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Over 42,000 religious geography and religion statistics citations (membership statistics for over 4,000 different religions, denominations, tribes, etc.) for every country in the world.

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Brazil, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Kaingang Brazil 200 - - - 1916 Pinney, Roy. Vanishing Tribes. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1968), pg. viii. "The Kaingang, from the state of Sao Paulo, numbered 1,200 in 1912, only 200 in 1916... "
Kaingang Brazil 80 - - - 1968 Pinney, Roy. Vanishing Tribes. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1968), pg. viii. "The Kaingang, from the state of Sao Paulo, numbered 1,200 in 1912, only 200 in 1916, and today have dwindled to 80. "
Kardecian Spiritualism Brazil - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 15). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1981. "Brazilian Spiritualists are of two principal kinds, those known as Kardecists, so called because their religious views derive from the writings of Alain Kardec, a French 19th century Spiritualist who acquired a significant following in Brazil... "
Kayapo Brazil 2,500 - - - 1902 Pinney, Roy. Vanishing Tribes. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1968), pg. viii. "In Brazil... The Kayapo of the River Araguaya were 2,500 in 1902 and 10 in 1950 "
Kayapo Brazil 10 - - 1
country
1950 Pinney, Roy. Vanishing Tribes. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1968), pg. viii. "In Brazil... The Kayapo of the River Araguaya were 2,500 in 1902 and 10 in 1950 "
Kayapo Brazil 4,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 2 - Americas. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 271-272. "Kayapos: Location: Brazil (Amazon jungle); Population: A few thousand; Language: Kayapo; Religion: Traditional indigenous beliefs "; "As opposed to the beliefs that some missionaries have brought to the Amazon, including the idea that after death people either descend into Hell or rise to Heaven, the Kayapos believe that at death a person goes to the village of the dead, where people sleep during the day and hunt at night. There, old people become younger and children become older. In that villag in the afterlife, Kayapos believe they have their own traditional assembly building... "
Lutheran Brazil 1,184,597 - - - 1995 *LINK* Evangelical Lutheran Church in America web site; web page: "January 25, 1996 News Releases " (viewed 9 July 1999). Story: "More than 60 Million Lutherans Worldwide " [96-01-003-FI] List: "Countries with more than 1/2 million Lutherans "
Lutheran Brazil 4,000,000 - - - 1995 *LINK* Nascimento, Elma Lia. "Praise the Lord and pass the catch-up ", "news from Brazil, November 1995; dateline: Brazzil ". (viewed 30 July 1999, web site: RickRoss.com) "Even today the Universal is not the biggest evangelical church in Brazil. The Assembleia de Deu (Assembly of God), for example, has 13 million followers and the Congregation Cristo do Brasil (Brazil's Christian Congregation) and the Igreja Luteran (Lutheran Church) have 4 million apiece. "
Macumba Brazil - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 360. "Candomble is the generic name for a number of African religious traditions established by slaves in 19th-century Brazil, specifically in the region of Bahia. (In the southeast it is called Macumba; Rio de Janeiro's sect is known as Umbanda.) "
Mennonite World Conference Brazil 6,690 - - - 1997 *LINK* Mennonite World Conference web site; page: "Mennonite and Brethren in Christ World Membership Totals " (viewed 8 Aug. 1999). Table: "Mennonite and Brethren in Christ World Membership Totals "; "based on the most recent data available... from 1996 or 1997... statistics indicate baptized members "; Dif. religious bodies: 4.
Methodist Brazil - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 478. "[Methodist] Churches having more than 20,000 members are found in... New Zealand; Germany, Ireland; Jamaica, Mexico, and Brazil. "
Methodist Church of Brazil Brazil 60,000 - - - 1958 Kennedy, Gerald. The Methodist Way of Life. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall (1958), pg. 155. "The autonomous Methodist Church of Brazil has grown to around 60,000 members. "
Mundurucu Brazil 20,000 - - - 1925 Pinney, Roy. Vanishing Tribes. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1968), pg. viii. "In Brazil... The Munduruku were 20,000 in 1925... "
Mundurucu Brazil 1,200 - - 1
country
1950 Pinney, Roy. Vanishing Tribes. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1968), pg. viii. "In Brazil... The Munduruku were 20,000 in 1925; in 1950 they numbered 1,200. "
Mundurucu Brazil - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 702. Chapter: "South American Tribal Religions "; map: "Tribal Locations "
Mundurucu Brazil - - 7
units
- 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 705. "In the early twentieth century the Mundurucu became involved in the Brazilian rubber economy, and many hundreds of them abandoned village life, settling on the Cururu and Tapajos rivers in individual family households, where they tapped latex for a living. A Catholic mission and a Brazilian Indian agency were established among them, and traditional life soon disapeared. There remain, however, seven villages away from the riverine area and in the rolling savannah, where an effort is made to maintain traditional life. Despite the many social changes among the Mundurucu, shamanism preserves its role in curing as well as in hunting, fishing, and agricultural endeavors. The long-term prognosis, however, is not good. "
Nambikuara Brazil 10,000 - - - 1900 Pinney, Roy. Vanishing Tribes. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1968), pg. viii. "In Brazil... Of the 10,000 Nambikuara in 1900, only 1,000 could be traced in 1940. "
Nambikuara Brazil 1,000 - - 1
country
1940 Pinney, Roy. Vanishing Tribes. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1968), pg. viii. "In Brazil... Of the 10,000 Nambikuara in 1900, only 1,000 could be traced in 1940. "
National Baptist Convention of Brazil Brazil 200,000 - 1,100
units
- 1998 *LINK* Baptist World Alliance web site; page: "BWA Statistics " (viewed 31 March 1999). "Figures are for BWA affiliated conventions/unions only (no independents included). "; Table with 3 columns: Country, "Churches ", & "Members "; "1997/1998 Totals "
New Kadampa Tradition Brazil - - 6
units
- 1999 *LINK* official organization web site; web page: "Directory of NKT Centers for Asia, Australasia and America " (viewed 23 Jan. 1999). counted listings on directory.
Nonreligious Brazil - 1.00% - - 1992 Goring, Rosemary (ed). Larousse Dictionary of Beliefs & Religions (Larousse: 1994) pg. 581-584. Table: "Population Distribution of Major Beliefs "; "Figures have been compiled from the most accurate recent available information and are in most cases correct to the nearest 1% "
other Brazil 17,743,000 11.00% - - 1995 Heinrichs, Ann. Brazil ( "Enchantment of the World Second Series "). New York: Children's Press (1997), pg. 95-96. "Religious of Brazil: Roman Catholic: 89%; Protestant: 6.6%; Other (Spiritism, Afro-Christian sects, etc.): 4.4% "; "Non-Catholic Christians in Brazil are growing in numbers. They include Anglicans, as well as Protestant denominations such as Lutherans, Methodists, Baptists, and Presbyterians. Evangelical Protestant groups are gaining members much faster than mainstream congregations... Brazil's Japanese people practice Shinto or Buddhism. Members of the Lebanese and Syrian communities follow Islam or Maronite Catholicism. Jewish, Baha'i, and Mormon faiths are among Brazil's other religious minorities. "
other Brazil 7,097,200 4.40% - - 1995 Heinrichs, Ann. Brazil ( "Enchantment of the World Second Series "). New York: Children's Press (1997), pg. 95. Pg. 83: Estimated 1995 population: 161.3 million. Pg. 95: "Religious of Brazil: Roman Catholic: 89%; Protestant: 6.6%; Other (Spiritism, Afro-Christian sects, etc.): 4.4% "
other Brazil 17,000,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year. Pg. 781-783. Table; "other " = NOT Roman Catholic or Evangelical Protestant
Pentecostal Brazil 5,000,000 - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 16). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 2162. "Some authorities consider that... the numbers [of Pentecostalists] in Brazil are estiamted as between four and five million. "
Pentecostal Brazil 4,000,000 - - - 1976 Quebedeaux, Richard. The New Charismatics: The Origins, Development, and Significance of Neo-Pentecostalism; Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co. (1976), pg. 46-47. "thanks to Prudencio Damboriena and Walter Hollenweger's work, we can offer a very approximate estimate of total [Classical] Pentecostal adherents in nations where the movement has had a measurable impact... "
Pentecostal Brazil 9,000,000 - - - 1977 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 564. "The fastest growing Christian movement after World War II, the Pentecostal churches claimed some 35,000,000 adherents in over 120 nations in 1977, with the largest number (9,000,000) in Brazil. "
Pentecostal Brazil - 3.20% - - 1980 *LINK* Kamm, Thomas. "Evangelicals, Stressing 'Cures' for Masses' Misery, Make Inroads in Roman Catholic Latin America " in The Wall Street Journal, 10/16/91. (viewed 30 July 1999, web site: RickRoss.com) "In a poll taken last week, only 72% of Brazilians described themselves as Roman Catholics, down from 89% in the 1980 census. Meanwhile, the number describing themselves as Pentecostalists surged to 6% from 3.2%, and traditional Protestants to 4% from 3.4%. "
Pentecostal Brazil - 6.00% - - 1991 *LINK* Kamm, Thomas. "Evangelicals, Stressing 'Cures' for Masses' Misery, Make Inroads in Roman Catholic Latin America " in The Wall Street Journal, 10/16/91. (viewed 30 July 1999, web site: RickRoss.com) "In a poll taken last week, only 72% of Brazilians described themselves as Roman Catholics, down from 89% in the 1980 census. Meanwhile, the number describing themselves as Pentecostalists surged to 6% from 3.2%, and traditional Protestants to 4% from 3.4%. "
PL Kyodan Brazil - - 15
units
- 1999 *LINK* Official web site of PL Kyodan; web page: "South America PL Church Directory " (viewed 11 April 1999). Counted listings on directory: "Main Church, Rua Pirapitingui 204, Liberdade, Sao Paulo, CEP; Manaus-AM; Belem-PA; Fortaleza-CE; Natal-RN; Recife-PE; Salvador-BA; Campo Grande-MS; Brasilia-DF; Goiania-GO; Belo Horizonte-MG; Rio de Janeiro-RJ; Sao Paulo-SP; Curitiba-PR; Porto Alegre-RS "
Plymouth Brethren Brazil - - 800
units
- 1998 *LINK* web page: "'Plymouth Brethren' FAQ "; "Author: Shawn Abigail; November1998; Version 1.6.1 " Assemblies: 31 in Peru, 8 in Argentina, 33 in the Dominican Republic, more than 8 in Brasil, and about 28 in Mexico in fellowship with the "TW " (exclusive) meetings. In total, Brasil has about 800 assemblies (including Open meetings).
primal-indigenous Brazil - - - - 1950 Pinney, Roy. Vanishing Tribes. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1968), pg. viii. "In Brazil, one hundred tribes became extinct between 1900 and 1950. "
primal-indigenous Brazil - 6.00% - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "Ethnologue Database " (viewed circa Dec. 1998) "Religion: Christian 93%, traditional religion 6%, secular 1% "
Protestant Brazil - 6.00% - - 1992 Goring, Rosemary (ed). Larousse Dictionary of Beliefs & Religions (Larousse: 1994) pg. 581-584. Table: "Population Distribution of Major Beliefs "; "Figures have been compiled from the most accurate recent available information and are in most cases correct to the nearest 1% "; Protestant "includes all non-Roman Catholic denominations "
Protestant Brazil 30,000,000 20.00% - - 1993 Clarke, Peter B. (editor), The Religions of the World: Understanding the Living Faiths, Marshall Editions Limited: USA (1993); pg. 10. "Now an estimated 20 percent of the country's [Brazil] 150 million people are Protestant. "
Protestant Brazil 30,000,000 20.00% - - 1995 *LINK* Epstein, Jack. "Kicking of icon outrages Brazil Catholics " in Dallas Morning News, November 24, 1995; (viewed 30 July 1999, web site: RickRoss.com). "In Brazil, the 1980 census showed that 89% of residents described themselves as [Roman] Catholic. Religious experts say that number has fallen to 70% of the population, while 20%, or about 30 million people, call themselves evangelicals. "
Protestant Brazil 10,645,800 6.60% - - 1995 Heinrichs, Ann. Brazil ( "Enchantment of the World Second Series "). New York: Children's Press (1997), pg. 95. Pg. 83: Estimated 1995 population: 161.3 million. Pg. 95: "Religious of Brazil: Roman Catholic: 89%; Protestant: 6.6%; Other (Spiritism, Afro-Christian sects, etc.): 4.4% "
Protestant Brazil - 21.50% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "
Protestant - missionaries Brazil 3,500 - - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "Monday Morning Reality Check " (Protestant); web page: "Brazil, or Saudi Arabia? " by Justin D. Long, 1998 (viewed 5 March 1999) "Brazil has nearly ten times the population of Saudi Arabia... Yet Saudi Arabia has only a handful of people interested in evangelizing it, while more than 7,000 missionaries are at work in Brazil (half of whom are Protestants, and half Catholics). "
Protestant - non-Pentecostal Brazil - 3.40% - - 1980 *LINK* Kamm, Thomas. "Evangelicals, Stressing 'Cures' for Masses' Misery, Make Inroads in Roman Catholic Latin America " in The Wall Street Journal, 10/16/91. (viewed 30 July 1999, web site: RickRoss.com) "In a poll taken last week, only 72% of Brazilians described themselves as Roman Catholics, down from 89% in the 1980 census. Meanwhile, the number describing themselves as Pentecostalists surged to 6% from 3.2%, and traditional Protestants to 4% from 3.4%. "
Protestant - non-Pentecostal Brazil - 4.00% - - 1991 *LINK* Kamm, Thomas. "Evangelicals, Stressing 'Cures' for Masses' Misery, Make Inroads in Roman Catholic Latin America " in The Wall Street Journal, 10/16/91. (viewed 30 July 1999, web site: RickRoss.com) "In a poll taken last week, only 72% of Brazilians described themselves as Roman Catholics, down from 89% in the 1980 census. Meanwhile, the number describing themselves as Pentecostalists surged to 6% from 3.2%, and traditional Protestants to 4% from 3.4%. "
Quimbanda Brazil - - - - 1998 *LINK* "AFRICAN RELIGION syncretism " (viewed 5 April 1999) "In Brasil there seems to be four distinct movements, Candomble of Bahia and the northeast, Spiritism of Rio and the more advanced urban centers; Umbanda in the urban centers not influenced by Bahia and Quimbanda a form of black magic that is practiced clandestinely everywhere. "
Revival Fellowship Brazil - - 1
unit
- 1998 *LINK* official organization web site directory of assemblies (or contacts?). This is the number of listings in a particular country, but I'm not sure it can be taken as a count of congregations.
Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia Brazil - - 8
units
- 1998 *LINK* official organization web site (1998) Counted listings in directory of parishes.
secular Brazil - 1.00% - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "Ethnologue Database " (viewed circa Dec. 1998) "Religion: Christian 93%, traditional religion 6%, secular 1% "
Sherente Brazil - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 702. Chapter: "South American Tribal Religions "; map: "Tribal Locations "
Spiritism Brazil - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 15). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1981. "Apart from growing branches of other American sects... there is also a stronger body of Spiritualists in Brazil than anywhere else in the world... Brazilian Spiritualists are of two principal kinds, those known as Kardecists... from the writings of Alain Kardec... who acquired a significant following in Brazil; and those known as Umbandists... Some of the more intellectual among the Kardecists are openly contemptuous of the crude performances, spirit-possession and the search for spectacular manifestations among the Umbandists. "
Spiritism Brazil - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 713. "In Brazil, Spiritualism, often mingled with African and quasi-Catholic influences, has been a major religious force. "
Spiritism Brazil 4,000,000 - - - 1991 Melton, J. Gordon, Jerome Clark & Aidan A. Kelly. New Age Almanac; New York: Visible Ink Press (1991), pg. 93. "Spiritism was exported to South America in the nineteenth century and is one of the major religions of Brazil, its practice often combined with portions of Catholicism. 4 million Spiritists reside in Brazil, which has honored Kardec...with [3] stamps. "
Spiritism Brazil - 4.00% - - 1992 Goring, Rosemary (ed). Larousse Dictionary of Beliefs & Religions (Larousse: 1994) pg. 581-584. Table: "Population Distribution of Major Beliefs "; "Figures have been compiled from the most accurate recent available information and are in most cases correct to the nearest 1% "
Spiritism Brazil 1,000,000 0.62% - - 1995 Heinrichs, Ann. Brazil ( "Enchantment of the World Second Series "). New York: Children's Press (1997), pg. 98. "Over a million Brazilians practice Spiritism, or Kardecism. They are followers of Allan Kardec, a nineteenth-century French psychic. Spiritism centers on a belief in reincarnation, mixing in some traditional Christian beliefs. "
Spiritism Brazil - 5.00% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "; "Over 60% of the population is involved in some form of occasional spiritist/occultic practice, though most of these still claim to be Catholic. "
Spiritism Brazil 15,000,000 - - - 1998 Newport, John P. The New Age Movement and the Biblical Worldview: Conflict and Dialogue, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan (1998), pg. 221-222. There are said to be about half a million active mediums and shamans [of magic spiritism, incl. Umbanda & Macumba], 15 million professed members, and according to some, a fringe following of up to 50 million, nearly half the population of [Brazil].
Spiritism - mediums and shamans Brazil 500,000 - - - 1998 Newport, John P. The New Age Movement and the Biblical Worldview: Conflict and Dialogue, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan (1998), pg. 221-222. "There are said to be about half a million active mediums and shamans [of magic spiritism, incl. Umbanda & Macumba]... "
Spiritism - peripheral Brazil 50,000,000 50.00% - - 1998 Newport, John P. The New Age Movement and the Biblical Worldview: Conflict and Dialogue, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan (1998), pg. 221-222. "There are said to be about half a million active mediums and shamans [of magic spiritism, incl. Umbanda & Macumba], 15 million professed members, and according to some, a fringe following of up to 50 million, nearly half the population of [Brazil]. "
Tenetehara Brazil - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 2 - Americas. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 415-416. "The Tenetehara are also known as Guajajara and Tembe when treated as two separate tribes. They seem to have inhabited the northeastern Brazilian region since pre-Columbian times... With the exception of culture heroes, Tenetehara supernatural beings are dangerous... Apart from the spirits, the Tenetehara also have to deal with ghosts (azang)... Because the supernatural world is so menacing, the Tenetehara need their shamans to protect them... "
Tenrikyo Brazil - - 388
units
- 1998 *LINK* official Tenrikyo web site; page: "A Statistical Review of Tenrikyo: 1 of 2 " (viewed 10 Dec. 1999) Table: "A Statistical Review of Tenrikyo 1998 ". Church-supplied data. 1 mission headquarters; 77 churches; 308 mission stations; 2 church's overseas offices
Tenrikyo - graduated from Shuyoka Brazil 15 - - - 1998 *LINK* official Tenrikyo web site; page: "A Statistical Review of Tenrikyo: 2 of 2 " (viewed 10 Dec. 1999) Table: "Statistics on followers who... graduated from Shuyoka... between Jan. and Dec. 1998. "; "Data by Research Section and Overseas Mission Department "
Tenrikyo - new Besseki Pledge Brazil 258 - - - 1998 *LINK* official Tenrikyo web site; page: "A Statistical Review of Tenrikyo: 2 of 2 " (viewed 10 Dec. 1999) Table: "Statistics on followers who took the Besseki Pledge... between Jan. and Dec. 1998. "; "Data by Research Section and Overseas Mission Department "
Tenrikyo - received the Sazuke Brazil 153 - - - 1998 *LINK* official Tenrikyo web site; page: "A Statistical Review of Tenrikyo: 2 of 2 " (viewed 10 Dec. 1999) Table: "Statistics on followers who... received the Sazuke... between Jan. and Dec. 1998. "; "Data by Research Section and Overseas Mission Department "
Timbira Brazil 1,000 - - - 1900 Pinney, Roy. Vanishing Tribes. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1968), pg. viii. "In Brazil... The Timbira, who numbered 1,000 in 1900, were only 40 in 1950. "
Timbira Brazil 40 - - - 1950 Pinney, Roy. Vanishing Tribes. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1968), pg. viii. "In Brazil... The Timbira, who numbered 1,000 in 1900, were only 40 in 1950. "
Tupi Brazil - - 2
units
1
country
1968 Pinney, Roy. Vanishing Tribes. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1968), pg. 205, 210. "...the country of the Rio Xingu, a major waterway that rises in the sandstone plateaus of Brazil and flows northward to the might Amazon... "; Pg. 210: "Anthropologist Kalervo Oberg was one of the fortunate few to gain a permit to study the Xingu tribes. Working with the Smithsonian Institution, he entered the area in the late 1940's and emerged some months later with a report that is still the main source of our knowledge about the Indians. While studying all four of the language groups in the area--the Carib, the Arawak, the Tupi, and the Trumai--Oberg concentrated intensively on a single village, that of the Camayura, one of the two Tupi-speaking groups in the area. "
Tupinamba Brazil - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 702. Chapter: "South American Tribal Religions "; map: "Tribal Locations "
Umbanda Brazil - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 15). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1981. "Brazilian Spiritualists are of two principal kinds, those known as Kardecists... and those known as Umbandists. The Umbandists represent a more primitive type of Spiritualism, the inspiration for which is originally African, and which is some respects is rather closer as a religious phenomenon to the beliefs and practices of the candombles... "
Umbanda Brazil - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 360. "Candomble is the generic name for a number of African religious traditions established by slaves in 19th-century Brazil, specifically in the region of Bahia. (In the southeast it is called Macumba; Rio de Janeiro's sect is known as Umbanda.) "
Umbanda Brazil - - - - 1997 Heinrichs, Ann. Brazil ( "Enchantment of the World Second Series "). New York: Children's Press (1997), pg. 98. "Umbanda is a religion prevalent in Rio de Janeiro. It combines candomble, Spiritism, and other African and Brazilian folk beliefs. In contrast to the 'dark' tone of candomble, umbanda relies on 'white magic,' Umbandits make offerings of candles and food to their spirit protectors, who may be Catholic saints, African deities, or historical heroes. "
Umbanda Brazil - - - - 1998 *LINK* "AFRICAN RELIGION syncretism " (viewed 5 April 1999) "In Brasil there seems to be four distinct movements, Candomble of Bahia and the northeast, Spiritism of Rio and the more advanced urban centers; Umbanda in the urban centers not influenced by Bahia and Quimbanda a form of black magic that is practiced clandestinely everywhere. "
Umbanda Brazil - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 2 - Americas. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 14-15. "Afro-Brazilian sects are becoming increasingly popular with Blacks and Whites alike in Brazil... Other spiritualist sects, such as Umbanda, combine African and non-African influences. In these religions, it is common for the services to be led by a female priestess. Umbanda is becoming widespread in Brazil's major cities. Followers of Umbanda invite spirits into their bodies as part of the services. When they are 'possessed,' they traditionally light a cigar. Umbanda services account for the majority of cigar sales in Brazil. "
Umbanda Brazil - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 2 - Americas. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 88. Chapter: "Brazilians "; "After Catholicism, Afro-Brazilian religions are the most important in Brazilian society. Umbanda, for example, is one of the most rapidly growing sects. Attracting both African and non-African Brazilians, Umbanda sects use music, dancing, and sometimes alcohol to reach a trance state that enables believers to communicate with spirits. "
Universal Church of the Kingdom of God Brazil 100 - 1
unit
- 1977 *LINK* Nascimento, Elma Lia. "Praise the Lord and pass the catch-up ", "news from Brazil, November 1995; dateline: Brazzil ". (viewed 30 July 1999, web site: RickRoss.com) "It was in 1977 that Macedo and four other friends transformed an old funerary house in Abolia (sp), a suburb on the Northern side of Rio, into the first temple of the incipient evangelical multinational. Bishop Macedo was barely surviving and had less than 100 followers when he started his church. It was Maria Veronesi, a woman who believed to be cured by him and is still in the church, who sold a lot she had inherited from her father, giving the money to Macedo. He used it to buy 10 minutes a day of air time at Rio's Metropolitana radio. "
Universal Church of the Kingdom of God Brazil - - 800
units
- 1991 *LINK* Kamm, Thomas. "Evangelicals, Stressing 'Cures' for Masses' Misery, Make Inroads in Roman Catholic Latin America " in The Wall Street Journal, 10/16/91. (viewed 30 July 1999, web site: RickRoss.com) "...the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God has received the most attention because of its stunning growth... the Universal Church today is a multinational empire with about 800 temples and 2,000 pastors in Brazil... and control of a TV network and several radio stations in Brazil. "
Universal Church of the Kingdom of God Brazil - - - - 1995 *LINK* Epstein, Jack. "Kicking of icon outrages Brazil Catholics " in Dallas Morning News, November 24, 1995; (viewed 30 July 1999, web site: RickRoss.com). "Thanks to its massive donations, the church has purchased TV Record - the nation's third largest television network with 47 broadcasting stations - 30 radio stations, two publishing houses, a bank, a recording studio, a newspaper, a furniture factory and a tourist agency. "
Universal Church of the Kingdom of God Brazil 3,000,000 - - - 1995 *LINK* Nascimento, Elma Lia. "Praise the Lord and pass the catch-up ", "news from Brazil, November 1995; dateline: Brazzil ". (viewed 30 July 1999, web site: RickRoss.com) "Apparently, Universal with its 3 million faithful is no match for the 105 million Catholics (35 million of which are practicing) and TV Record and its 25 stations is just a little mouse for Globo's 87 broadcasting stations. "
Universal Church of the Kingdom of God Brazil - - - - 1995 *LINK* Nascimento, Elma Lia. "Praise the Lord and pass the catch-up ", "news from Brazil, November 1995; dateline: Brazzil ". (viewed 30 July 1999, web site: RickRoss.com) "Some evangelicals, however, are trying to distance themselves from Macedo. The Associon Evangelica Brasileira (Brazilian Evangelical Association) led by Presbyterian Caio Fabio D'Ara'jo Filho has been in the forefront of this movement, accusing the bishop of using manipulative methods to get money. The Igreja Universal has allied itself to a branch of the Assembly of God to start its own evangelical organization, the Conselho Nacional dos Pastores do Brasil (National Council of Brazil's Pastors). D'Ara'jo contends that Macedo's church has 'no legitimacy to represent the diversity of the Evangelical Church.' "


Brazil, continued

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