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Over 42,000 religious geography and religion statistics citations (membership statistics for over 4,000 different religions, denominations, tribes, etc.) for every country in the world.

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China, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
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countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Chinese traditional religion China - - - - 1000 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 184. Chapter: Taoism. "Buddhist teachers had already begun to trickle into China as early as the 1st century AD... They were successful in passing on the dharma... the Pure Land school grew quickly among the Chinese masses. By the 11th century, Taoist and Buddhist ideas had merged with folk practices to create a popular religion that survives to this day. "
Chinese traditional religion China - - - - 1350 C.E. Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 42. "The original religion of the people actualy focused on the worship of natural forces. Later, the people began to worship the Jade Emperor, a figure from Daoism who became the highest god in the popular religion after the fourteenth century. "
Chinese traditional religion China - - - - 1957 Welles, Sam. The World's Great Religions, New York: Time Incorporated (1957), pg. 7. "So tangential are both Confucianism and Taoism to the spiritual life of the Chinese people that, in the old days, a single Chinese often would regard himself in his ethics as a Confucianist, in his cultivation of the occult (something rarely indulged in by the educated) a Taoist, and in his religion (as we use the term) a Buddhist. Yet all the time he probably remained a good deal of a skeptical, earthly materialist. But these are not 'the old days.' Logically, it would seem that the Communists, with their scorn for all religion and their belief in the adequacy of Marxist-approved science to answer all men's questions and needs, would make short shrift of Confucian reverence for the past [etc.]... "
Chinese traditional religion China - - - - 1960 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 42. "Guanyin, the goddess of mercy, originated in Mahayana... Buddhism. Among the many gods in popular Chinese religion, there were also earth deities of streams and rivers were considered to be particularly dangerous unpredictable. Apart from Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism, there was also a working-class religion known as Daoist Buddhism. "
Chinese traditional religion China - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 4). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 457. Chapter author: Marjorie Topley. "Religion in China has always been deeply embedded in the social sytem, and it is not possible to consider the one without the other. It is among the world's richest religions. Intermingled with the strands of Buddhism, Taoism, ancestor worship, folk religion and Confucianism is a deep concern with the fate of society. From this complex background three major interests emerge... The period of recorded religious development in China is extremely long, going back to the Shang dynasty of the 18th to 12 centuries BC, but we are mainly concerned here with modern China. "
Chinese traditional religion China - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 4). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 457. Chapter author: Marjorie Topley. "Traditional Chinese religion, surprisingly, has something in common with Maoist ideology in that both have a strong social purpose. Long before the Communists took over, the Chinese government 'adopted' the ancient pantheon of gods and turned them into a celestial bureaucracy, with a supernatural emperor at the apex, supported by divine 'officials' of all ranks, down to the gods of the household. "
Chinese traditional religion China - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 4). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 463. Chapter author: Marjorie Topley. "With religion so intertwined with the social system, it is clear that major social change could not be fully effected without considerable change in beliefs and practices. A new and comprehensive ideology was found in Chinese Communism -- although, curiously, Chinese medicine which is based on Yin-Yang theory is still positively encouraged in China today. In some ways the new system, especially in its present Maoist form resembles the old. There are striking parallels between modern and traditional methods of instilling the social ethic, for example, by self-cultivation by the reading of orthodox books and seeking strength from an inward appreciation of the contents. "
Chinese traditional religion China 372,000,000 - - - 1988 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: 10/29/88 issue of GLOBAL PRAYER DIGEST); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) "PRAY FOR THE 372,000,000 ADHERENTS OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE RELIGIONS IN CHINA... Some burned the specially made paper money to commemorate their ancestors. "
Chinese traditional religion China 245,000,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year. Pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop. [Listed in table as "Chinese folk religion "]
Chinese traditional religion China 324,000,000 27.00% - - 1998 "A Tale of China's Two Churches " in Christianity Today (July 13, 1998), pg. 33. (Source: Amity News Service, Operation World) Chart [Listed in table as "Chinese folk religion "]
Chinese traditional religion China - 28.00% - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "Monday Morning Reality Check " (Protestant); web page: "The 'Right' India Strategy? " by Justin D. Long, 1998 (viewed 5 March 1999) "Of course, folk religions (28% of China) and Islam are both forces in China, but religions make a far deeper impact on India than in China. "
Christianity China 4,000,000 - - - 1949 McLenighan, Valjean. China (series: Enchantment of the World). Chicago: Childrens Press (1984), pg. 129. "...Christians (who probably exceed the 1949 estimate of 3 to 4 million)... "
Christianity China 2,000,000 - - - 1975 *LINK* web site: "Monday Morning Reality Check " (Protestant); web page (1996 list): "Eastward shift of Christianity to post-Communist world " by Justin D. Long, 1996 (viewed 12 March 1999) "Christianity in China has exploded from 2 million in mid-1970 to over 70 million today, despite an absence of Western missionaries and incredible pressures from the government. "
Christianity China - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 181. "Mainland China offers few statistics and conflicting reports of its remaining Christians. Many individuals, now mostly old, have remained faithful. Pastors, now almost all elderly, have been forced out of Christian work with only a handful of exceptions, and replacements are not provided for in the system. A handful of organized congregations exist by sufferance, and only where the government feels the need for a church to show foreign visitors. The continuing existence of underground Christian groups and congregations is testified to by persistent rumor and occasional refugee report. "
Christianity China 4,000,000 - - - 1984 Time-Life BooksChina (series: Library of Nations). Amsterdam: Time-Life Books (1984), pg. 14. "Christianity, which arrived from Europe in the 16th century, has been strictly controlled by government regulations. All foreign missionaries were expelled in the 1950s; churches were forced to become autonomous Chinese bodies, divorced from their brethren elsewhere. Still, Christians in China -- four million, at least -- are free to worship as they wish. "
Christianity China 50,000,000 - - - 1991 Russell, Chandler. Racing Toward 2001; Zondervan Publishing House: Grand Rapids, MI (1992), pg. 224. [Orig. source: J. Lee Grady, "New Missions Strategies for a Rapidly Changing World, " National & International Religion Report 5, no. 3, 28 Jan. 1991] "The estimated Christian population in the People's Republic of China is between 25 and 50 million. "
Christianity China 60,000,000 - - - 1992 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: November, 1992 CHURCH AROUND THE WORLD); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) About 85 percent of China's 50-60 million Christians worship in unauthorized house churches.
Christianity China 11,657,710 1.00% - - 1992 *LINK* web page: "ChinaStats " (viewed 19 Feb. 1999) "Population, year 1992: 1,165,771,000 "; "Religions: officially atheist, but traditionally pragmatic and eclectic; most important elements of religion are Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism; Muslim 2-3%, Christian 1% (est.) "
Christianity China 9,000,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year. Pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop.
Christianity China 70,000,000 - - - 1996 *LINK* web site: "Monday Morning Reality Check " (Protestant); web page (1996 list): "Eastward shift of Christianity to post-Communist world " by Justin D. Long, 1996 (viewed 12 March 1999) "Christianity in China has exploded from 2 million in mid-1970 to over 70 million today, despite an absence of Western missionaries and incredible pressures from the government. "
Christianity China 70,000,000 - - - 1996 *LINK* [Orig. source: December Advance Newsletter Copyright (c) 1996, Kainos Press, 70420.1057@compuserve.com or Advance on the Web and Operation World.] With as many as 70 million Christians, Mainland China may rank 5th in Christian population after Russia, Mexico, Brazil and the US.
Christianity China 12,215,918 1.00% - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Daoism (Taoism), Buddhism, Muslim 2%-3%, Christian 1% (est.) note: officially atheist, but traditionally pragmatic and eclectic; Total population: 1,221,591,778.
Christianity China 100,000,000 - - - 1998 "A Tale of China's Two Churches " in Christianity Today (July 13, 1998), pg. 30. "Unofficially, Chinese leaders estimate there may be up to 100 million Christians in China. But officially, leaders say there are fewer than 15 million baptized Christians and regular churchgoers. "
Christianity China 40,000,000 - - - 1998 "Chinese Christians: An Exchange " in Christian Century (Jan. 7-14, 1998), pg. 26. estimate of 40 million Christians based on Tony Lambert's 1994 "province-by-province and city-by-city breakdown [which] led him to conclude 19 to 30 million Protestants in China, which doesn't include Catholics "
Christianity China 73,300,000 - - - 1998 Ash, Russell. The Top 10 of Everything 1999. New York: DK Publishing (1998), pg. 76. Table: "Top 10 Largest Christian Populations in the World "; Rank: #4
Christianity China - - - - 1999 Woodward, Kenneth L. "2000 Years of Jesus " in Newsweek (March 19, 1999), pg. 63. "Numerically, it is already clear, the future of Christianity lies with the youthful churches of Africa, the Hispanics of the Americas and -- who knows? -- the millions of stalwart Christians in China. "
Christianity - born-again China 80,000,000 - - - 1999 *LINK* web site: "Issues That Make Christians Squirm! " (a Christian apologetics site written by Grantley Morris); Subsection: "Christianity is on the decline " (viewed 25 Feb. 1999) "...so many millions of Chinese have... become born again Christians that it is now thought the figure totals a staggering 80 million Chinese. (Some researchers put the figure at 100 million.) "
Chung Yang Taoism China - - - - 1150 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 188. Chapter: Taoism. "The other principal branch of Religious Taoism, at least since the religious reformation of the Sung dynasty [6th-century AD], is the School of Perfect Realization (Ch'uan-chen tao), sometimes called Chung-yang ('Pure Yang') or Chin-lien ('Golden Lotus'). Founded by Wang Ch'un-yang (or Wang Che, 1112-1170)... "
Chung Yang Taoism China - - - - 1167 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 75-76. "Ch'uan-chen tao... 'Way of the Realization of Truth'; one of two main streams of religious Taoism (tao-chiao), the other being the 'Way of Right Unity' (cheng-i tao). The ch'uan-chen tao is also known as chung-yang (pure yang) and chin-lien (golden lotus). The Way of the Realization of Truth is said to have been founded by Want Ch'un-yang (1112-70 C.E.), who... In 1167 C.E. he establishe da monastery on Shantung peninsula, known as the Monastery for the Realization of Truth... "
Chung Yang Taoism, Northern School China - - - - 1224 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 189. Chapter: Taoism. "The Perfect Realization school quickly generated branch sects, starting with those created by 7 of Wang's own disciples. The most significant, though, came to be identified as the Northern and Southern Schools. The Northern School, also known as Lung-men ('Dragon Gate'), was led by Wang and his successor, Ch'ang Ch'un, who used the White Clous Monastery in Beijing as his base, beginning in 1224. "
Chung Yang Taoism, Northern School China - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 75-76. "In time, 2 movements within the ch'uan-chen tao gained special importance. The first of these was the Lung-men (lit. Dragon Gate) School founded by Ch'iu and also known as the Northern School... Its main seat is the Monastery of the White Clouds [still extant]. The second is the Southern School, which was founded by Chang Po-tuan and died out near the beginning of the 18th century. "
Chung Yang Taoism, Southern School China - - - - 1220 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 189. Chapter: Taoism. "The Perfect Realization school quickly generated branch sects, starting with those created by 7 of Wang's own disciples. The most significant, though, came to be identified as the Northern and Southern Schools... The Southern School was founded earlier than the Northern by Liu Hai-ch'an, who claimed spiritual transmission from Hui Neng... "
Chung Yang Taoism, Southern School China 0 - - - 1725 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 75-76. "In time, 2 movements within the ch'uan-chen tao gained special importance. The first of these was the Lung-men (lit. Dragon Gate) School founded by Ch'iu and also known as the Northern School... Its main seat is the Monastery of the White Clouds [still extant]. The second is the Southern School, which was founded by Chang Po-tuan and died out near the beginning of the 18th century. "
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints China 200 - 3
units
- 1995 Deseret News 1997-98 Church Almanac. Deseret News: Salt Lake City, UT (1996), pg. 188-408. "Year-end 1995: Est. population [of country]; Members, [number shown in '# of adherents' column to left] "
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints China 19,500 - - - 1997 Deseret News 1999-2000 Church Almanac. Deseret News: Salt Lake City, UT (1998), pg. 267-410. Information from a variety of sources. Figures for year-end 1997. [Primarily in Hong Kong]
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints China - - - - 1999 *LINK* Stack, Peggy Fletcher. "LDS Leader: Church's missionaries try to respect wishes of all countries, their people " in Salt Lake Tribune, 25 Sept. 1999 (viewed online 25 Sept. 1999). "In countries where proselytism is forbidden, the church instructs its members to be sensitive to the local culture. In China, for example, there are between 20 and 30 LDS people, typically retired teachers or professionals, who are teaching English. They are sponsored by Brigham Young University's Kennedy Center, but are not called as missionaries by the church. LDS leaders were pleased but concerned when they learned of this group. 'We were anxious that they not be looked upon by the Chinese government as an end-run by the church around the no-missionary laws of the People's Republic of China,' Oaks said. "
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints China 19,500 - - - 1999 *LINK* Warbuton, Emily. "Ricks instructor gets baptized " in Rick College newspaper Scroll (viewed online 11 March 1999). "There are only 19,500 members of the Church in China, 19,000 of which live in Hong Kong. Most of the others are foreign teachers businessmen or diplomats. There is no proselyting in the People's Republic of China. "
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints - temples China - - 1
unit
- 1996 Deseret News 1997-98 Church Almanac. Deseret News: Salt Lake City, UT (1996), pg. 435-436. Table: "Temples of the Church "; Hong Kong
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints - temples China - - 1
unit
- 1998 *LINK* web site: "LDSWorld "; web page: "Gems Temple Status Page " (viewed 17 July 1999); compiled by Dave Kenison. Updated regularly. Original sources: Deseret News Church Almanac, & announcements thru Church News & other media.; Table: "LOCATIONS & DEDICATIONS OF TEMPLES " (incl. dedication dates); Hong Kong temple, now part of China.
Communist China - - - - 1921 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 33. "In 1921, the Communist Party in China was officially founded in Shanghai. The party's growth was fast, as was that of the Guomindang, or the National People's Party--the Nationalists--led by Dr. Sun Yatsen. The Nationalists and Communists mutually endured a brief coalition, but by 1928, Chiang Kaishek, now head of the Nationalist forces, succeeded in controlling all of China, having earlier broken off relations with the Communists, who retreated into the southern mountains. There, under Mao Zedong, they developed a strategy that replaced the Soviet doctrine of urban proletariat revolution with that of a peasant revolution foces on land reform. "
Communist China 1,000,000 - - - 1949 Kinmond, William. The First Book of Communist China. New York: Franklin Watts (1972, revised edition), pg. 42. "Even when the Communist armies were able to conquer the whole of the mainland, the paty had not many more than a million members. "
Communist China 5,000,000 - - - 1951 Kinmond, William. The First Book of Communist China. New York: Franklin Watts (1972, revised edition), pg. 42. "It grew to five million members in 1951. By 1962 the party claimed to have 17,000,000 members. "
Communist China - - - - 1957 Welles, Sam. The World's Great Religions, New York: Time Incorporated (1957), pg. 7. "Logically, it would seem that the Communists, with their scorn for all religion and their belief in the adequacy of Marxist-approved science to answer all men's questions and needs, would make short shrift of Confucian reverence for the past or the animistic placation of gods, spirits and demons which has been the stock-in-trade of Taoism and much popular Buddhism. Perhaps the Communist rulers who hold China in such a relentless grip are following the Moscow example... "
Communist China 17,000,000 - - - 1962 Kinmond, William. The First Book of Communist China. New York: Franklin Watts (1972, revised edition), pg. 42. "Although China's government is Communist, not all Chinese are Communists or belong to the Communist party... It grew to five million members in 1951. By 1962 the party claimed to have 17,000,000 members. "
Communist China 40,000,000 - - - 1985 Lambert, Tony. The Resurrection of the Chinese Church; Wheaton, IL: Harold Shaw Publishers (1994), 96. "By 1985... Of the present CCP [Chinese Communist Party] membership of forty million, 40 per cent were admitted during the ascendancy of the leftists in the Cultural Revolution (1966-76). "
Communist China 60,000,000 - - - 1999 "China destroys hundreds of thousands of sect's manuals " in Dallas Morning News, Thursday, 29 July 1999, pg. 21A. [Orig. source: Washington Post] "The Communist Party has used the offensive to try to revive its fading Marxist ideology and unify the party's 60 million members, many of whom had joined the [Falun Gong] sect. "
Communist China 55,000,000 - - - 1999 *LINK* Chambers, Steve. "Falun Dafa Movement Growing Worldwide " in Salt Lake Tribune, Saturday, May 22, 1999 (viewed online 22 May 1999). [Orig. source: Religion News Service] "The Chinese government estimates there are 70 million practitioners of Falun Dafa in that country, making it larger than the 55 million-member Communist Party. "
Conference of Mennonite Churches in Hong Kong China 90 - 3
units
- 1998 *LINK* Mennonite World Conference web site. Directory 1998. Web page: "Asia/Pacific: Mennonite & Brethren in Christ Churches " CHINA: Conference of Mennonite Churches in Hong Kong... Members: 90; Congregations: 3
Confucianism China 3,000 - - - -478 B.C.E. Rice, Edward. Ten Religions of the East. New York: Four Winds Press (1978), pg. 96. "Confucius was born in 551 B.C... Confucius attracted a large group of disciples and followers. The exact number is not known, bu throughout his life he may have had as many as 3,000. "; [pg. 103: died at age 73]
Confucianism China - - - - -200 B.C.E. Welty, Paul Thomas. The Asians: Their Heritage and Their Destiny (Revised Edition). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. (1966), pg. 153-154. "Confucius himself was not much concerned with religion as such. He mentioned it only incidentally, and although he appeared to believe in heaven and ancestors, he spoke little about these beliefs. However, when Confucianism became the orthodox doctrine of the empire, religious functions were incorporated into it. Confucius, along with his ancestors and his famous followers, became objects of worship and veneration. Confucian temples were erected all over the empire, tablets to COnfucius and his followers were placed within these temples, and sacrifices and rituals were performed before these tablets and elsewhere. "
Confucianism China - - - - 1911 Welty, Paul Thomas. The Asians: Their Heritage and Their Destiny (Revised Edition). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. (1966), pg. 148. "Soon after the fall of the Ch'in Dynasty the Confucian philosophy was established as the official doctrine of the imperial government (early in the Han Dynasty, 200 B.C.-220 A.D.). Only with the destruction of the old educational system early in the twentieth century did the cult of Confucius become weakened. Confucianism lost its favored position with the institution of the Republic of China in 1911, when a mixture of Confucianism and Western liberal thought, as propounded by Sun Yat-sen, the father of modern China, became the official political theory of the state. "
Confucianism China - - - - 1928 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 191. "The twentieth century has seen significant changes in the outward authority of the Confucian tradition. In 1905 the imperial examination system, the sytem whose source was the official Neo-Confucian orthodoxy, was abolished, ending the status of the Confucian tradition and the Neo-Confucian orthodoxy as the avenue of access to government service. Sacrifice to Confucius in the Confucian temple terminated in 1928 and thereafter Confucianism ceased to be an official religion. "
Confucianism China - - - - 1972 Kinmond, William. The First Book of Communist China. New York: Franklin Watts (1972, revised edition), pg. 75. "'Confucianism' is a Western name for the teachings of Kung Chiao, or Confucius, who lived in 551-479 B.C. Although it is not a religion, it still influences the Chinese way of life. It is not possible to derive any spiritual comfort from the teachings of Confucius, as it is from genuine religious beliefs. It is a philosophy and a system of ethics. Respect paid to Confucius is unlike that paid to a deity or a religious prophet; it is paid to a great sage whose teachings promote peace and order in society and encourage the individual to live a moral life. "
Confucianism China - - - - 1993 Faux, Marian (ed.). The New York Public Library Sudent's Desk Reference. New York: Prentice Hall (1993), pg. 271. "Confucianism was nearly destroyed by the state after the Communist takeover of China in 1949, but it survives in large part because its ethics are so much a part of Chinese culture. "
Confucianism China - - - - 1998 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 43. "While Laozi was active in the south of China, Confucius lived in the north of the country. For him, too, Dao and de are central concepts. For more than 2,000 years, the ideas of Confucius (551-479 BC) have influenced Chinese culture, which in turn sculpted the worldview of neighboring lands such as Korea, Japan and Southeast Asia. It is debatable whether Confucianism is a religion in the strictest sense. But Confucius was worshipped as a deity, although he was only officially made equal to the heavenly gods by an imperial edict in 1906. (Up until 1927, many Chinese offered him sacrifices.) "
Confucianism China - - - - 1998 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 44. "Confucianism is, in a sense, a religion of law and order. Just as the universe is dictated by the world order, and the sun, moon and stars move according to the laws of nature, so a person, too, should live within a framework of world order. "
Confucianism China - - - - 1998 Stack, Peggy Fletcher. A World of Faith. USA: Signature Books (1998), pg. 13. "Confucianism... Today in China many study Confucianism, leaning the basics of good behavior and thinking. They visit his temples, which honor the wise man he was, but which also revere several teachers of Confucianism who came after him... most of all, Confucianism is reflected in the everyday thinking of the people of China.; Illustration: T'ien T'an (part of the Temple of Heaven, in Peking, China, built in 1420)... "
Confucianism - clergy China 3,000 - - - -479 B.C.E. Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 43-44. "...Confucius (551-479 BC)... All in all, he is said to have had 3,000 disciples, 72 of them highly-gifted ones who are stil worshipped today. Confucius taught mainly traditional literature, rites and music, and is thus regarded as the founder of scholarly life in China. "
Dai China 1,000,000 - - - 1990 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 176. "Dai: Alternate Names: Daile, Daina, Daiya, Daibengm, Dainyue, Dan, Liao, Gold Teeth, Silver Teeth, Black Teeth, Baiyi; Location: China; Population: Over 1 million; Language: Dai; Religion: Polytheism; ancestor worship; some Buddhism "; "The Dai population amounted to just over one million in 1990. They are mainly concentrated in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture (South Yunnan) and in three western Yunnan 'mixed administrations'... The Dai are polytheistic. They offer sacrifices to 'Diula' (a divined ancestor) on an annual three-year, and even nine-year cycle... Hinayana Buddhsim came to the Dai in the 7th century (according to another version, in the 14th century)... In Dai areas, each vilalge has its own temple and mokns are very common. "
Dai China - - - - 1998 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 45. "Today there are Buddhists among the Han Chinese, the Mongols, Tibetans, Manchus, Tu, Qiang and Dai (Hinayana Buddhists) peoples. "
Dejiao China 40,000 - 25
units
- 1950 *LINK* Yoshihara, Kazuo. "Dejiao: A Chinese Religion in Southeast Asia " in Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 1988 15/2-3. (Viewed on JJRS web site, 30 Jan. 1999) "After 1940, Dejiao spread throughout the Chaozhou area, growing into twenty-five organizations with over 10,000 families as members. New organizations can still arise based on divine messages to that effect. "
Derong China 4,500 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 182. "Derong: Location: China (Derong River Valley); Population: About 4,500; Language: Derong; Religion: Polytheism "; "The Derong believe in a spiritual world. They ascribe spirits to animals, plants, and many other objects... The Derong offer sacrifice to the Mountain God at regular intervals each year... The Harvest God is also revered... "
Dong China 2,500,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 185. "Dong: Alternate Names: Liao; Geling; Location: China; Population: 2.5 million; Language: Dong; Chinese; Religion: Polytheism "; "The Dong are polytheistic. They regard the almighty Goddess Sasui, the most lofty of all gods, as their protector. Each village has a temple in which there is a round altar made of stone, 4 ft. in height, more than 10 ft. in diameter, surrounded by banana trees and brambles. On February 7 or 8 (lunar calendar...) the Dong will bring chicken, duck, fish, and a gruel of sweetened fried flour, as offerings to the goddess. They also revere huge stones, large trees, wells, and bridges... "
Dongba China - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 556-557. "Naxi: Alternate Names: Muoshayi, Moxieman, Nari, Naheng, Malimasha, Yuanke, Bangxi, Muoxie, Moshu, and Wuman; Location: China; Population: 300,000; Language: Naxi and Chinese "; "Most Naxi believe in a religion called 'Dongba'... Dongba is a primitive polytheistic religion. Its name comes from its founder, Donbga Shiluo. He was a precocious child, endowed with many supernatural gifts... Another theory, however, says that Dongba is originally a branch of the original, pre-Buddhist Tibetan religion, called 'Bon' (a form of Shamanism)... The religious activities involve almost every aspect of the Naxi's life... "
Evenki China 10,000 - - - 1990 *LINK* web site: "Ethnologue "; web page: "Russia, Asia " (Viewed 7 July 1999). "EVENKI (EWENKI, TUNGUS, CHAPOGIR, AVANKI, AVANKIL, SOLON, KHAMNIGAN) [EVN] 12,000 mother tongue speakers (43%) out of an ethnic population of 28,000 in Russia (1979 census); 10,000 in China (1990); 2,000 in Mongolia; 24,000 in all countries... Shamanist, lamaist, Christian. "
Falun Gong China 10,000,000 - - - 1999 "China destroys hundreds of thousands of sect's manuals " in Dallas Morning News, 29 July 1999, pg. 21A. [Orig. source: Washington Post] "In a government attempt to distinguish between Mr. Li [Falun Gong leader] and his estimated 10 million followers, the Chinese government also launched a capaign to promote 'healthy' alternatives to Falun Gong's breathing and exercise regimen. "
Falun Gong China 70,000,000 - - - 1999 *LINK* Chambers, Steve. "Falun Dafa Movement Growing Worldwide " in Salt Lake Tribune, Saturday, May 22, 1999 (viewed online 22 May 1999). [Orig. source: Religion News Service] "The Chinese government estimates there are 70 million practitioners of Falun Dafa in that country, making it larger than the 55 million-member Communist Party. "
Falun Gong China - - - - 1999 *LINK* Chambers, Steve. "Falun Dafa Movement Growing Worldwide " in Salt Lake Tribune, Saturday, May 22, 1999 (viewed online 22 May 1999). [Orig. source: Religion News Service] "...a fast-growing spiritual movement called Falun Dafa... No one knows for sure how many practitioners there are worldwide -- followers say 100 million -- but evidence of the popularity of Falun Dafa (also known as Falun Gong) emerged last month in China. In the largest public demonstration since democracy sit-downs in Tiananmen Square a decade ago, 10,000 followers silently surrounded the offices of communist leaders on April 25 and spent a day meditating and conducting their exercises. The purpose was to seek legal recognition from the government and to protest recent condemnations in government-controlled media. "
Falun Gong China 70,000,000 - - - 1999 *LINK* Mims, Bob. "Falun Dafa Practitioners Join Millions " in Salt Lake Tribune, Saturday, June 12, 1999 (viewed online 12 June 1999). "Debate over exactly where Falun Dafa falls in the religion-philosophy continuum goes on unresolved, but there is no question about its popularity. Within a few years of its unveiling, Hongzhi's teachings had attracted an estimated 70 million Chinese -- much to the alarm of authorities. "
Family, The China 300 - - - 1987 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: 6/18/87 issue of GLOBAL PRAYER DIGEST); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) "PRAY FOR THE 100 CHINESE FAMILIES WHO HAVE JOINED THE CHILDREN OF GOD CULT " (Calculated the 300 adherents figure by multiplying 100 "families " by 3.)
Five Pecks of Rice Taoism China - - - - 140 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 65. "Chang Tao-ling: also known as Chang Ling, 34-156 CE; founder of wu-tou-mi tao, one of the most important schools of religious Taoism. Toward the middle of the 2nd century Chang Tao-ling practiced as a healer in Szechwan Province, curing the sick by the recitation of magical formulae... His fee... consisted of 5 pecks of rice, so that the school founded by him came to be known as Five-Pecks-of-Rice Taoism. his followers venerted him as a celestial master, a title borne by his descendants to this day. "
Five Pecks of Rice Taoism China - - - - 144 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 420. "Wu-tou-mi tao - Chin., lit. 'Five-Pecks-of-Rice Taoism'; early Taoist school (tao-chiao), founded by Chang Tao-ling between 126 and 144 C.E. in Szechwan in western China. It remained active up to the 15th century... During the T'ang and Sung dynasties, the wu-tou-mi merged with other Taoist movements such as the School of the Magic Jewel and later became absorbed by the Way of Right Unity (cheng-i tao), a movement embracing several schools. "
Five Pecks of Rice Taoism China - - 24
units
- 175 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 744. "The tradition of fully developed Taoist religious movements began in the second century A.D. with the Way of the Great Peace (T'ai-p'ing Tao) and the Way of the Celestial Masters (T'ien-shih Tao), also known as the 'Teaching of the Five Pecks of Rice' (Wu-Tou-Chiao) after a famous tax levied by the organization on its members... The Way of the Celestial Masters organized twenty-four parishes in West China, where they apparently offered political as well as spiritual government. The T'ai-p'ing movement was destroyed when their bid to found a new order was supressed militarily. The Celestial Master sect, on the other hand, went on to become an established religion; abandoning its exclusive claims, it was recognized as a legitimate religious movement by the government in A.D. 215. "
Five Pecks of Rice Taoism China - - - - 190 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 182-183. Chapter: Taoism. "Church Taoism can be divided into 2 main branches. The 1st, the Way of Right Unity (Cheng-i tao)... begun by Chang Tao-ling (or Chang Ling, AD 34-156)... school he founded. The Five Pecks of Rice School (Wu-tou-me-tao)... also known as the School of the Celestial Masters (T'ien-shih tao), since Chang Ling was venerated as a Celestial Master... In AD 190, the Celestial Masters sect set up its own political state, ruled along military lines by Chang Ling's grandson Chang-lu (2nd century AD), assisted by priestly officials called libationers (chi-chiu). "
Five Pecks of Rice Taoism China - - - - 500 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 188. Chapter: Taoism. "By the middle of the 1st millennium... The Five Pecks of Rice tradition [School of the Celestial Masters] and the Union of Breaths both began to fade from common practice... "


China, continued

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