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Over 42,000 religious geography and religion statistics citations (membership statistics for over 4,000 different religions, denominations, tribes, etc.) for every country in the world.

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Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Five Pecks of Rice Taoism China - - - - 1100 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 745. "Between 1100 and 1400 three developments occurred that have helped shape modern Taoism. The first, the revival of the Celestial Master tradition (also known as Cheng-I [Orthodox One] tradition), based at Lung-hu Shan in Kiangsi Province, began to establish that sect's present position as the arbiter of orthodoxy in Taoism. "
Five Pecks of Rice Taoism China - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 182-183. Chapter: Taoism. "Church Taoism can be divided into 2 main branches. The 1st, the Way of Right Unity (Cheng-i tao), encompasses schools that use magical practices such as amulets... begun by Chang Tao-ling (or Chang Ling, AD 34-156)... school he founded. The Five Pecks of Rice School (Wu-tou-me-tao)... remained active through the 15th century... also known as the School of the Celestial Masters (T'ien-shih tao), since Chang Ling was venerated as a Celestial Master... a title that was inherited by each of his successors down to the present day. (When this lineage of 'Taoist popes,' was kicked off the mainland by the Communists in 1949, it continued in Taiwan.) "
Goke-shichishu China - - - - 900 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 119. "Goke-shichishu: Jap., lit. 'five houses-seven schools'; general term for the 7 schools of Ch'an (Zen) during the T'ang period; these stemmed from 5 lineages ('houses' or 'families'). The 5 houses and their founders are (1) Rinzai school of Lin-chi I'hsua... (2) Igyo school of Kuei-shan Ling-yu & Yang-shan Hui-chi; (3) Soto school of Tung-shan Liang-chieh & Ts'ao-shan Pen-chi; (4) Ummon school of Yu-men Wen-yen (Jap. Ummon Ben'en); & (5) Hogen school of Fa-yen Wen-i... The 7 schools are the above-mentioned 5 houses plus the 2 further schools into which the Rinzai school split after Shi-shuang Ch'u-yuan. These 2 are (6) Yogi school of Yang-ch'i Fang-hui & (7) Oryo school of Huang-lung Hui-nan "
Han China - 98.00% - - 1992 Peddicord, Kathleen (ed). The World's Best: The Ultimate Book for the International Traveler. Baltimore, MD: Agora, Inc. (1992), pg. 253. "Although 98% of China's population is made up of Han people, the remaining 2% contains nearly 50 million members of minority groups. "
Han China 1,113,200,000 92.00% - - 1996 Stefoff, Rebecca. China (series: Major World Nations). Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers (1999), pg. 8-9. "Population: 1,210,000,000 (1996)... Ethnic Groups: Han Chinese, 92%; Zhuang, 1.33%; Mancu, .75%; Hui, .67%; Miao, .67%; Uygur, .58%; Yi, .57%; Tibetan, .42%; Mongol, .42% "
Han China 1,111,500,032 95.00% - - 1997 Leibo, Steven A. East, Southeast Asia, and the Western Pacific 1997 (The World Today Series). Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Stryker-Post Publications (1997), pg. 13. Estimates of % of population in ethnic (NOT religious) backgrounds, & est. 1997 total pop.
Han China - 90.00% - - 1998 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 36. "The Chinese consider themselves as Han, descended from the Han dynasty that was a pivotal point in Chinese history. Although over 90 percent of Chinese are ethnically Han, the distinction between Han and other racial gropes is not black and white. The notion of being Chinese - Han Chinese - is to some degree a cultural concept, an acceptance of Chinese values. The Han Chinese are, of course, derived from a distinctive racial background, but over the centuries, the Han absorbed racial minorities. The Han Chinese have traditionally populated the eastern part of the country, leaving the empty spaces to the west and north, at least up until modern times, to the minority ethnic groups. (Within China, only in Tibet is a national minority group actually the majority, with 98% of the population.) "
Hmong China 5,000,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 261-262. "An estimated 3-5 million [Hmong] continue to live in southern China, mostly in Yunnan. "
Hosso Buddhism China - - - - 845 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 248. "Fa-hsiang. Classical school of Chinese Buddhism founded by Hsuan-tsang on the teachings of Indian Yogacara Idealism; also known as Wei-shih tsung ('Consciousness-Only school')... The Fa-hsiang school school flourished during the middle of the T'ang Dynasty, but faded in the persecution of 845. Too abstract to compete with Ch'an (Zen) and Pure Land Buddhism, it nevertheless contributed to Ch'an's emphasis on 'mind.' "
Hua-yen China - - - - 712 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 145. "Hua-yen school: Chin. (Jap. - Kegon school)... lit. 'Flower Garland school'; important school of Chinese Buddhism... It was founded by Fa-tsang (643-712), but its earliest beginnings go back to the monks Tu-shun (557-640) and Chih-yen (602-68)... 5th patriarch... was Tsung-mi (780-841), who is considered the outstanding master of the school. The Hua-yen school was brought to Japan in the year 740 by Shen-hsiang (Jap., Shinsho). There it was propagated under the name Kegon. "
Hui China 5,000,000 0.48% - - 1982 McLenighan, Valjean. China (series: Enchantment of the World). Chicago: Childrens Press (1984), pg. 117. "The Uighurs, Kazakhs, and Kirghiz write and speak Turkic langauges. But the 4 or 5 million members of the Hui national minority all write and speak Chinese. Except for the fact that they are Muslims, there is little to distinguish the Hui from the Han. Though most Hui live in Ningsia (Ningxia) Autonomous Region, some live in Yunnan, Sinkiang, and the area between Peking and Wuhan. "
Hui China 8,107,000 0.67% - - 1996 Stefoff, Rebecca. China (series: Major World Nations). Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers (1999), pg. 8-9, 81. "Population: 1,210,000,000 (1996)... Ethnic Groups: Han Chinese, 92%; Zhuang, 1.33%; Mancu, .75%; Hui, .67%; Miao, .67%; Uygur, .58%; Yi, .57%; Tibetan, .42%; Mongol, .42% "; Pg. 81: "The Hui are Muslims, descendants of Chinese who adopted the religion of Islam when it entered China in the 7th century. The 8 million Hui make up 0.67 percent of the population. Most of them live in the Ningxia autonomous region and in smaller autonomous communities in the provinces of Gansu, Henan, and Hebei. The Hui use the Chinese language. "
Hung Hsui-chuan China - - - - 1864 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 13). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1827. "In modern times, the messianic figures who have commanded the greatest following have appeared in non-Christian countries or among underdeveloped peoples. An example is Hung Hsui-chuan, the son of a Chinese peasant household who emerged as a visionary, after repeatedly failing the Civil Service examinations, and inspired the Taiping rebellion which began in southern China in 1851 and lasted until 1864, with Nanking as its capital for most of this period. "
I-Kuan-Tao China - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 190. Chapter: Taoism. "One prominent non-Taoist sect [in China today] is the I Kuan Tao (Way of Pervading Unity). Like the Vedanta Society of Vivekananda, it embraces all major traditions, including the Confucian, Taoist, Buddhist, Christian, Muslim, and Hindu, along with their gods and prophets. Its main deity is the Mother of No-Birth, the creator of the world. Members abstain from meat, alcohol, and tobacco and focus on controlling the mind by lessening desire. The Communist government of China has sought to suppress this and other antiauthoritarian sects, for obvious reasons. "
Inner Gods Hygiene School China - - - - 400 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 155-156. "Inner Deity Hygiene School: a movement within religious Taoism (tao-chiao) which allocated deities to the various parts & organs of the human body... The basic philosophical tract of this movement, which flourished between the 2d & 6th century C.E., is the Hsuang-t'ing ching... During the 6th century C.E. the... School was displaced by the School of the Magic Jewel (ling-pao p'ai, Ling-pao ching) and the consequent externalization of the inner deities. "
Inner Gods Hygiene School China - - - - 400 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 185-186. Chapter: Taoism. "Between the 2nd and 6th centuries AD, alongside Neo-Taoist and Confucianist developments, a movement arose within Religious Taoism of the Cheng-i Tao branch came to be known as the Inner Gods Hygiene School. "
Inner Gods Hygiene School China - - - - 550 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 187. Chapter: Taoism. "During the 6th century, the School of the Magic Jewel (Ling-pao p'ai), which had begun to develop during the two previous centuries, displaced the Inner Gods Hygiene School. "
Islam China 48,104,240 - 42,371
units
- 1945 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 145. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] "There are in China 48,104,241 Mohammedan followers and 42,371 mosques, largely in Sinkiang, Chinghai, Manchuria, Kansu, Yunnan, Shensi, Hopei, and Honan. "
Islam China 10,000,000 - - - 1950 Zehavi, A.M. (editor) Handbook of the World's Religions. New York: Franklin Watts (1973), pg. 135. "Islam... In most areas there are no exact censuses, but approximate figures for the mid-20th century are as follows, by major groups:... in China, 10,000,000. "
Islam China 50,000,000 - - - 1969 Hutchinson, John A. Paths of Faith; New York: McGraw-Hill (1969), pg. 443. "Outside this zone are the approximately fifty million Muslims of China, another thirty million in Negro regions of Africa, and approximately 800,000 in the Western world. "
Islam China 70,000,000 - - - 1969 Hutchinson, John A. Paths of Faith; New York: McGraw-Hill (1969), pg. 476-478. "Today the Muslim population of China is variously estimated at from 50 million to 70 million, while another 75 million are to be found in Indonesia, and between 1 million and 2 million in Mindanao of the Philippines. "
Islam China - - - - 1970 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 191-192. "the People's Republic of China was established along Communist lines in 1949. The Marxist government discouraged religion but did not ban it outright; that prohibition occurred during the disastrous period of the Great Cultural Revolution, 1966-78. Then, many Buddhist and Taoist temples and shrines were closed or destroyed and the clergy forced into labor. The same thing happened to the Catholic, Protestant, and Islamic clergy and places of worship that had been established in China. "
Islam China 10,000,000 1.33% - - 1972 Kinmond, William. The First Book of Communist China. New York: Franklin Watts (1972, revised edition), pg. 4, 74. Pg. 4: "No one really knows how many Chinese there are because distances are so great... roughly 750,000,000... "; Pg. 74: "There are approx. 100 million Chinese Buddhists, 10 million Moslems, 3 million Catholics, 700,000 Protestants, and 20,000 Taoist priests and nuns. "
Islam China 30,000,000 - - - 1976 Hopfe, Lews M. Religions of the World, Macmillan Publishing Co.: New York (1983) [3rd edition], pg. 452. "Today large portions of India and Pakistan are Muslim, and there are an estimated thirty million Muslims in China. "
Islam China 17,900,000 2.00% - - 1978 Welch, Alford T. "Islam " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st published in 1984], pg. 164-165. [Original src: Weeks, R. (ed.), "Muslim Peoples: A World Ethnographic Survey " (1978).] Table: "Approximate Muslim populations and percentages of total populations "
Islam China 30,000,000 - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 358. "The Muslims of China, who now number some thirty million people, constitute one of the largest yet least known communities in the Islamic world. "
Islam China 10,000,000 0.97% - - 1982 McLenighan, Valjean. China (series: Enchantment of the World). Chicago: Childrens Press (1984), pg. 129. "The estimate of the number of Muslims in China is anywhere from 7 to 10 million... Population: China's population was 1,031,882,511, including Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macao, according to the 1982 census. "; Pg. 116: "Among them are the uighurs, Kazakhs, and Kirhiz of the Sinkiang (Xinjiang) Autonomous Region. "
Islam China - - - - 1984 Time-Life BooksChina (series: Library of Nations). Amsterdam: Time-Life Books (1984), pg. 14. "Islam, introduced to China by Arab traders in the seventh century, thrives largely among the minority peoples of the north-west, although there are faithful even in Peking. "
Islam China 100,000,000 11.00% - - 1986 *LINK* Web site: "Arabic Paper "; web page: "Muslim Countries of the World " (viewed 15 June 1999). [Written 1998.] [NOTE: Unreliable statistical methodology.] "In 1986... Muslim Education Trust organization [U.K.] obtained... 1971 census & [info. from] Embassies of the respective countires... 1971 census showed the Muslim Minorities countries had around 308 Million Muslim.. "; "...add (784.5M [independent Muslim countries]+ 308M) = 1092.5 Million Muslims in 1971 "; Table shows country, "population " [number of Muslims in the country], & % Muslim. Total adds up to 317,391,000, so these figures are apparently intended to be estimates for 1986.
Islam China 40,000,000 - - - 1991 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: Jan.`91 GLOBAL PRAYER DIGEST); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) The PRC is the home of between 15,000,000 and 40,000,000 Muslims. With the exception of the Hui, Chinese Muslims are all part of 10 non-Han Chinese ethnic groups.
Islam China - 2.00% - - 1992 Goring, Rosemary (ed). Larousse Dictionary of Beliefs & Religions (Larousse: 1994) pg. 581-584. Table: "Population Distribution of Major Beliefs "; "Figures have been compiled from the most accurate recent available information and are in most cases correct to the nearest 1% "
Islam China 34,973,128 3.00% - - 1992 *LINK* web page: "ChinaStats " (viewed 19 Feb. 1999) "Population, year 1992: 1,165,771,000 "; "Religions: officially atheist, but traditionally pragmatic and eclectic; most important elements of religion are Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism; Muslim 2-3%, Christian 1% (est.) "
Islam China 18,000,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year. Pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop.
Islam China 36,647,752 3.00% - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Daoism (Taoism), Buddhism, Muslim 2%-3%, Christian 1% (est.) note: officially atheist, but traditionally pragmatic and eclectic; Total population: 1,221,591,778.
Islam China 28,800,000 2.40% - - 1998 "A Tale of China's Two Churches " in Christianity Today (July 13, 1998), pg. 33. (Source: Amity News Service, Operation World) Chart
Islam China - - - - 1999 Stefoff, Rebecca. China (series: Major World Nations). Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers (1999), pg. 81. "Many ethnic groups have their own religious preferences. For example... The Hui, Uygur, Kazak, Kirgiz, Tatar, Ozbek, Tajik, Dongxiang, Salar, and Bonan follow Islam. "
Islam China 22,100,000 2.00% - - 2000 K. F. Bin Mohd Noor. "Muslims Statistics... for Year 2000 " [orig. src: Barrett. World Christian Encyclopedia, 1982] Table
Jesus Family China - - 1
unit
- 1921 Lambert, Tony. The Resurrection of the Chinese Church; Wheaton, IL: Harold Shaw Publishers (1994), 14. "In the 1920s and 1930s many Chinese Christians broke away rom the traditional denominations and formed their own groupings. The most successful of these were... the Jesus Family set up by Jing Tianying in Shandon in 1921... "
Jojitsu China - - - - 510 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 308. "Satyasiddhi school - Skt. (Chin., Ch'eng-shih; Jap., Jojitsu), lit. 'School of the Perfection of Truth'); school of Chinese Buddhism based on the Indian Sautrantikas... Important representatives of this school were Seng-t'ao & Seng-sung, both students of Kamarajiva, who spread the teaching of the Satyasiddhi school throughout China. As a result, by the beginning of the 6th cen. it was one of the most important Buddhist schools in the country. It stood in opposition to the San-lun school... attacks by Chi-tsang & Fa-lang, 2 important representatives of the San-lun school, finally led to a decrease of interest in the Satyasiddhi school... In the 7th cen. the Satyasiddhi school was brought to Japan by a Korean monk, where, however, it continued only as a part of the Sanron school, the Japanese form of the San-lun. "
Judaism China 11,690 - - - 1500 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 15). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 2080. "A Jewish place of worship or temple was built in Kaifeng in 1163 AD. An inscription, written at the time, tells us that there were 70 Jewish clans in China. At the beginning of the 17th century, when Portuguese Jesuit missionaries discovered that Jews were living in China, there were 10 to 12 clans or between one and two thousand individuals... "
Judaism China - - - - 1500 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 15). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 2080. "Oriental Jewish Communities. The first Jewish settlers in China were probably silk merchants for the Roman Empire who came by the caravan route over Asia in the first Millennium AD. In the 16th century the Turks blocked the overland trade routes, and the Jews living in the middle of China were isolated, both from the West and from other Jewish communities. Jews from India, who probably travelled to China by sea in the 16th and later centuries, established communities on the Chinese coastline, but we are concerned here with the older and more isolated community in central China which was concentrated in Kaifeng, the capital of the Chinese Empire during the Sung Dynasty (960-1280). "
Judaism China 2,000 - - - 1600 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 15). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 2080. "At the beginning of the 17th century, when Portuguese Jesuit missionaries discovered that Jews were living in China, there were 10 to 12 clans or between one and two thousand individuals... "
Judaism China 300 - - - 1850 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 15). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 2080. "...by the middle of the 19th century there were only two or three hundred Jews left in China. "
Judaism China 300 - - - 1866 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 146. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] "Originally there were seventy families. By 1866, only seven were left, numbering about 300 people. The number has... grown since then... They neither observe sabbath nor practice circumcision. They have been largely assimilated... "
Judaism China - 0.00% - - 1993 Kertzer, Morris N. & Lawrence A. Hoffman. What is a Jew (New & Completely Revised Ed.); New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. (1993), pg. 8. "Though most Jews are of the white or Caucasian race, there are black African Jews from Ethiopia, and African-American Jews in the U.S; until recently, there were Chinese Jews in Kai-Fung-Fu and there are still Jewish communities in various places on the subcontinent of India. "
Judaism China 300 - - - 1993 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: 9/24/93 issue of GLOBAL PRAYER DIGEST); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) Today only about 300 of their descendants call themselves Jews, not a group large enough to be included as one of the 55 minority groups in China.
Kazakhs China 500,000 0.05% - - 1984 McLenighan, Valjean. China (series: Enchantment of the World). Chicago: Childrens Press (1984), pg. 117. "There are probably about half a million Kazakhs in China and 75,000 Kirghiz. " [These are not distinct religions, but ethnic groups which practice Islam.]
Kirghiz China 75,000 0.01% - - 1984 McLenighan, Valjean. China (series: Enchantment of the World). Chicago: Childrens Press (1984), pg. 117. "There are probably about half a million Kazakhs in China and 75,000 Kirghiz. " [These are not distinct religions, but ethnic groups which practice Islam.]
Kosha Buddhism China - - - - 793 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 184. "Kosha School - the actual meaning is 'School of the Abhidharmakosha'; a school of Chinese Buddhism based on the Abhidharmakosha of Vasubandhu... The Kosha school belongs by its doctrine to the 'realistic' school of the Hinayana... The school existed as such only during the T'an Dynasty; it is mentioned in an official document of 793 as part of the idealistic Fa-hsiang school, since no one actually belonged exclusively to the Kosha faction. In the 7th and 8th centuries the Kosha teachings were brought to Japan. "
Lamaistic Buddhism China - - - - 1999 Stefoff, Rebecca. China (series: Major World Nations). Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers (1999), pg. 81. "Many ethnic groups have their own religious preferences. For example, Tibetans, Mongolians, Lhobas, Moinbas, Tus, and Yugurs are generally Lamaists. "
Li China 1,100,000 - - - 1990 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 442. "Li: Alternate Names: Ha, Gei, Zun, Moi-Fau, and Shai; Location: China (pimarily Hainan Island province); Population: 1.1 million; Language: Li; Religion: Ancestor worship "; "Li population was 1.1 million in 1990. "; "Ancestor worship and belief in ghosts and gods are widespread among the Li. They pay special attention to witchcraft... "
Little Flock China - - - - 1945 Lambert, Tony. The Resurrection of the Chinese Church; Wheaton, IL: Harold Shaw Publishers (1994), 14. "In the 1920s and 1930s many Chinese Christians broke away rom the traditional denominations and formed their own groupings. The most successful of these were... the Little Flock founded by Ni Tuosheng (Watchman Nee), which spread across China in the thirties and forties... "
Little Flock China - - - - 1952 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 431. "Little Flock Movement. Begun in Foochow, China (1922) as an informal student group for prayer and Bible study. Under the influence of Watchman Nee it spread widely, its adherents meeting informally for breaking of bread and in assemblies. It was effectively dissolved after Nee's arrest by the People's Republic [in 1952]. "
Little Flock China - - 200
units
- 1955 *LINK* Web site: "TrueBranch Ministry "; OPPOSING VIEW web page: "Watchman Nee & Witness Lee " (viewed 3 July 1999). Written by Miles J. Stanford. "The Little Flock Movement: The late Watchman Nee was the Chinese founder and leader of the assembly-type movement named after the Brethren The Little Flock hymnal--although it had no connection with the Plymouth Brethren movement. Having emerged in the early 1920's, by 1950 there were some 200 assemblies established in China, with numbers of them spreading later into Taiwan and other parts of Asia. "
Magic Jewel, School of the China - - - - 400 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 203. "Ling-pao p'ai: Chin., lit. 'School of the Magic Jewel'; a branch of religious Taoism that developed in the 4th/5th C.E. and was based on the scriptures of the Magic Jewel... The Magic Jewel School owed its rapid spread to this simplification. "
Magic Jewel, School of the China - - - - 550 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 187-188. Chapter: Taoism. "During the 6th century, the School of the Magic Jewel (Ling-pao p'ai), which had begun to develop during the two previous centuries, displaced the Inner Gods Hygiene School. The Magic Jewel sect taught that individual liberation was dependent on outside help from the T'ien-tsun, the highest gods of the Taoist Church... After the 3rd century, the T'ien-tsun gradually became identified with the Buddhist concept of the bodhisattva... "
Mahayana Buddhism China - - - - 1998 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 44. "The type of Buddhism that is prevalent in China today is the Mahayana (Great Wheel)... "
Manchus China 9,075,000 0.75% - - 1996 Stefoff, Rebecca. China (series: Major World Nations). Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers (1999), pg. 8-9. "Population: 1,210,000,000 (1996)... Ethnic Groups: Han Chinese, 92%; Zhuang, 1.33%; Mancu, .75%; Hui, .67%; Miao, .67%; Uygur, .58%; Yi, .57%; Tibetan, .42%; Mongol, .42% "; Pg. 82: "Among ethnic groups of northern China are the Manchu, who claim to be descended from the Manchurians who invaded China in the 17th century, and the Koreans, who live in an autonomous district in Jilin province, which borders North Korea. "
Manchus China 9,850,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 475. "Man (Manchus): Alternate Names: Jurchens, Manzhou, Manchus; Location: China; Population: 8.95 million; Language: Chinese, Manchu; Religion: Some shamanism "; "Dwelling mainly in northeast China, the Man, better known as the Manchus, have a long history... " "Religion: The traditional beliefs of the Manchus are rooted in Shamanism. According to the Manchus, a shaman means... The shaman's duty is to help women bear children, to cure illness, and to shield from misfortune... Another shaman is responsible for sacrificial offerings on religious festivals or when a major event occurs. Shamanism still exists in traditional Manchu villages, but has disappeared from cities a long time ago. "
Manchus China - - - - 1998 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 45. "Today there are Buddhists among the Han Chinese, the Mongols, Tibetans, Manchus, Tu, Qiang and Dai... peoples. "
Manichaeism China - - - - 1350 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 804. "In the mid-fourteenth century several White Lotus groups rebelled against Mongol rule in the name of both Maitreya and the Manichean King of Light. "
Manichaeism China 0 - - - 1350 C.E. *LINK* web site: "Encyclopedia of the Orient "; web page: "Manichaeism " (viewed 26 Jan. 1999) "Spread out over most of the known world of the 1st millennium AD, from Spain to China. Manichaeism disappeared from the West in 10th century, and from China in the 14th century. During the Roman Empire, Manichaeism got a strong position in North Africa... For 80 years, from 762, Manichaeism was the state religion of a Turkic people (Uighurs). "
Mao-shan p'ai China - - - - 550 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 221. "Mao-shan p'ai - Chin., lit. 'School of Mount Mao'; one of the talisman schools (fu-lu p'ai) of religious Taoism (tao-chiao). The Mount Mao movement was founded in the 6th century by T'ao Hung-ching and is basedo n the teachings of the brothers Mao (2nd century), whom T'ao venerated... The Mao-shan movement flourished during the Sui and T'ang dynasties and in the 13th century was absorbed by the Way of Right Unity (cheng-i tao). "
Maoism China - - - - 1966 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 34. "In 1966, student discontent turned into massive protests. Mao exploited these protests, initiating the 'Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution' to unsettle his opponents. Party cadres provoked a mass movement of the Red Guards, tossing the country once again into chaos, at times close to civil war. Intellectuals, artists and politicians, including top party leadership, fell victim to the terror of the Red Guards. Schools closed, artistic life stagnated, international relations evaporated. At the same time, Mao elevated himself in a personality cult unprecedented anywhere else in the world. "
Maoism China 800,000,000 - - - 1975 Wallechinsky, David & Irving Wallace; The People's Almanac; Garden City, NY: Doubleday (1975), pg. 1270. List of "Major World Religions ": "The main tenets of Maoism are faith in the Communist party... It is estimated that there are 800 million Maoists in China alone, although they don't all agree on practical interpretations of the scripture. "
Master God China 10,000 - - - 1999 Hutzler, Charles. "Cults Boom As New Millennium Looms " from Associated Press, 25 July 1999. "Over the past half year or so, Chinese authorities have shut down several cults, arresting their leaders. One group, the Master God Sect, had by official count 10,000 members spread over 22 provinces. Its leader was sentenced to death in June. "
Mennonite World Conference China 90 - - - 1997 *LINK* Mennonite World Conference web site; page: "Mennonite and Brethren in Christ World Membership Totals " (viewed 8 Aug. 1999). Table: "Mennonite and Brethren in Christ World Membership Totals "; "based on the most recent data available... from 1996 or 1997... statistics indicate baptized members "; Dif. religious bodies: 1.
Mi-tsung China - - - - 750 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 229. "Mi-tsung - Chin., lit. 'School of Secrets'; Tantric school of Chinese Buddhism, which as brought to China in the 8th century by three Indian masters of Tantra... After the death of Amoghavajra, who was the personal teacher of the three emperors, it quickly decreased in importance, since no more Tantric masters came to China from India. This school was systematized and brought to Japan by Kukai, a Japanese monk and student of the Mi-tsung master Hui-Kuo... The school is known as Shingon in Japan, where it is one of the most important Buddhist schools. "
Miao China 3,000,000 0.29% - - 1984 McLenighan, Valjean. China (series: Enchantment of the World). Chicago: Childrens Press (1984), pg. 117. "More than three million Miao and about a million Yao have also adopted many features of the Han culture. These farming people live in remote mountain settlements and along streams and rivers in the southwest. "
Miao China 8,107,000 0.67% - - 1996 Stefoff, Rebecca. China (series: Major World Nations). Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers (1999), pg. 8-9. "Population: 1,210,000,000 (1996)... Ethnic Groups: Han Chinese, 92%; Zhuang, 1.33%; Mancu, .75%; Hui, .67%; Miao, .67%; Uygur, .58%; Yi, .57%; Tibetan, .42%; Mongol, .42% "; Pg. 82: "The Miao and Yao are ethnic groups of southern China. Their languages and cultures are a blend of Chinese and Tibetan influences, but both of these grops are rapidly being assimiliated into the Han population. "
minority groups China 70,000,000 8.00% - - 1998 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 41. "There are over 50 officially recognized minority groups in China, including those in Tibet and Xingiang. Most minority groups live along China's strategic, sometimes troubled and usually sparsely-populated international borders... The defining elements of a minority are language, homeland, and social values. Perhaps eight percent of China's population is part of a minority group, with the largest being the 12-million-strong Zhuang, in southwestern China. Given China's population of 1.2 billion, over 70 million people are non-Han Chinese. "
Mithraism China - - - - -700 B.C.E. *LINK* web site: "Mithras " (by Payam Nabarz); web page: Introduction (viewed 2 April 1999). "Mithra is also seen in Chinese mythology, where he is known as 'The Friend'. Mithra is represented as a Military General in Chinese statues, and is considered to be the friend of man in this life and his protector against evil in the next. "
Mohists China 0 - - - 50 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 198. Chapter: Taoism. "Mohists: Followers of Mo Ti (Mo-tzu or 'Master Mo,' 5th-4th centuries BC), who opposed the teaching of Confucius... Not quite pacifists, the Mohists believed in self-defense, and since many of them were engineers, they excelled in creating defenses and defensive weapons for cities under siege. By the 4th century BC, Mo-Tzu's system was rivaling Confucianism, but it died out around the 1st century AD. "
Naxi China 300,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 556-557. "Naxi: Alternate Names: Muoshayi, Moxieman, Nari, Naheng, Malimasha, Yuanke, Bangxi, Muoxie, Moshu, and Wuman; Location: China; Population: 300,000; Language: Naxi and Chinese; Religion: Dongba, Lamaism, Taoism, and Christianity "; "Most Naxi believe in a religion called 'Dongba'; others believe in Lamaism (the Tibetan version of Mahayana Buddhism) or Taoism. Since the 19th century a small number of them have converted to Christianity. " [NOTE: The 300,000 statistic is for Naxi as an ethnic/cultural group, not how many practice traditional Naxi religion, i.e. Dongba]
Neo-Confucianism China - - - - 1949 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 191. Chapter: Taoism. "Neo-Confucianism lost its state sponsorship around the time the ancient system of government was discarded in favor of a republican form of government modeled on Western systems, about 1912. But the status of the Three Teachings did not change substantially until the People's Republic of China was established along Communist lines in 1949. The Marxist government discouraged religion but did not ban it outright; that prohibition occurred during the disastrous period of the Great Cultural Revolution, 1966-78. "


China, continued

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