Note: China should clearly be included among the top 10 largest national Muslim communities, although it was not on the list in Russell Ash's book, which is the main source of information for this list. Reliable religious statistics are difficult to obtain from this Communist nation, and the actual number of Muslims in China may be greater than the figure presented above. Mojtaba Shabani wrote to Adherents.com with the following comments:
The Muslim population in China is 11% by Muslim sources. This is based on the fact the ethnic "Hui" group are predominantly Muslim, and 9% of the population belong to this group. And then there are Uigurs and other Turkic people in addition to that, mostly in northwestern China, who constitute the remaining 2%... 11% would be around 120 million.
Adherents.com has no argument with Mr. Shabani's calculations, but as we currently have no published references supporting the higher figure we are using the CIA figure in the list above, with the caveat that it is probably too low and, according to Mr. Shabani, the CIA is biased against Muslims.
Source: Ash, Russell. The Top 10 of Everything, DK Publishing, Inc.: New York (1997), pg. 160-161. China statistic: CIA World Factbook 1998.
U.S. States With Highest Proportion of Muslims in the Population
This data set is from the 1990 National Survey of Religious Identification, conducted by the City University of New York, based on self-identification, as collected through a nationwide phone survey of 113,000 people.
Source: Kosmin, Barry A. and Seymour P. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993), pg. 88-93.