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U.S. Politicians whose religious affiliation is listed simply as "Christian"


NOTE:
This is not a general page about politicians who were Christians. For detailed lists of politicians who were Christians of various denominations, see the many denominational lists linked to from the Famous Adherents webpage.

Below are the names of U.S. politicians whose religious affiliation is identified only as "Christian" in the official congressional biographies and other sources used to compile the database at the Political Graveyard website. In some cases, the politicians listed below may have been quite forthcoming about their actual denominational affiliation and this information simply did not make it into the database for one reason or another. But most of the politicans below simply did not provide any other information other than "Christian" as their religious affiliation in official sources.

The vast majority of American politicians are perfectly willing to identify their actual denominational affiliation within Christianity (i.e., Methodist, Catholics, Latter-day Saint, Presbyterian, etc.), or identify their religion if non-Christian (i.e., Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist, etc.). Why, then, do a small minority of politicians state their religious affiliation as "Christian"?

In some cases, politicans have identified themselves only as "Christian" as a way of being evasive about the fact that they are essentially non-religious and only nominal in their Christian religious affiliation. These politicians may have so little personal contact with and belief in actual Christian denominations and congregations that they can not even specify the name of a denomination with which they are nominally associated. Yet such politicians do not want to state "none" or "non-religious" or "agnostic" when asked their religious affiliation, out of fear of alienating an overwhelmingly Christian electorate. This may seem cynical, but it has happened, although such instances constitute only a small minority of the "Christian" politicians listed below.

Another reason a politician stating their religious affiliation simply as "Christian" occurs when the politician is actually a fervent and sincere Christian, but does not identify strongly with any specific denomination. This can occur for a variety of reasons, but often happens when a politician embraces Christianity but is discontent with the religious denomination in which they were raised. President Jimmy Carter, for example, was one of the nation's most openly faithful and evangelical Christian presidents. But Pres. Carter publicly ended his membership in and renounced the Southern Baptist Convention (the denomination he had been raised in and spent much of his adult years teaching Sunday School for) when he felt that denomination had shifted farther from his understanding of Christianity than he could tolerate.

For the politicians listed below, however, one of the most likely reasons for being identified only as "Christian" is that they were Stone-Campbellites, i.e., members of a specific religious movement which has been strongly "anti-denominational" during most of its history. Members of Stone-Campbell (or "Restoration Movement") churches frequently identify themselves and their church simply as "Christian."

After schisms, there have emerged three main religious bodies within the Stone-Campbell movement. The most "liberal" is known as the "Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)." Members of this denomination typically identify themselves as "Disciples of Christ" and are the most willing to apply the word "denomination" (and the concept) to their religious body.

The most "conservative" Stone-Campbell religious body is known as the "Churches of Christ" or (individually) "church of Christ." Members of this religious body often identify their religious affiliation as "Church of Christ" or "Churches of Christ," but occasionally identify themselves only as "Christian."

The Stone-Campbell group typically classified as the "middle" or "moderate" group between the Churches of Christ and the Disciples of Christ is known as the "Christian Church and Churches of Christ" or "Christian Church/Churches of Christ" (often abbreviated CC/CC). The members of this religious body (which, like the Churches of Christ, strongly rejects the word "denomination") are those who are most likely to identify their religious affiliation simply as "Christian." They will sometimes answer questions about their denominational affiliation by stating that they belong to the "Christian Church." Members of all Stone-Campbell churches and religious bodies rarely identify themselves as "Stone-Campbellites."

The Political Graveyard database incorporates data about politicians from throughout the history of the United States. During most of that time, it has been relatively rare for politicians who were not Stone-Campbellites to identify their religious affiliation only as "Christian." Furthermore, this database has separate listings for members of two Stone-Campbell groups: the Disciples of Christ and the Church of Christ. For these reasons, it is likely that a large proportion (perhaps the majority) of the politicians classified simply as "Christian" are members of the moderate Stone-Campbell group known as the "Christian Church and Churches of Christ" (CC/CC).

Note that on the the Political Graveyard website, the page for politicians whose religious affiliation is listed as "Christian," there is a note, with links: "Note: See also Church of Christ, United Church of Christ, and Disciples of Christ." Also, note that the "Christian Politicians" page does
not say anywhere that these are people who are "not further classified," or anything along those lines. The page treats this as a regular religious denomination category, listed and structured in the same manner as other denomination pages, such as "Methodist Politicians", "Catholics Politicians", etc. However, the "Protestant" page is titled "Protestant Politicians (unspecified denomination)," acknowledging that people listed therein are not simply "Protestants," but that their actual denomination was unknown or not further specified.

However, based purely on this "Christian" classification in the Political Graveyard database, it is impossible to know whether or not the politicians listed below were in fact members of this Stone-Campbell group, or whether they are classified only as "Christian" for some other reason.

Source of names and dates below:

"Christian Politicians" webpage, on Political Graveyard website (http://politicalgraveyard.com/group/christian.html; viewed 11 November 2005)

Visit The Political Graveyard website for extensive biographical and professional details about these individuals.

Alabama
David Bibb Graves (1873-1942)

Alaska
George Forrest Alexander (1882-1948)

Arizona
John Bertrand Conlan (b. 1930)
Sean Haugh (b. 1960)

Arkansas
William Ben Cravens (1872-1939)
Thomas Arthur Turner (1878-1943)
Victor Eugene Wickersham (1906-1988)

California
Walter Alexander Burke (b. 1895)
Randall Cunningham (b. 1941)
William Elmer Evans (1876-1959)
Gordon R. Hahn (1919-2001)
Janice Kay Hahn (b. 1952)
Edward Carter Hinshaw (1830-1906)
Henry Elbert Stubbs (1881-1937)
Thomas Arthur Turner (1878-1943)
Maxine Waters (b. 1938)

Colorado
Frank Lazmer Hays (1889-1951)

Florida
Louis Arthur Bafalis (b. 1929)
Charles Edward Bennett (b. 1910)
Robert Lendon Bibler (1905-1978)
Courtney Warren Campbell (1895-1971)
David Bibb Graves (1873-1942)
Beryl D. Roberts (b. 1958)
Luis Rojas (b. 1953)
Allen Trovillion (b. 1926)
David Joseph Weldon (b. 1953)

Hawaii
Benjamin J. Cayetano (b. 1939)
John David Waihee III (b. 1946)

Idaho
Charles Clinton Gossett (1888-1974)

Illinois
William Augustus Ayres (1867-1952)
John David Biggs (b. 1888)
John Bertrand Conlan (b. 1930)
Francis Marion Drake (1830-1903)
Wilber H. Hickman
Byron Holkenbrink (1903-2002)
William Leonard Hungate (b. 1922)
William Thomas Redmond (b. 1955)
Earle Benjamin Searcy (b. 1887)
Tilford Albert Willmore (b. 1869)

Indiana
Birch Evans Bayh III (b. 1955)
Robert Lendon Bibler (1905-1978)
Thomas L. Cooksey (b. 1870)
John Everet Everroad (b. 1913)
Samuel Wahl Ezelle III (b. 1920)
Baron P. Hill (b. 1953)
William Henry Larrabee (1870-1960)
Arthur Henry Noble (b. 1910)
John William Elmer Thomas (1876-1965)

Iowa
Francis Marion Drake (1830-1903)
Zales Nelson Ecton (1898-1961)
Frank Lazmer Hays (1889-1951)
Samuel Hixson (1832-1907)
Delmont Theodore Moffitt (1911-2001)
Robert D. Ray (b. 1928)
F. M. Roberts (b. 1869)
Lewis Leroy Taylor (1839-1915)
Jesse J. Wall (1831-1916)

Kansas
William Augustus Ayres (1867-1952)

Kentucky
Ben Shouse Adams (b. 1914)
John Young Brown, Sr. (1900-1985)
Walter Alexander Burke (b. 1895)
Barzillai J. Chambers (1817-1895)
Cassius M. Clay (1895-1959)
Earle Chester Clements (1896-1985)
George Irick Cline (b. 1915)
Dewey Daniel (b. 1898)
Osmer Sage Deming (b. 1838)
Julie Denton (b. 1960)
William Elmer Evans (1876-1959)
Samuel Wahl Ezelle III (b. 1920)
Enoch Edgar Hume (1844-1911)
Jack A. Nuckols (b. 1912)
R. J. Palmer II (b. 1970)
Dan Seum (b. 1940)
Roy Mahlon Shelbourne (b. 1890)
Lewis Leroy Taylor (1839-1915)
Thomas Arthur Turner (1878-1943)
Harry Lee Waterfield (1911-1988)
Ed Worley (b. 1956)

Maryland
Kevin Sung-Min Park (b. 1983)

Massachusetts
Louis Arthur Bafalis (b. 1929)
Henry Howland Crapo (1804-1869)

Michigan
Henry Howland Crapo (1804-1869)
Trafton Jean (b. 1972)
Edson V. Root, Jr. (1903-1971)

Minnesota
Delmont Theodore Moffitt (1911-2001)

Missouri
George Forrest Alexander (1882-1948)
Philip Allen Bennett (1881-1942)
Howard Lee Bickley (b. 1871)
Courtney Warren Campbell (1895-1971)
Robert Randolph Casey (1915-1986)
Philip Matthew Donnelly (1891-1961)
Sallie Hailey (b. 1903)
W. M. Harlow (b. 1934)
Haskell Holman (b. 1908)
William Raleigh Hull, Jr. (1906-1977)
William Leonard Hungate (b. 1922)
Paul Caruthers Jones (1901-1981)
Charles L. Madison (b. 1915)
William Louis Pittman (b. 1874)
Max Schwabe (1905-1983)
Lorenzo Dow Thompson (1873-1951)
Julio Herpers Valdes (b. 1895)
Ruth Van Valkenburg (b. 1897)
Maxine Waters (b. 1938)

Montana
Zales Nelson Ecton (1898-1961)

Nebraska
John William DeCamp (b. 1941)
John Everet Everroad (b. 1913)
Harry Evans Sackett (b. 1874)
William T. Thompson, Jr. (b. 1888)
Willard Everett Townsend (b. 1904)
Alfred Alvin Wiegardt (b. 1899)
Tilford Albert Willmore (b. 1869)

New Jersey
Kevin Sung-Min Park (b. 1983)

New Mexico
Howard Lee Bickley (b. 1871)
William Thomas Redmond (b. 1955)

New York
Osmer Sage Deming (b. 1838)
Vladimir Karapetoff (b. 1876)
David Joseph Weldon (b. 1953)

North Carolina
Jackson K. Dixon (b. 1878)
Sean Haugh (b. 1960)
Edward Carter Hinshaw (1830-1906)
Jack A. Nuckols (b. 1912)
Elbert Sidney Peel, Jr. (b. 1922)
David Jennings Rose (b. 1896)
Jesse J. Wall (1831-1916)

Ohio
Rudolph Wellmon Archer (b. 1869)
Osmer Sage Deming (b. 1838)
Charles Clinton Gossett (1888-1974)
Samuel Hixson (1832-1907)
Wilbert Lee O'Daniel (1890-1969)
Harry Evans Sackett (b. 1874)
William Henry Vodrey, Jr. (1873-1954)

Oklahoma
Allen Edward Barrow (1914-1979)
Carmon Coleman Harris (b. 1904)
William Louis Pittman (b. 1874)
John William Elmer Thomas (1876-1965)
William T. Thompson, Jr. (b. 1888)
Ruth Van Valkenburg (b. 1897)
Victor Eugene Wickersham (1906-1988)

Oregon
George Forrest Alexander (1882-1948)
Edith Starrett Green (1910-1987)

Pennsylvania
Theodore M. Bowers (b. 1907)
James C. Reynolds (1941-2000)
William Tompos (b. 1914)

South Carolina
Beryl D. Roberts (b. 1958)
Frederick G. Scurry (b. 1923)

South Dakota
Edith Starrett Green (1910-1987)

Tennessee
Robert Coleman Foster (1769-1844)
Charles L. Heaberlin (b. 1883)
William Cannon Houston (1852-1931)
Luke E. Terry (b. 1916)

Texas
Kearie Lee Berry (1893-c.1962)
Robert Randolph Casey (1915-1986)
Barzillai J. Chambers (1817-1895)
Billy Robert Hext (1939-2001)
Wilbert Lee O'Daniel (1890-1969)
Henry Elbert Stubbs (1881-1937)

Virginia
Robert Coleman Foster (1769-1844)
Mills Edwin Godwin, Jr. (1914-1999)
Harley Martin Kilgore (1893-1956)

Washington
Adam Smith (b. 1965)

West Virginia
Theodore M. Bowers (b. 1907)
Walter Alexander Burke (b. 1895)
A. Emerson Doak (b. 1876)
J. Thomas Godby (b. 1926)
Charles L. Heaberlin (b. 1883)
W. D. Keister (b. 1867)
Harley Martin Kilgore (1893-1956)
William Madison LaFon (1888-1941)
Jack A. Nuckols (b. 1912)
Robert Lincoln Ramsay (1877-1956)
Leon Rice (b. 1911)
E. R. Romans (b. 1900)
Eugene L. Scott (b. 1912)
F. E. Strickling (b. 1866)
Luke E. Terry (b. 1916)
William Tompos (b. 1914)
Oscar Watts (b. 1886)
Paul C. Winter (b. 1909)

The District of Columbia
William Augustus Ayres (1867-1952)
Birch Evans Bayh III (b. 1955)
Philip Allen Bennett (1881-1942)
William Ben Cravens (1872-1939)
Adam Smith (b. 1965)

Puerto Rico
Julio Herpers Valdes (b. 1895)

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Web page created 11 November 2005. Last modified 2 December 2005.
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