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Over 42,000 religious geography and religion statistics citations (membership statistics for over 4,000 different religions, denominations, tribes, etc.) for every country in the world.

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Chile, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Protestant Chile - 7.00% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "
Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia Chile - - 2
units
- 1998 *LINK* official organization web site (1998) Counted listings in directory of parishes.
Scientology Chile - - 1
unit
- 1999 *LINK* web page (OPPOSING VIEW): "Scientology Worldwide " (viewed 13 Feb. 1999); "Last Update on 10th Feb. 1999 " Number here ( "# congregations ") represent total of all orgs: Dianetic Centers, Celebrity Centers, missions, etc.; "CoS web sites have lists of Missions (1998) & Orgs (1996) from which the Table below is derived. Original concept and research by 'Inducto'. "
secular Chile - 7.00% - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "Ethnologue Database " (viewed circa Dec. 1998) "Religion: Christian 92%, secular 7%, traditional religion 1% "
SIM International Chile - - - - 1988 *LINK* "South America " in SIM NOW, Feb. 1999 (vol. #85); (viewed online 6 July 1999); SIM International web site. "SIM entered Chile in 1988 to provide theological education, plant churches, and offer social aid. Our missionaries are currently involved in personal evangelism, discipleship through Bible studies, the training of leaders for marriage seminars, and various projects among the Mapuche Indians in the south. "
Tenrikyo Chile - - 1
unit
- 1998 *LINK* official Tenrikyo web site; page: "A Statistical Review of Tenrikyo: 1 of 2 " (viewed 10 Dec. 1999) Table: "A Statistical Review of Tenrikyo 1998 ". Church-supplied data. 1 mission stations
Yahgan Chile 5,000 - - - 1600 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 704. "The Yahgan, who numbered about five thousand and survived until recently, may well serve as an example of those tribes sharing simple social and religious institutions and beliefs. "
Yahgan Chile - - - - 1900 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 702. Chapter: "South American Tribal Religions "; map: "Tribal Locations "
Amidism China - - - - 1960 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 45. "Since the fourteenth century, the Amitabha school had dominated the life and culture of the Chinese people. "
Amidism China - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 8. "Amidism: generic term under which are comprehended all schools of Chinese and Japanese Buddhism that have made Amitabha the central point of their teaching. Included are the Pure Land school, Jodo-shin-shu, and Jodo-shu. "
ancestor veneration China - 100.00% - - 1663 Ross, Dan. Acts of Faith: A Journey to the Fringes of Jewish Identity. New York: St. Martin's Press (1982), pg. 181. "The ancestor cult was universal in China; it has been called that country's only national religion. Every family had an ancestral hall filled with wooden spirit-tablets representing dead ancestors... Although China's uneducated masses took the ancestral cult literally... the Chinese literati [including Chinese Jews] considered ancestor worship a secular ceremony... Its purpose was to channel the natural emotions, and bind together the family. "
ancestor veneration China - - - - 1972 Kinmond, William. The First Book of Communist China. New York: Franklin Watts (1972, revised edition), pg. 74-75. "Ancestor worship, however, is unlike most religions in that it has no established doctrine. Neither does it have rules of right and wrong. The Chinese worship their ancestors somewhat in the way we revere a national hero. Even the ritual is limited to sacrifices made periodically during festivals and on anniversaries of birth and death. Some people also pay homage to the dead at the beginning and in the middle of each month. In many Chinese homes today there is a little altar to the ancestors... Many Chinese still persist in many of the superstitious beliefs... The spread of communism has eliminated superstitious beliefs to a large degree, but the lives of many Chinese, especially the peasants, are governed from beginning to end by their belief in spirits. "
ancestor veneration China - - - - 1998 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 42. "Originally, ancestor worship had been exclusive to the king. Only later did peasants too begin to honor their ancestors... About 2,000 years ago, genealogical tables were introduced as homes for the soul during sacrificial acts... Even today, the Chinese worship their ancestors and offer the deities sacrifices of food. This is widely practised, for example, during the Qingming Festival. "
Atheism China - - - - 1993 O'Brien, J. & M. Palmer. The State of Religion Atlas. Simon & Schuster: New York (1993). Pg. 108. "Atheism continues to be the official position of the governments of China, North Korea and Cuba. Here, large organizations are to be found and impressive numbers are cited. " Politically correct, but not deep conviction there.
Atheism China 146,000,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year. Pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop.
attendance - weekly China - 9.00% - - 1997 *LINK* web site: "The University of Michigan News and Information Services "; web page: "Study identifies worldwide rates of religiosity, church attendance " (viewed 17 April 1999). "News Release: December 10, 1997 " By Diane Swanbrow. Table: weekly church attendance in various nations. "Source: Based on latest avail. data from... World Values surveys. Results with an asterisk are from the 1990-1991 survey; all others are from 1995-1997 survey. "
Bai China 1,600,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 73. "Bai: Alternate Names: Bo; Location: China; Population: 1.6 million; Language: Bai; Chinese; Religion: Polytheism; some combinations of Buddhism and indigenous beliefs. "
Born Again Movement China 3,000,000 - - - 1998 "A Tale of China's Two Churches " in Christianity Today (July 13, 1998), pg. 30. "...Born Again Movement (BAM)... an estimated 3 million followers. "
Buddhism China - - - - 1 C.E. Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 44. "The Chinese initially encountered Buddhism at the beginning of the first century, when merchants and monks came to China over the Silk Road. "
Buddhism China - - - - 381 C.E. Welty, Paul Thomas. The Asians: Their Heritage and Their Destiny (Revised Edition). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. (1966), pg. 146-147. "Buddhism entered China around the beginning of the Christian era. At first it was frowned upon because it was thought that the concept of reincarnation was a fantasy and that the celibacy of monks was a disgraceful practice since it prevented a man from having descendants. Moreover, the authorities feared that the spread of this foreign religion would seriously threaten their power. It expanded rapidly, however, especially among the common people, and by 381 A.D. most of the people of northwest China were Budhdist. Winning converts also among the rulers and scholars, by the end of the T'ang Dynasty Buddhism was found everywhere in China. "
Buddhism China - - 44,600
units
- 841 C.E. Hoobler, Thomas & Dorothy Hoobler. Confucianism (series: "World Religions "). New York: Facts on File (1993), pg. 48. "In the years 841 to 845, the [Confucian] government launched an anti-Buddhist campaign, seizing the monasteries' land and secularizing, or restoring to lay status, the monks & the nuns. According to one account, 4,600 monasteries were seized, 40,000 Buddhist shrines were destroyed, and more than 260,000 monks & nuns were driven from their religious refuges. Buddhism in China was never to recover from the persecution, though it remained popular among the lower classes, well into the 20th century. " [44,600 would be minimum # of shrines & monasteries, but there were probably more locations]
Buddhism China - - - - 845 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 190. Chapter: Taoism. "the Taoist Church was also responsible for occasional persecutions of Buddhists during the 1st millenium, when the Taoists feared that their hierarchical power was being threatened. Major persecutions resulting in many deaths took place in AD 446 and again in 845, when a Taoist emperor moved to counter Buddhism's growing popularity by closing thousands of Buddhist monasteries and defrocking their monks and nuns, leading to the eventual decline, but not disappearance, of Buddhism in China. "
Buddhism China - - - - 907 C.E. Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 45. "Buddhism was most influential in Chinese history during the Tang dynasty (618-907). Several emperors officially supported the religion; the Tan empress Wu Zetian, in particular, surrounded herself with Buddhist advisors. During the years 842 to 845, however, Chinese Buddhists also experienced the most severe persecutions in their entire history: a total of 40,000 temples and monasteries were destroyed, and Buddhism was blamed for the economic decline and moral decay of the dynasty. "
Buddhism China - - 267,000
units
- 1945 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 97. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] "Today the T'ien-t'ai and the Pure Land Schools are still the strongest in China... Of the 738,000 monks and nuns, 267,000 temples, some 3,000,000 'home disciples,' and an unknown number of Buddha-worshipers in China... "
Buddhism China 200,000,000 33.00% - - 1949 Welles, Sam. The World's Great Religions, New York: Time Incorporated (1957), pg. 55. "...a supreme test for both Mahayana and Hinayana Buddhism had begun in 1949 with the Communist victory in China. In conquering that ancient land, the Communists took over the area where Mahayana Buddhism had had its greatest growth and claimed its greatest number of adherents. Perhaps a third of China's 600 millions might then have been counted as Buddhists. Communism, in doctrine the foe of all religion, promptly deprived monasteries of their lands and revenues, drove old monks to work in fields and factories and young ones to the Korean war as 'volunteers.' Stories filtered out of Red China of nuns compelled to marry, and of others who drowned themselves en masse rather than obey the order. "
Buddhism China 100,000,000 - - - 1955 Cousins, L. S. "Buddhism " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st published in 1984], pg. 330. "According to government figures there were 100 million Chinese Buddhists in the 1950s. "
Buddhism China - - - - 1966 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 45. "By the beginning of the Cultural Revolution in 1966, it seemed as if the Red Guards were intent on completely eradicating Buddhism. "
Buddhism China - - - - 1970 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 191-192. "the People's Republic of China was established along Communist lines in 1949. The Marxist government discouraged religion but did not ban it outright; that prohibition occurred during the disastrous period of the Great Cultural Revolution, 1966-78. Then, many Buddhist and Taoist temples and shrines were closed or destroyed and the clergy forced into labor. The same thing happened to the Catholic, Protestant, and Islamic clergy and places of worship that had been established in China. "
Buddhism China 100,000,000 13.33% - - 1972 Kinmond, William. The First Book of Communist China. New York: Franklin Watts (1972, revised edition), pg. 4, 74. Pg. 4: "No one really knows how many Chinese there are because distances are so great... roughly 750,000,000... "; Pg. 74: "There are approx. 100 million Chinese Buddhists, 10 million Moslems, 3 million Catholics, 700,000 Protestants, and 20,000 Taoist priests and nuns. "
Buddhism China - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 135-136. "At present, with China and Tibet under the control of the People's Republic of China, Buddhism is no longer a living force in those countries. The Sangha has been decimated and the monasteries converted to museum pieces. "
Buddhism China - 6.00% - - 1992 Goring, Rosemary (ed). Larousse Dictionary of Beliefs & Religions (Larousse: 1994) pg. 581-584. Table: "Population Distribution of Major Beliefs "; "Figures have been compiled from the most accurate recent available information and are in most cases correct to the nearest 1% "
Buddhism China 103,000,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year. Pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop.
Buddhism China 102,000,000 - - - 1997 Ash, Russell. The Top 10 of Everything, DK Publishing, Inc.: New York (1997), pg. 160-161. List: "Top 10 Largest Buddhist Populations in the World "; (Rank: 1)
Buddhism China 36,000,000 3.00% - - 1998 "A Tale of China's Two Churches " in Christianity Today (July 13, 1998), pg. 33. (Source: Amity News Service, Operation World) Chart
Buddhism China - - - - 1998 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 45. "Since the seventh century, the ascetic Bodhisattva has been a popular female figure in China. She is called Guanyin, a motherly goddess of mercy who represents a central deity for the ordinary people. Guanyin means 'the one who lists to complaints'. In Chinese Buddhism, the cenre of religious attention is the Sakyamuni Buddha, the founder of Buddhism... "
Buddhism China - - - - 1998 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 45. "By the beginning of the Cultural Revolution in 1966, it seemed as if the Red Guards were intent on completely eradicating Buddhism. The autonomous Tibet was hard-hit by these excesses... Today there are Buddhists among the Han Chinese, the Mongols, Tibetans, Manchus, Tu, Qiang and Dai (Hinayana Buddhists) peoples. "
Buddhism - home disciples China 3,000,000 - - - 1945 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 97. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] "Today the T'ien-t'ai and the Pure Land Schools are still the strongest in China... Of the 738,000 monks and nuns, 267,000 temples, some 3,000,000 'home disciples,' and an unknown number of Buddha-worshipers in China... "
Buddhism - monastic China 750,000 - - - 1945 Cousins, L. S. "Buddhism " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st published in 1984], pg. 328. "In modern times, before Communist rule, the Chinese Buddhist Sangha was quite large--of the order of half a million monks and a quarter of a million nuns. "
Buddhism - monastic China 738,000 - - - 1945 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 97. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] "Today the T'ien-t'ai and the Pure Land Schools are still the strongest in China... Of the 738,000 monks and nuns, 267,000 temples, some 3,000,000 'home disciples,' and an unknown number of Buddha-worshipers in China... "
Buddhism - monastic China 500,000 - 40,000
units
- 1948 Time-Life BooksChina (series: Library of Nations). Amsterdam: Time-Life Books (1984), pg. 14. "The earliest of the imported religions, Buddhism, came from India in the first century B.C. Before the Communist takeover in 1949, the followers of Buddha supported half a million monks and nuns; 40,000 temples and monasteries dotted the land, along with uncounted statues of Buddha, some of them monumental. Since then, the number of clerics has shrunk, but the great yearly festivals go on. "
Buddhism - monastic China 500,000 - 50,000
units
- 1949 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 45. "In 1949, the year the People's Republic of China was founded, there were approximately 500,000 Buddhist monks and nuns, and 50,000 temples and monasteries. A number of well-known Buddhist temples were classified as historical monuments. "
Buddhism - monastic China 200,000 - - - 1999 *LINK* web site of "Taoist Restoration Society "; web page: "Field Notes " (viewed 19 Feb. 1999) Subhead: "China ": "China currently has about 200,000 Buddhist clergy and only about 25,000 Taoist clergy. As a point of reference, in 1950 China had approximatley 5,000,000 Taoist clergy. "
Buddhist-Taoist China - - - - 100 C.E. Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 43. "The ordinary people were not particularly attracted by the abstract concepts and metaphysical reflections of Daoism. Even at the beginning of the Han period (206 BC - AD 220), there were signs of both a popular and religious Daoism. "
Buddhist-Taoist China - - - - 1960 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 42. "Guanyin, the goddess of mercy, originated in Mahayana... Buddhism. Among the many gods in popular Chinese religion, there were also earth deities of streams and rivers were considered to be particularly dangerous unpredictable. Apart from Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism, there was also a working-class religion known as Daoist Buddhism. "
Buyi China 2,500,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 147. "Buyi: Alternate Names: Buyue, Bunong, Buyai, Buzhang, Burao, and Buman; Location: China; Population: 2.5 million; Language: Buyi; Religion: Ancestor worship; some Catholicism and Protestantism "; "The Buyi believe in ghosts and worship their ancestors. The shaman, called laomo by the Buyi, acts as an intermediary between ghosts and human beings... The Buyi also believe in chicken divination... Since the beginning of this century, a sizable number of Buyi have converted to Catholicism and Protestantism. "
Catholic China 200,000 - - - 1700 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 146. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] "By the end of the 17th century, [the Jesuits] had about 200,000 followers. They promoted Confucianism and approved the worship of Heaven & ancestors... in the 18th C. the Dominicans & Franciscans objected to this Confucian tendency... "
Catholic China 500,000 - - - 1890 Bokenkotter, Thomas. A Concise History of the Catholic Church. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co. (1977), pg. 337. "...by 1890 some 500,000 baptized Catholics could be counted, including 369 Chinese priests. "
Catholic China 2,000,000 - - - 1922 Bokenkotter, Thomas. A Concise History of the Catholic Church. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co. (1977), pg. 338. "All of this was accompanied, as might be expected, by a great weakening of the traditional religions: Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, and polytheism... The Roman Catholics numbered nearly two million by 1922 and showed a significant increase in native clergy. "
Catholic China 3,000,000 - - - 1937 Bokenkotter, Thomas. A Concise History of the Catholic Church. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co. (1977), pg. 338. "Nevertheless, until the Japanese invasion of 1937, the [Catholic] Church continued to grow and had reached nearly three million members. "
Catholic China 3,262,678 - - - 1945 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 146. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] "Today there are 3,262,678 Chinese Catholics. They operate 438 orphanages, 315 hospitals, 20,520 schools, including 3 [colleges]... Foreign priests number 2,980, while Chinese priests total 2,073... "
Catholic China 4,000,000 0.70% - - 1949 1998 Catholic Almanac: Our Sunday Visitor: USA (1997), pg. 333-367. "No Catholic statistics are available. In 1949 there were between 3,500,000-4,000,000 Catholics, about .7 per cent of the total population. "
Catholic China - - - - 1970 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 191-192. "the People's Republic of China was established along Communist lines in 1949. The Marxist government discouraged religion but did not ban it outright; that prohibition occurred during the disastrous period of the Great Cultural Revolution, 1966-78. Then, many Buddhist and Taoist temples and shrines were closed or destroyed and the clergy forced into labor. The same thing happened to the Catholic, Protestant, and Islamic clergy and places of worship that had been established in China. "
Catholic China 3,000,000 0.40% - - 1972 Kinmond, William. The First Book of Communist China. New York: Franklin Watts (1972, revised edition), pg. 4, 74. Pg. 4: "No one really knows how many Chinese there are because distances are so great... roughly 750,000,000... "; Pg. 74: "There are approx. 100 million Chinese Buddhists, 10 million Moslems, 3 million Catholics, 700,000 Protestants, and 20,000 Taoist priests and nuns. "
Catholic China - - - - 1997 *LINK* Zenit. "DOSSIER: BRAZIL AND MEXICO HAVE LARGEST NUMBER OF CATHOLICS " on "Zenit News Agency " web site (online Catholic news); Archives: 13 June 1999 (ZE99061302). (Viewed 19 June 1999). "The Statistical Yearbook [for 1997 figures]... However, it cannot give information on the Church in continental China (except for Hong Kong) or North Korea because there is virtually no data. The number of dioceses and ecclesiastical districts in both these countries is 146. "
Catholic China 10,200,000 1.00% - - 1998 "A Tale of China's Two Churches " in Christianity Today (July 13, 1998), pg. 33. (Source: Amity News Service, Operation World) Chart
Catholic China 7,000,000 - - - 1998 "Chinese at worship " (caption of photo} in Christian Century (Jan. 7-14, 1998), pg. 11. "Beijing has 70,000... roughly 1 percent of China's 7 million Catholics... "
Catholic China 12,000,000 - - - 1998 "Chinese bishop released, under house arrest " in Christian Century (June 17-24, 1998), pg. 606. "The official Catholic Church has about 4 million members. Some observers contend that the underground Catholic Church has about twice that number. "
Catholic China 10,000,000 - - - 1999 *LINK* Wickery, Philip L. "China's Catholics: Tragedy and Hope in an Emerging Civil Society " in The Christian Century (Chicago; Feb 24, 1999, Volume: 116, Issue: 6, pg. 222, ISSN: 00095281); review of: China's Catholics: Tragedy and Hope in an Emerging Civil Society. By Richard Madsen. University of California Press; (viewed online 26 Feb. 1999) "To complicate matters further, churches, religious orders and other Catholic groups overseas maintain their own relationships with China's estimated 10 million Catholics. "
Catholic - official China 4,000,000 - - - 1998 "Chinese bishop released, under house arrest " in Christian Century (June 17-24, 1998), pg. 606. "The official Catholic Church has about 4 million members. Some observers contend that the underground Catholic Church has about twice that number. "
Catholic Patriotic Church China - - - - 1958 Bokenkotter, Thomas. A Concise History of the Catholic Church. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co. (1977), pg. 339. "The Communist conquest of China, however, which was completed by 1950, brought on a tremendous trial for all Christians... The Communist strategy was to completely detach the Chinese Catholics from any foreign ties. A Catholic Patriotic Church, completely independent from Rome, was set up, and its hierarchy was initiated with the consecration of 2 Chinese priests in 1958 by 4 legitimate Roman Catholic bishops. With the almost complete blackout of information, it is difficult to present to judge the success of this effort, thought it is estimated that by 1962 some 42 bishops were illicitly consecrated, & recent Vatican reports say that the Roman Catholic Church in China has been virtually wiped out. "
Ch'ing-t'an China - - - - 245 C.E. Li, Dun Jen. The Ageless Chinese: A History (3rd Ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons (1978), pg. 149. "This new vogue of ch'ing t'an, or 'purified conversation,' was begun in the 240s during the Wei dynasty and reached its apex of popularity during the West Tsin dynasty. Its architects were HoYen (d. ca 250), Wang Pi (226-249), and Kuo Hsiang (d. 312), all of whom were not only expert conversationalists but also writers of considerable originality. "
Ch'ing-t'an China - - - - 275 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 72. "Ch'ing-t'an... 'pure conversation'; neo-Taoist school that originated in the 3rd century C.E. Ch'ing-t'an refers to a refined form of conversation on the teachings of philosophical Taoism, particularly those of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu. In this way the followers of the ch'ing-t'an formed a basis for reinterpreting the Confucianist classics from a neo-Taoist point of view. The most important representatives of the school were Wang Pi (226-49 C.E.), Kou Hsiang (?-ca. 312 C.E.), and Hsiang Hsiu (221-300 C.E.). "
Ch'uan-chen China - - - - 1150 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 745. "Between 1100 and 1400 three developments occurred that have helped shape modern Taoism... A third group of three new sects that arose in the twelfth century has been compared in purpose and effect within the Taoist movement to the Protestant Reformation in European Christianity. They rejected many magical elements... they stressed humility, altruism, and the renunciation of desires... The Ch'uan-chen sect, the only one of this group surviving today, has maintained a tradition of personal cultivation... and relatively strict celibate monasticism guided by, among other works, the Tao-Te Ching. "
Chen-ta-tao chiao China - - - - 1250 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 68. "Chen-ta-tao chiao: 'Teaching of the True Great Tao'; school of religious Taoism founded in 1142 C.E. by Liu Te-jen. Based on the concepts of the Tao-te ching, this school stresses the ideals of unmotivated action, contentment, & altruism. The adherents of the chen-ta-tao chiao strive toward the good & endeavor to avoid evil. Life-prolonging & magical practices play no part in this school, in which a strong Confucianist influence can be felt. The chen-ta-tao chiao reached its peak in the 13th century but faded out soon after. "
China Christian Council China - - 22,230
units
- 1994 Lambert, Tony. The Resurrection of the Chinese Church; Wheaton, IL: Harold Shaw Publishers (1994), 132. "At a conservative figure, there are at least 6,375 churches and 15,855 meeting-points opened under CCC auspices. In addition there are probably tens of thousands of house-churches meeting independently. "
China Christian Council China 12,000,000 - - - 1999 Associated Press. Dateline: Beijing. Date: "10.20 a.m. ET (1521 GMT) January 25, 1999 "; Posted to Nurel-1 newsgroup (nurel-l@listserv.ucalgary.ca) on 26 Jan. 1999. "The China Christian Council, the umbrella organization overseeing the government-sanctioned non-denominational Protestant churches, counts more than 12 million Protestants. Foreign supporters of the underground churches claim their adherents are ten times the official figure. "
Chinese China 50,000,000 - - - 742 C.E. Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 36. "China's population was counted for the first time about 2,000 years ago, in 4 AD. By 742 AD, during the Tang dynasty, China's population was just over 50 million people. "
Chinese China 100,000,000 - - - 1250 C.E. Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 36. "At around the same time as the invasion of Genghis Khan and the Mongols, around AD 1250, the 100 million [total population] mark was probably exceeded for the first time. "
Chinese China 200,000,000 - - - 1750 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 36. "At... around AD 1250, the 100 million [total population] mark was probably exceeded for the first time. By the middle of the 18th century, the number had doubled... "
Chinese China 400,000,000 - - - 1850 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 36. "...in 1850, a [total Chinese] population of 400 million people had been reached. "
Chinese China 500,000,000 - - - 1946 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 36. "Shortly after World War II, there were half a billion people in China. "
Chinese China 800,000,000 - - - 1982 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 36. "Shortly after World War II, there were half a billion people in China. Between the mid 1960s and the early 1980s, China's population increased by over 300 million, more than the total population of either the United States or the former Soviet Union. "
Chinese China 1,200,000,000 - - - 1998 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 36. "Today's population [of China] is over 1.2 billion people, nearly 20 percent of humanity. In recent years, China's population has increased annually by about 15 million people. "
Chinese Jews of Kaifeng China - - - - 1695 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 15). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 2080. "A register of the Jewish congregation compiled at the end of the 17th century shows that many Jews took Chinese Mohammedans and other Chinese as their wives. By the 20th century the Chinese Jewish community had been almost completely assimilated. "
Chinese traditional religion China - - - - 960 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 164. "CHINESE POPULAR RELIGION. The earliest historical sources note a variety of religious practices and beliefs, including ancestor veneration, fertility cults, sacrifices to spirits of sacred objects and places, belief in ghosts, exorcism, divination, and the activities of spirit-mediums. By the Sung dynasty (A.D. 960-1279), these traditions had blended together with Buddhist ideas of karma and purgatoy ad Taoist charms and methods of ritual renewal to form the beginnings of modern popular religion. This complex aggregate can be defined by its locatio in the midst of ordinary social life, its pantheon of personified deities... its characteristic specialists and rituals. "


China, continued

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