Hegelian, one of the literary grandfathers of nihilism, existentialism and anarchism.
* Nanasaheb Gore () - Indian freedom fighter and political thinker.
* Anaxagoras (500?-428? BCE) - Greek philosopher, freethinker, regarded the conventional gods as mythic abstractions endowed with anthropomorphic attributes.
* Diagoras (called Diagoras the Atheist of Melos) (5th cent. BCE) - Greek poet and sophist.
* Protagoras (481?-411 BCE) - Greek philosopher.
* Democritus (460?-357 BCE) - Greek philosopher, father of materialism, viewed everything as matter composed of indestructible particles ("atoms").
* Epicurus (341-270 BCE) - Greek materialist philosopher.
* Lucretius (96?-55 BCE) - Roman philosopher and poet, Epicurean atomist, wrote On the Nature of Things.
* Lucius Annaeus Seneca "the Younger" (4-65 CE) - Roman stoic philosopher, writer and politician.
* Tariq Ali (1943-) - British author, filmmaker, historian, one of the founders of the New Left, and spokesman for anti-imperialism.
* Peter Atkins (1940-) - chemist, former husband of Susan Greenfield, professor at Oxford University.
* David Attenborough (1926-) - British natural history presenter and anthropologist.
* Robert Bruce Avakian - American political activist, Chairman of the Revolutionary Communist Party.
* Iain Banks (1954-) - Scottish writer and left-wing activist.
* Jello Biafra (1958-) - Punk rock musician and political activist.
* Nathaniel Branden (1930-) - Canadian psychologist and philosopher, associated with Objectivism.
* Mario Bunge (1919-) - Argentine philosopher and physicist, left-wing liberal, author of a monumental Treatise on Basic Philosophy.
* Fidel Castro (1926-) - Cuban dictator since 1959.
* Noam Chomsky (1928-) - American philosopher, linguist, radical left-wing political activist, describes himself as "libertarian socialist" and "anarcho-syndicalist".
* David Cross (1964-) - Actor and stand-up comedian.
* Kamal Haasan (1954-) - Indian actor, self-professed rationalist, atheist, activist, and a follower of Periyar.
* Jonathan Miller (1934-) - British physician, theatre and opera director and television presenter; wrote and presented a series on atheism.
* James Randi (1928-) - American professional magician and debunker of psychics and other kinds of pseudoscience; has also denounced blasphemy laws.
* Ron Reagan (1958-) - American magazine journalist, board member of the politically activistic Creative Coalition, son of former U. S. President Ronald Reagan.
* Richard M. Stallman (1953-) - American computer programmer and founder of the Free Software Foundation.
* Douglas Adams (1951-2001) - British comic radio dramatist and novelist, self-avowed "radical atheist".
* Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906) - American civil-rights activist, who led the effort to grant women the right to vote in the United States.
* Isaac Asimov (1920-1992) - Russian-born American writer of fiction and nonfiction works, scientist and science popularizer.
* Bela Bartok [Béla Bartók] (1881-1945) - Hungarian composer and pianist, one of the founders of the field of ethnomusicology.
* Luis Bunuel [Luis Buñuel] (1900-1983) - Spanish filmmaker and important activist of the surrealist movement.
* George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron (1788-1824) - British Romantic poet.
* Voltairine de Cleyre (1866-1912) - American feminist and activist.
* Joseph Conrad (1857-1924) - Polish-born English author.
* Francis Crick (1916-2004) - Nobel Prize laureate biophysicist, co-discoverer of the structure of DNA, a figure of molecular biology and also neuroscience.
* Zoran Djindjic (1952-2003) - Serbian philosopher, politician, statesman and former Prime Minister, assassinated.
* Thomas Edison (1847-1931) - American inventor and businessman.
* Richard Feynman (1918-1988) - American physicist and expert lecturer, Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on quantum electrodynamics.
* Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882) - Italian general and nationalist leader.
* Enver Hoxha (1908-1985) - Albanian Stalinist dictator, declared Albania "the first atheist state in history".
* James Joyce (1882-1941) - Irish writer.
* Alfred Kinsey (1894-1956) - Researcher in the field of human sexuality and entomology.
* Pierre Simon de Laplace (1749-1827) - French mathematician and astronomer.
* Vladimir Ilich Lenin (1870-1924) - Russian revolutionary leader.
* H.P. Lovecraft (1890-1937) - American author of fantasy and horror fiction.
* Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593), English dramatist and poet.
* Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964) - Indian statesman.
* Culbert Olson (1876-1962) - American politician, former governor of California, then president of the United Secularists of America.
* Diego Rivera (1886-1982) - Mexican muralist painter.
* Gene Roddenberry (1921-1991) - American television producer.
* Margaret Sanger (1883-1966) - American birth control activist, founder of Planned Parenthood.
* George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) - Irish-born English playwright.
* Josef Stalin (1879-1953) - Soviet politician, dictator of the USSR.
* Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902) - American suffragist.
* Leon Trotsky (1879-1940) - Russian revolutionary and Soviet statesman.
* Mao Zedong (1893-1976) - Chinese revolutionary and statesman, former chairman of the Communist Party of China and dictator of the People's Republic of China, creator of the variant of Marxist-Leninist theory called Maoism.
http://www.cnn.com/ELECTION/1998/states/WI/S/tom.ender.html Tom Ender (LIBERT) of Stoughton Challenger * Born: October 11, 1950, LaCrosse. * Education: U. of Wisconsin, LaCrosse, B.S., 1976. * Military Service: None. * Occupation: Freelance writer; computer consultant; state employee. * Family: Wife, Julie Cordry; two children. * Religion: Non-Denominational. * Political Career: Candidate for Wis. Assembly, 1994; Dane County Libertarian Party co-chairman, 1995-96; candidate for Wis. Assembly, 1996; Dane County Libertarian Party chairman, 1996-97. http://www.cnn.com/ELECTION/1998/states/WI/H/04/tom.reynolds.html Tom Reynolds (R) of West Allis Challenger * Born: December 16, 1956, Milwaukee. * Education: Nathan Hale H.S., graduated, 1975. * Military Service: None. * Occupation: Printing company owner. * Family: Wife, Sandy; four children. * Religion: non-denominational. * Political Career: Republican nominee for U.S. House, 1994, 1996. http://cgi.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/1996/candidates/election.guide/text/CA08.shtml Justin Raimondo (R) District 8 BORN: Nov. 18, 1951, White Plains, N.Y. EDUCATION: Franconia College, 1970-71 FAMILY: Single RELIGION: None MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Writer POLITICAL CAREER: Libertarian nominee for U.S. House, 1982 Raimondo says he's not a single-issue candidate, but his only reason for running against Nancy Pelosi is her vote to send U.S. troops to Bosnia. "Nothing but a prelude to war," he called the deployment. Even his attacks on Pelosi's stands on medical care and budget cuts are framed by the Bosnia debate. Raimondo does oppose NAFTA and affirmative action, however, without reference to Bosnia. http://cgi.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/1996/candidates/election.guide/text/CA25.shtml Diane Trautman (D) District 25 BORN: Aug. 10, 1954, Fort Lauderdale, Fla. EDUCATION: Broward Community College, A.A., 1976; California Institute of the Arts, B.F.A., 1980 FAMILY: Husband, Allan; two children RELIGION: Unaffiliated MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Homemaker POLITICAL CAREER: None Running against a popular incumbent in a heavily Republican district, Trautman has her work cut out for her. Though she moved into the Valley only three years ago, she has gained visibility as a political columnist for the local paper and an active member of the Democratic Club. She decided to run because it was time to "walk my talk": that economic success depends on education and training. Employees are resources, she says, not disposable commodities. http://cgi.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/1996/candidates/election.guide/text/OH09.shtml Randy Whitman (R) District 9 BORN: Aug. 28, 1952, Toledo EDUCATION: U of Toledo, 1970-73; Lourdes College, 1992 FAMILY: Wife, Sharon Ann; three children RELIGION: Roman Catholic and evangelical Christian MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Mortgage banker, lay minister POLITICAL CAREER: Candidate for U.S. House, 1994 Deeply religious, Whitman combines strong moral beliefs with conservative politics--he wants more God and less government. He also wants welfare to be a "hand up, instead of a handout," voluntary prayer in school, a balanced budget and a $500 tax deduction for each child.
To achieve its goals each name must have a credible source or in least an explanatory note. If you can find multiple sources this is better, but it is not a requirement. However sourcing is necessary to show that they contributed to both religious and scientific history. It is also preferred, but not required, that the people named here wrote or lectured on the topic of Christianity's relationship to science. A sense of denomination of each scientist is listed by color, but uncertainty can be acknowled hence the "other or unspecified" option.
All these provisos noted there are aids to ease the adding of names to this list. At the bottom of this page potential sources are listed that you can use. Added to this several McTutor mathematician biographies mention if the mathematician or scientist did Christian religious or theological works. An effort should be made to assure the sources section of tables are not blank, but additions are welcome.
Finally because of religious freedom issues and the evolution of the concept of science names from before the seventeenth century will be noted as such. This will be done by placing their names in italics and adding an asterix next to their name. Also: www.thewordbook.com/List_of_Christian_thinkers_in_science
Before the Nineteenth Century Those born before the seventeenth century have asterixes and their names are italicized. Key: Roman Catholic Church Eastern Christianity Name Image Reason for inclusion Maria Gaetana Agnesi A mathematician appointed to a position by [http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Agnesi.html McTutor] and Pope Benedict XIV Catholic Encyclopedia , she later became a nun studying the [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01214b.htm] Church Fathers . * A German scholar, real name Georg Bauer, who was known as the "Father of mineralogy." Although he supported Catholic Encyclopedia Georg Agricola Martin Luther [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01231a.htm] and 's initial ideas he stayed firm to Catholicism. This caused him to face hostility after his region switched to 11th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica Lutheranism [http://38.1911encyclopedia.org/A/AG/AGRICOLA.htm] . Antoine Arnauld Jansenist [http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Arnauld.html McTutor] and the theologian who wrote New Elements of Geometry and was compared to 11th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica Euclid . * A noted geometer on ellipses and conic sections. Also a church architect who worked on the 11th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica Anthemius of Tralles Hagia Sophia and [http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Anthemius.html McTutor Archives] . The picture shows what it may hace looked like before becoming a mosque . * He was an Catholic Encyclopedia[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13111b.htm] Roger Bacon English philosopher who placed considerable emphasis on empiricism , and has been presented as one of the earliest advocates of the modern scientific method . Isaac Barrow English divine, scientist, and mathematician. He wrote Expositions of the Creed, The Lord's Prayer, Decalogue, and Sacraments and Lectiones Opticae et Geometricae. A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature and [http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Barrow.html MacTutor] Laura Bassi A woman physicist who worked in an elite group for [http://hypatiamaze.org/laura/bassi.html Hypatia maze] Pope Benedict XIV . Thomas Bayes Presbyterian [http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Bayes.html McTutor] minister, Bayes' theorem and Divine Benevolence, or an Attempt to Prove That the Principal End of the Divine Providence and Government is the Happiness of His Creatures. Rudjer Boscovich He was a [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02691a.htm Catholic Encyclopedia] [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9080803 Encyclopedia Britannica] Jesuit and became famous for his atomic theory , given as a clear, precisely-formulated system utilizing principles of Newtonian mechanics . He also persuaded Pope Benedict XIV to remove the obsolete decree of the Index against Heliocentrism . Robert Boyle Scientist and theologian who argued that the study of science could improve glorification of God. [http://www.asa3.org/ASA/PSCF/1997/PSCF3-97Woodall.html ASA] and Stanford University [http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/boyle/] * He was an [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14693b.htm Catholic Encyclopedia] Thomas Bradwardine English archbishop , often called "the Profound Doctor". He developed studies as one of the Oxford Calculators, of Merton College, Oxford University. These studies would lead to important developments in mechanics. He was a Catholic Jean Buridan priest who sowed the seeds of religious scepticism in Europe . He developed the theory of impetus , that was the first step toward the modern concept of inertia . Juan Caramuel y Lobkowitz Cistercian monk [http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Caramuel.html McTutor] who once tried to solve theological problems by mathematical rules. Temple Chevallier 70px Priest and astronomer who did Of the proofs of the divine power and wisdom derived from the study of astronomy. Humphry Ditton He published, Discourse on the Resurrection of Jesus Christ and wrote on [http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:Sj3E6Rn-YEgJ:www.inquiry.uiuc.edu/bin/file_serve.cgi%3Ffile%3Du13578/FamousMathematicians.htm+%22Humphry+Ditton%22+%22biography%22&hl=en University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign] fluxions . He also was elected mathematical master at Christ's Hospital , although the painting shows it as it was 55 years after his death. * A Catholic bishop. Catholic Encyclopedia[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07037a.htm] Robert Grosseteste A.C. Crombie calls him "the real founder of the tradition of scientific thought in mediaeval Oxford, and in some ways, of the modern English intellectual tradition". * A professor of astronomy and [http://www.astro.uu.se/history/gothus.html Uppsala University] Laurentius Paulinus Gothus Archbishop of Uppsala . He wrote on astronomy and theology. Johan Ernst Gunnerus He was a Norwegian University of Science and Technology Church of Norway [http://sok.ntnu.no/index.php?type=all&query=Johan%20Ernst%20Gunnerus] bishop and botanist. The plant genus Gunnera is named for him, he researched sea creatures as well as birds, and he helped found The Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters. He also was a professor of theology at the University of Copenhagen . Athanasius Kircher Jesuit who had a theory seen as one of the antecedents to [http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/jmac/sj/scientists/kircher.htm Fairfield University] germ theory and helped rebuild a shrine to Mother Mary . Colin Maclaurin Briefly a [http://www.maclaurin.org/about_us.php The Maclaurin Institute] Divinity student , had a Christian institute named for him. * Patron saint Catholic Encyclopedia[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01264a.htm] Albertus Magnus of scientists in Catholicism, may have been the first to isolate arsenic . * 70px For four years he devoted himself to theology writing Quaestiones celeberrimae in Genesim ( Marin Mersenne 1623) and L'Impiete des deistes (1624). These were theological essays against atheism and deism. He is more remembered for the work he did corresponding with mathematicians and concerning Mersenne prime s. The picture is of Nevers where he taught. Isaac Newton He wrote Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel and [http://www.gutenberg.org/files/16878/16878-h/16878-h.htm Gutenberg.org copy of that book] the Apocalypse of St. John ( Nontrinitarianism ) * Theologian who made contributions to the field of mathematics by developing the concepts of the infinitesimal and of relative motion. [http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Cusa.html McTutor] and Catholic Encyclopedia[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11060b.htm] Nicholas of Cusa * Passionate theologian and Bishop of Catholic Encyclopedia[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11296a.htm] Nicolas Oresme Lisieux , he was one of the principal founders and popularizers of modern sciences, and probably the most original thinker of the 14th century. Blaise Pascal Convert to Jansenism known for [http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Pascal.html McTutor] Pascal's law (physics), Pascal's theorem (math), and Pascal's Wager (theology) * His criticism of Aristotelian physics was important to Medieval science. He also theorized about the nature of light and the stars. He was also called John of Alexandria, hence the picture. As a theologian he rejected the Cornell University John Philoponus Council of Chalcedon [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0031-8108(199001)99%3A1%3C107%3APATROA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-J] and so was a figure in the Stanford University Monophysitism [http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/philoponus/] minority of Eastern Christianity. Joseph Priestley Nontrinitarianism [http://online.sksm.edu/ouh/chapter/32_XXXII.html Starr King school for the ministry] clergyman who wrote the controversial work History of the Corruptions of Christianity. He is also credited with discovering oxygen . (Although Carl Wilhelm Scheele did so years before) John Ray An English botanist who wrote The Wisdom of God manifested in the Works of the Creation. ( University of California, Berkeley 1691 [http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/ray.html] and [http://www.asa3.org/ASA/PSCF/1989/PSCF6-89Armstrong.html ASA] ) The [http://www.jri.org.uk/ John Ray Initiative] of Environment and Christianity is also named for him. * He was a [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13040a.htm Catholic Encyclopedia] Giovanni Battista Riccioli Jesuit and an astronomer . He extensively studied the Moon , much of the nomenclature of lunar features still in use today is due to him. He was the first to measure the rate of acceleration of a falling body. In religion he taught theology and worked against the Copernican system in accordance with Church requirements of the era. Despite, or perhaps because of, that he named Copernicus crater which is the crater pictured. Gaspar Schott Jesuit who wrote Mechanica Hydraulio-pneumatica and gave an early description of a [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13589a.htm Catholic Encyclopedia], [http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/jmac/sj/scientists/schott.htm Fairfield University], and [http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:pZZK3K6awTwJ:web.clas.ufl.edu/users/rhatch/pages/03-Sci-Rev/SCI-REV-Home/resource-ref-read/major-minor-ind/westfall-dsb/SAM-S.htm+%22Paolo+Boccone%22+%22biography%22+-wikipedia&hl=en University of Florida] Universal joint , object pictured. He also taught moral theology at the Jesuit college at Palermo Anton Maria Schyrleus of Rheita 70px Capuchin astronomer. He dedicated one of his astronomy books to Jesus Christ , a "theo-astronomy" work was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary , and he wondered if beings on other planets were "cursed by original sin like humans are." Nicolas Steno Lutheran convert to Catholicism, his [http://dlibrary.acu.edu.au/research/theology/ejournal/aejt_5/Sobiech.htm Australian E-Journal of Theology] and Beatification in that faith occurred in 1987 . * Led to the development of [http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:pZZK3K6awTwJ:web.clas.ufl.edu/users/rhatch/pages/03-Sci-Rev/SCI-REV-Home/resource-ref-read/major-minor-ind/westfall-dsb/SAM-S.htm+%22Paolo+Boccone%22+%22biography%22+-wikipedia&hl=en University of Florida], [http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/stifel.html Galileo Project at Rice University], and [http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Stifel.html McTutor] Michael Stifel Logarithm s, hence the picture. He was also among Martin Luther 's earlier followers and wrote on Biblical prophecies. Emanuel Swedenborg His writing is the basis of the [http://www.theheavenlydoctrines.org/ Swedenborgian site] Swedenborgianism religion and several of his theological works contained some science hypotheses. * He influenced the teaching of math and astronomy in church-ran schools. [http://math.truman.edu/~thammond/history/Gerbert.html Truman University] and an article by William Wallace, O.P. Visiting Professor, Philosophy and History, Committee on History and Philosophy and Science at Pope Sylvester II University of Maryland, College Park [http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:Qp7Gpoq8EzgJ:itest.slu.edu/theologicalview/readings2/wallace.html+%22Pope+Sylvester+II%22+%22religion+and+science%22&hl=en] Samuel Vince Cambridge astronomer and clergyman. He wrote Observations on the Theory of the Motion and Resistance of Fluids and The credibility of Christianity vindicated, in answer to Mr. Hume?s objections. [http://www.royalsoc.ac.uk/page.asp?id=1794 Royal Society] and [http://www.thoemmes.com/18cphil/humeresp_relig.htm Thoemmes] John Wilkins He was a [http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Wilkins.html McTutor] Bishop of Chester and wrote Mathematical Magick, or the wonders that may be performed by mechanical geometry. Christopher Wren He designed [http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Wren.html McTutor] St Paul's Cathedral and held the Savilian Chair of Astronomy at Oxford. He spoke of astronomical arguments use in Biblical accounts, studied Saturn , and wrote on geometric progression . Nineteenth century to present An exclamation point before the name indicates those who are still living. Name Image Reason for inclusion Charles Babbage The [http://www.victorianweb.org/science/science_texts/bridgewater/babbage_intro.htm Victorian Web] and Difference Engine and the Ninth Bridgewater Treatise. ! A graduate of Templeton Prize Ian Barbour Duke University site.[http://www.templetonprize.org/bios_recent.html] , their logo is seen in the preceding image, who wrote Christianity and the Scientists in 1960 , and When Science Meets Religion ISBN 006060381X in 2000 . Ernest William Barnes 70px Theologian and mathematician. He was Bishop of Birmingham from 1924 to 1953 . His The Rise of Christianity angered Anglo-Catholics due to its Modernist outlook. In math he is linked to the Barnes G-function and wrote 29 papers before 1910 . ! 70px He is a former president of both the R.J. Berry Linnean Society of London and the Christians in Science group. He also wrote Francesco Faa di Bruno An Italian mathematician most linked to [http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Faa_di_Bruno.html McTutor] and the Catholic Encyclopedia[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05740a.htm] Turin . He is known for Faa di Bruno's formula and being a spiritual writer beatified in 1988 . William Buckland Anglican priest/geologist who wrote Vindiciae Geologiae; or the Connexion of Geology with Religion explained. University of Oxford site.[http://www.oum.ox.ac.uk/geocolls/buckland/bio3.htm] Georg Cantor Lutheran IUPUI who wrote on religious topics and had an interest in Medieval [http://www.engr.iupui.edu/~orr/webpages/cpt120/mathbios/gcant.htm] theology . Teilhard de Chardin A member of the Fairfield University Society of Jesus [http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/jmac/sj/scientists/teilhard.htm] , a Paleontologist linked to the finding of Peking Man , and a philosopher linked to the Omega Point idea. ! 70px Jesuit who works at the Guy Consolmagno Vatican Observatory and speaks on religion and science.(Image is of the VATT Popescope) Charles Coulson Methodist [http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Coulson.html McTutor] who wrote Science and Christian Belief in 1955. ! 70px Jesuit, Director of George V. Coyne Vatican Observatory James Dwight Dana Important figure in mineralogy and geology who won the [http://www.geology.yale.edu/graduate/history.html Yale Geology Department] and the [http://www.gsajournals.org/gsaonline/?request=get-document&issn=1052-5173&volume=013&issue=02&page=0020 Gelogy Society of America]'s bio. Copley Medal . He also led Bible studies and played the piano for his church choir. On a different note his strong Protestant/Congregational background hindered his acceptance of evolution. ! Mathematician, theologian, and His own article. William Dembski Intelligent Design advocate. ! 70px A scientist at Laurance Doyle SETI who argues that his faith, Christian Science , encouraged a scientific revolution. Pierre Duhem He worked on [http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Duhem.html McTutor] and Scientist and Catholic: Pierre Duhem by Thermodynamic potentials Stanley Jaki and wrote histories advocating that the [http://pirate.shu.edu/~jakistan/JakisBooks/PierreDuhem.htm] Roman Catholic Church helped advance science. Henry Eyring Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints National Academy of Sciences member whose interactions with LDS President [http://www.nap.edu/html/biomems/heyring.html] Joseph Fielding Smith on science and faith are a part of LDS history. Michael Faraday A BBC Glasite [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/faraday_michael.shtml] and[http://www.adherents.com/people/pf/Michael_Faraday.html Adherents.com] church elder for a time, he discussed the relationship of science to religion in a lecture opposing Spiritualism . Pavel Florensky Russian Orthodox Second paragraph of Page 26 in a paper from saint who wrote a book on Middlesex University Dielectric [http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:ZzJHmQEXb6oJ:mubs.mdx.ac.uk/Research/Discussion_Papers/Mathematics_and_Statistics/maths_dpaper_no_5.pdf+%22Florensky%22+%22Christianity+and+mathematics%22&hl=en] s and wrote of imaginary numbers having a relationship to the Kingdom of God. ! Mennonite Space.com[http://www.space.com/colleges/college_gingerich_profile_000921.html] and Cambridge Christians in Science.[http://www.st-edmunds.cam.ac.uk/cis/gingerich/index.html] The proceeding picture is of a house linked to Owen Gingerich who has written about people of faith in science history. Menno Simons . Philip Henry Gosse Marine biologist who wrote Aquarium (1854), and A Manual of Marine Zoology (1855-56). He is more famous, or infamous, as a Christian Fundamentalist who coined the idea of University of Houston Omphalos (theology) hosted article.[http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi1864.htm] . Asa Gray His Gray's Manual remains a pivotal work in botany. His Darwiniana has sections titled "Natural selection not inconsistent with Natural theology", "Evolution and theology", and "Evolutionary teleology." The preface indicates his adherence to the [http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext04/drwna10.txt Gutenberg text of Darwiniana] and [http://www.asa3.org/ASA/PSCF/2001/PSCF9-01Miles.html ASA] Nicene Creed in concerning these religious issues. Edward Hitchcock Geologist, paleontologist, and Congregationalist pastor. He worked on [http://58.1911encyclopedia.org/H/HI/HITCHCOCK_EDWARD.htm 1911 encyclopedia] and Natural theology Amherst College and was third President of [http://www.amherst.edu/~rjyanco/amherst/history/1894tyler-ws/chapter07/menu.html#p1] Amherst College , it's seal is pictured.(Born in 1793 , but the work by him was done in the nineteenth century. ! He is the co-chair of the [http://www.cis.org.uk/about/vice_presidents.shtml Christians in Science] John T. Houghton Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and won a gold medal from the Royal Astronomical Society . He's also former Vice President of Christians in Science. ! Benedictine Seton Hall University Stanley Jaki who won a site.[http://pirate.shu.edu/~jakistan/JakisBooks/SaviorOfScience.htm] Templeton Prize and advocates the idea modern science could only have arisen in a Christian society. Lord Kelvin He gave a famous address to the Institute of Physics Christian Evidence Society [http://physicsweb.org/articles/world/15/12/6] and his own article. . In science he won the Copley Medal , the Royal Medal , ans was important in Thermodynamics . ! (Lutheran) His website.[http://www-cs-faculty.stanford.edu/~knuth/316.html] Donald Knuth The Art of Computer Programming and 3:16 Bible Texts Illuminated (1991), ISBN 0895792524 Lars Levi Laestadius A [http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:T9zc8cTX2S4J:www.utexas.edu/courses/sami/papers/elle.pdf+%22Lars+Levi+L%C3%A6stadius%22+%22botany%22&hl=en University of Texas article pages 9 to 11] botanist who started a revival movement within Lutheranism called Laestadianism . This movement is among the strictest forms of Lutheranism. As a botanist he has the author citation Laest and discovered four species. Henrietta Swan Leavitt A minister's daughter and noted astronomer who was the head of Miss Leavitt's Stars by George Johnson ISBN 0393051285 Photometry (astronomy) at Harvard. (She is sometimes listed as Jewish due to her last name[http://www.adherents.com/people/100_scientists.html], but in least religiously this is misleading) Georges Lemaitre His advocacy of the The New York Times Big Bang [http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:g_BClg8aSEgJ:www.nytimes.com/2005/05/17/science/17comm.html%3Fex%3D1273982400%26en%3D8ceef6e3b0c6041c%26ei%3D5090%26partner%3Drssuserland%26emc%3Drss+%22Lemaitre,+a+Catholic%22&hl=en] theory raised theological and credibility issues as he was a Catholic priest. Matthew Fontaine Maury Oceanographer who made many important new contributions to charting wind and ocean currents. Most of his writings and speeches included scriptural references. He was raised with this at dinner every night and he also created his own prayer that he used every day. Scientists of Faith and his own Physical Geography of the Sea and its Meteorology. James Clerk Maxwell He wrote [http://silas.psfc.mit.edu/Maxwell/maxwell.html MIT] and A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field Scientists of Faith , A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism , and has been listed as one of Britain's greatest scientists. The Bishop of Gloucester also consulted him on matters of faith and science. Gregor Mendel Augustinian Catholic Encyclopedia.[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/10180b.htm] Abbot who argued in favor of his monastery during a taxation dispute. ! A biology professor at St. Petersburg Times Kenneth R. Miller Brown University [http://www.sptimes.com/2005/11/05/State/Intelligent_design_ma.shtml] who wrote Finding Darwin's God ISBN 0060930497 ! 70px Anglican priest and Arthur Peacocke biochemist , whose ideas may have influenced Anglican and Lutheran views of evolution. Michael Polanyi He was born Jewish, but became a [http://www.asa3.org/ASA/PSCF/1980/JASA6-80Neidhardt.html ASA] and [http://www.chemonet.hu/polanyi/9601/after1.html Polyaniana] Tolstoyan and was also married in a Roman Catholic Church . In 1946 he wrote Science, Faith, and Society ISBN 0226672905 (Merton College, where he had a fellowship, is pictured) ! 70px Anglican John Polkinghorne priest who wrote Science and the Trinity ( 2004 ) ISBN 0300104456 George Stokes A minister's son, he wrote a book on Gifford Lectures Natural Theology site.[http://www.giffordlectures.org/Author.asp?AuthorID=160][http://www.giffordlectures.org/Search.asp?PubID=TPNATT&Volume=0&Issue=0&ArticleID=1] . He was also one of the Presidents of the Royal Society and made contributions to Fluid dynamics . ! In University of California, Berkeley Charles Townes 1964 [http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2005/06/17_townes.shtml] and Templeton Prize's site.[http://www.templetonprize.org/townes_pressrelease.html] he won the Nobel Prize in Physics and in 1966 he wrote The Convergence of Science and Religion. Henry Baker Tristram A founding member of the [http://www.dur.ac.uk/m.d.eddy/HoSinDurhamTristram.html University of Durham] British Ornithologists' Union . His publications included The Natural History of the Bible (1867) and The Fauna and Flora of Palestine (1884). William Whewell A professor of mineralogy and moral philosophy. He wrote An Elementary Treatise on Mechanics in [http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2004/entries/whewell/#1 Stanford philosophy site] and [http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:ZzJHmQEXb6oJ:mubs.mdx.ac.uk/Research/Discussion_Papers/Mathematics_and_Statistics/maths_dpaper_no_5.pdf+%22William+Whewell%22+Christianity+and+Mathematics&hl=en Middlesex University article] 1819 and Astronomy and General Physics considered with reference to Natural Theology in 1833 . E. T. Whittaker Converted to Catholicism in [http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Whittaker.html McTutor] 1930 and member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences . His 1946 Donnellan Lecture was entitled on Space and Spirit. Theories of the Universe and the Arguments for the Existence of God. He also received the Copley Medal and had written on Mathematical physics before conversion. Dr. John Williams A hydrologist who was chief of the land and water division of the CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation , their logo is pictured. He is currently chief scientist for New South Wales 's Department of Infrastructure Planning and Natural Resources (DIPNR). He is also a member of the Uniting Church in Australia who did formal study in theology. Theodor Wulf About the radiation of high penetration capacity contained in the atmosphere, taught at the pictured [http://neutrino.phys.washington.edu/~berns/WALTA/hess/wulf_1909_transl.html Physics article by him] Gottingen , and was a Jesuit who taught at a Jesuit school. Negatives and critical appraisals Science or Scientists repressed by Christians The Academy of Athens -Closed by Christians. Comte de Buffon -Catholic officials burned his books for suggesting the Earth could be as much as 75,000 years old. Galileo Galilei -Excommunicated for heliocentrism. Heliocentrism -Repressed by the Catholic Church. Hypatia of Alexandria -Killed by a Christian mob. Library of Alexandria -Destroyed in a purging of paganism. George Jackson Mivart -Active convert excommunicated for his views on faith and science. Michael Servetus -Killed by Calvinists for being a unitarian. Links skeptical of Christians role in science [http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v394/n6691/full/394313a0_fs.html Leading scientists still reject God] [http://www.secularhumanism.org/index.php?section=library&page=avalos_18_4 Secular Humanism.org article on Science and Religion] [http://www.positiveatheism.org/writ/huascar.htm Positive Atheism article critical of Lemaitre] See also Scientists of Faith -An article relating to the book Scientists of Faith by Dan Graves ISBN 082542724X