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Over 42,000 religious geography and religion statistics citations (membership statistics for over 4,000 different religions, denominations, tribes, etc.) for every country in the world.

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Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
miscellaneous regional info Bolivia - - - - 1989 *LINK* Library of Congress Country Studies In 1980s Mormons, Jehovah's Witnesses, Seventh-Day Adventists, and various Pentecostal denominations gained increasing adherents. Other denominations included Mennonites and Bahai faith and small Jewish community.
miscellaneous regional info Bolivia - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 2 - Americas. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 84. "Most Bolivians are Roman Catholic. However, among the Aymara- and Quechua-speaking Amerindian groups, certain beliefs and rituals remain that stem from local religions which pre-date the Spanish conquest. The respect for nature is embodied in the belief in Mother Earth, known as Pachamama. "
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Bonaire - - 1
unit
- 1995 Deseret News 1997-98 Church Almanac. Deseret News: Salt Lake City, UT (1996), pg. 188-408. "Year-end 1995: Est. population [of country]; Members, [number shown in '# of adherents' column to left] "
Jehovah's Witnesses Bonaire 39 0.40% 1
unit
- 1983 Botting, Heather & Gary Botting. The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. Toronto: University of Toronto Press (1984), pg. 53-59. Table: "1983 Service Year Report of JWs Worldwide "; Adherent count here is from "1983 Peak Publishers " column
Jehovah's Witnesses Bonaire 68 0.48% 1
unit
- 1997 *LINK* official organization web site Adherent/member count is for "1997 Peak Witnesses "; Memorial attendance (annual sacrament meeting) for same year: 252.
Jehovah's Witnesses Bonaire 65 0.43% 1
unit
- 1998 *LINK* Jehovah's Witnesses official web site; section: "Statistics "; web page: "Worldwide Report " (viewed 16 April 1999). Table: "1998 Report of Jehovah's Witnesses Worldwide "; This adherent/member count is for "1998 Peak Witnesses "
Jehovah's Witnesses - Memorial attendance Bonaire 115 - 1
unit
- 1983 Botting, Heather & Gary Botting. The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. Toronto: University of Toronto Press (1984), pg. 53-59. Table: "1983 Service Year Report of JWs Worldwide "; Data from columns: "No. of congs. " and "Memorial attendance "
Jehovah's Witnesses - Memorial attendance Bonaire 252 1.77% 1
unit
- 1997 *LINK* official organization web site From 1997 Statistics "Memorial attendance " column. Count of all who attend this once-a-year meeting, whether or not a "publisher " in full standing. Most would be considered adherents.
Jehovah's Witnesses - Memorial attendance Bonaire 166 1.10% - - 1998 *LINK* Jehovah's Witnesses official web site; section: "Statistics "; web page: "Worldwide Report " (viewed 16 April 1999). Table: "1998 Report of Jehovah's Witnesses Worldwide "; "Memorial attendance " column indicates attendance at yearly communion meeting.
Albanian Bosnia - - - - 1999 Black, Eric. Bosnia: Fractured Region. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co. (1999), pg. 14. "Bosnia also includes a small number of Jews, Roma... and Albanians... "
Bogomilism Bosnia - - - - 1300 C.E. Black, Eric. Bosnia: Fractured Region. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co. (1999), pg. 34. "During the 1200s and 1300s, Bosnia was one of the regions where a variant of Christianity called Bogomilism, which the world has since forgotten, took hold. Bogomils believed in Jesus but questioned the holiness of Mary, rejected the crucifixion, opposed any kind of religious hierarchy, and believed that Satan and God had equal powers. Roman Catholics and Orthodox Christians considered Bogomilsim to be heresy... Hungary led a Catholic holy war in Bosnia to exterminate Bogomilism in the 1200s, but many Bosnians continued this religious practice. "
Bogomilism Bosnia - - - - 1300 C.E. Black, Eric. Bosnia: Fractured Region. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co. (1999), pg. 34. "...1200s and 1300s... The presence of Bogomils in Bosnia, however, is widely debated. Some historians believe the actual number of real Bogomil believers was overstated and that the importance of the Bogomil chapter has been overrated. These historians believe that the Bosnians weren't Bogomils but were merely practicing a form of folk Christianity that the Catholic and Orthodox churches deemed heretical. Others feel that the belifes of the Bogomils were as close to Islam as they were to Catholicism or to Orthodoxy and that this might explain why many Bosnians converted to Islam after the Ottoman Turks introduced the faith. "
Bosnian Church Bosnia - - - - 1250 C.E. Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 14. "...the Bosnian Church... seems to have fallen away from the Catholic Church in the 13th century, and to have operated on its own in Bosnia until the coming of the Franciscans, who tried to reassert the authority of Rome, in the 1340s. Thereafter the Bosnian Church competed against the Roman Catholic Church for a century, until its functionaries were either expelled or forcibly converted to Catholicism on the eve of the Turkish conquest. Throughout the lifetime of this Church, papal writers accused the Bosnians of heresy; and some of these sources identify the heresy as dualist or Manichaean. Because of these accusations, the Bosnian Church has traditionally been identified as a late embodiement of an earlier Balkan Manichaean sect, the Bogomils of Bulgaria. However, modern scholarship has raised powerful objections to this traditional theory. "
Bosnian Church Bosnia - - - - 1250 C.E. Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 28-29. "The main rival theory [to the idea that the Bosnian Church stemmed from Bogomilism], which has grown in support in the post-war period, argues that the Bosnian Church was essentially a branch of the Catholic Church, probably a monastic order, which receded into schism and acquired some heretical tendencies; this theory, not surprisingly, has been especially popular among Catholic writers. The most convincing explanation, as we shall see, contains important elements of both the Eastern Orthodox and the Catholic theory. But the theory which has been most widely accepted for over a century, Racki'sidentification of the Bosnian Church as Bogomil, turns out to consist mainly of wishful thinking. "
Bosnian Church Bosnia - - - - 1400 C.E. Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 41. "The Bosnian Church in its heyday (the fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries) enjoyed considerable power, and its dignitaries wre used to sign charters and carry out diplomatic missions. Kings such as Stephen Kotromanic and Tvrtko, though not members of the Bosnian Church, had friendly relations with it; some of the great noble families seem to have belonged to it. "
Bosnian Church Bosnia - - - - 1400 C.E. Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 42. "As for the ordinary lay members, it is possible that the Bosnian Church neer had a huge membership, since as a purely monastic organization it lacked the necessary territorial structure of parishes. And whateve the number of lay adherents in its heday -14th & 15th centures], the figure must have fallen during more than a century of state-supported Catholic proselytism. So it seems that by the time the Turks took over [circa 1500], the Bosnian Church was already broken and virtually defunct. "
Bosnian Church Bosnia 2,040 - - - 1459 C.E. Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 41. "...the Bosnian Church was already severely weakened by the djed's action, even before the official persecution of the Bosnian Church by King Tomas in 1459. There was strong competition between the Catholic and Orthodox Churches to see which could mop up the ramainder of the adherents of the Bosnian Church. One Franciscan reported that many of the 'heretics' were joining the Catholic Church, but that the bishohp of the Serbs ('Rascianorum': inhabitants of Raska) would not allow them to be reconciled to Rome. "
Bosnian Church Bosnia 60 - - - 1466 C.E. Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 41. "The action King Tomas took in 1459 was thus probably meant to preempt any further drift to Orthodoxy. The forced conversion of 2000 krstjani and the withdrawal of forty irreconcilables to Hercegovina must have broken the [Bosnian] Church's back; though we lack any proper figures for the number of monasteries, this would surely have represented the buil of the Bosnian monastic churchmen. When Gost Radin wrote to Venice in 1466 requesting permission to mirgrate there if the Turks forced him to flee, he asked whether he might bright fifty or sixty members of his sect with him: this probably represents the main remnant of the Church, including the forty irreconcilables. "
Bosnian Church Bosnia 700 - - - 1500 C.E. Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 42. "In the Ottoman land-registers of Bosnia for the 15th and 16th centuries, which categorized people by religion, a few are listed as kristian (as opposed to the usual word for Christians, gebr or kafir, meaning 'unbeliever', under which both Catholics and Orthodox were listed). A few entire villages were given as kristian in the earliest registers, but the total numbers are very small: fewer than 700 individuals apear in these registers over the entire period. The historian who has studied this material (and who follows the 'Bogomil' theory) suggests that these kristianlar were the 'elect' of the [Bosnian] Church, and that ordinary members were being listed nder gebr or kafir; but this is surely wrong. The Turks were simply using religious categories: Muslm, Jew, unbeliever and kristian.
Bosnian Church Bosnia 700 - - - 1500 C.E. Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 56. "If the main sorce of Muslim converts throughout that period had been the membership of the Bosnian Church, one would expect to find evidence of that continuing membership--large at first, and gradually diminishing--in the defters; but the defters show fewer than 700 individual members in Bosnia over nearly 150 years. We have already seen that there is good reason to believe that the Bosnian Church was largely defunct even before the Turkish conquest, and that the numbers of its lay adherents in the years before its collapse may not have been very large anyway. "
Bosnian Church Bosnia - - - - 1625 Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 42. "One Catholic priest, the Albanian Peter Masarechi, who visited Bosnia in the 1620s, referred in his report to 'Patarins' [probably remnants of the Bosnian Church] who live without proper priests and sacraments, 'with their Priest chosen from among the people, without any ordination'. But even this remnant was at last swallowed up, leaving nothing behind but unreliable collective memory, folk history and myth. "
Catholic Bosnia 150,000 - - - 1624 Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 54. "...the Albanian priest and apostolic visitor Peter Masarechi, sent a more carefully researched report in 1624; unfortunately, the figures he gave for Bosnia have been misconstrued by almost all the historians who have cited them. What he actually reported was that there were 150,000 Catholics, roughly 75,000 Eastern Orthodox, and 450,000 Muslims. "
Catholic Bosnia 250,000 - - - 1626 Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 53-54. "From the early 17th century we do have some accounts by visiting Catholic priests who compiled detailed reports for Rome; but their figures must have been based on hearsay, their use of the term 'Bosnia' was elastic, and they were evidently keen to emphasize either the numerical strength of the Catholic Church or the degree of oppression it suffered. One such visitor gave a total of 250,000 Catholics for the whole of Bosnia in 1626, and added that the number of Muslims was larger than the total number of Christians. "
Catholic Bosnia 765,000 17.00% - - 1991 Black, Eric. Bosnia: Fractured Region. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co. (1999), pg. 14. "In the country's last census--in 1991--44 percent of Bosnia's 4.5 million people identified themselves as Muslims, 31 percent as Serbs, and 17 percent as Croats... Bosnian Serbs are mostly followers of the Serbian Orthodox Church, Bosnian Croats are mostly Roman Catholics... "
Catholic - Franciscan Bosnia - - 35
units
- 1475 C.E. Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 55. "Before the Turks entered Bosnia, there were thirty-five Franciscan monasteries in Bosnia proper, and four in Hercegovina. "
Catholic - Franciscan Bosnia - - 10
units
- 1585 C.E. Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 55-56. "In the 1580s, a visiting Franciscan general found only ten [Franciscan monasteries] in the whole of Bosnia... "
Catholic - Franciscan Bosnia - - 10
units
- 1655 Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 55-56. "In the 1580s, a visiting Franciscan general found only ten [Franciscan monasteries] in the whole of Bosnia; the same figure (for the territory of modern Bosnia) is given by another Catholic, Bishop Maravic, in his report of 1655. The Franciscans were the only catholic clergy functioning in Bosnia... "
Christianity Bosnia 118,000 - - - 1718 Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 95. "If we apply a multiplier of three to the figure for adult males, the rounded totals for the Christian population in these tax returns come to 119,000 in 1718, 190,000 in 1740, 295,000 in 1788 and 312,000 in 1815. (These figures are not properly comparable, however; the administrative areas covered vary.) "
Christianity Bosnia 190,000 - - - 1740 Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 95. "If we apply a multiplier of three to the figure for adult males, the rounded totals for the Christian population in these tax returns come to 119,000 in 1718, 190,000 in 1740, 295,000 in 1788 and 312,000 in 1815. "
Christianity Bosnia 295,000 - - - 1788 Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 95. "If we apply a multiplier of three to the figure for adult males, the rounded totals for the Christian population in these tax returns come to 119,000 in 1718, 190,000 in 1740, 295,000 in 1788 and 312,000 in 1815. "
Christianity Bosnia 312,000 - - - 1815 Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 95. "If we apply a multiplier of three to the figure for adult males, the rounded totals for the Christian population in these tax returns come to 119,000 in 1718, 190,000 in 1740, 295,000 in 1788 and 312,000 in 1815. "
Croat Bosnia 765,000 17.00% - - 1991 Black, Eric. Bosnia: Fractured Region. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co. (1999), pg. 14. "In the country's last census--in 1991--44 percent of Bosnia's 4.5 million people identified themselves as Muslims, 31 percent as Serbs, and 17 percent as Croats... Bosnian Serbs are mostly followers of the Serbian Orthodox Church, Bosnian Croats are mostly Roman Catholics... "
Eastern Orthodox Bosnia 450,000 - - - 1624 Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 54. "...the Albanian priest and apostolic visitor Peter Masarechi, sent a more carefully researched report in 1624; unfortunately, the figures he gave for Bosnia have been misconstrued by almost all the historians who have cited them. What he actually reported was that there were 150,000 Catholics, roughly 75,000 Eastern Orthodox, and 450,000 Muslims. "
Islam Bosnia - - - - 1500 C.E. Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 29. "...modern scholarship has comprehensively demolished the claim that the Islamicization of Bosnia consisted essentially of a mass-conversion of the members of the Bosnian Church. Some members of that Church may indeed have been more inclined to convert to Islam because of their alientation from the mainstream Catholic or Orthodox Churches; this seems psychologically possible, but particular evidence is lacking. What is now understood is that many factors were involved in the spread of Islam in Bosnia, and that if the special attitude of the Bosnian Church was a factor at all, it was not one of the most important ones. "
Islam Bosnia - - - - 1550 C.E. Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 54. "Similarly, the idea that there was a massive forcible conversion of Bosnians in the early years after the conquest is obviously false: the process of conversion was slow at the outset and took many generations. Although we lack the sort of personal testimony which would tell us how and why individuals decided to convert, we do have occasional comments, such as that of the monk mentioned above, indicating that people made the change of religion voluntarily. "
Islam Bosnia - - - - 1600 Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 54. "The process by which Bosnia gained a majority population of Muslims thus took the best part of 150 years. In the light of the evidence accumulated so far, it is clear that some of the oldest myths about the Islamicization of Bosnia can be rejected. The idea that there was any sort of mass settlement during this period of Muslims from outside Bosnia must be dismissed: though the Ottomans did settle some Turkic peoples in other parts of the Balkans, the defters confirm that no such policy was ever applied to Bosnia. "
Islam Bosnia 75,000 - - - 1624 Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 54. "...the Albanian priest and apostolic visitor Peter Masarechi, sent a more carefully researched report in 1624; unfortunately, the figures he gave for Bosnia have been misconstrued by almost all the historians who have cited them. What he actually reported was that there were 150,000 Catholics, roughly 75,000 Eastern Orthodox, and 450,000 Muslims. "
Islam Bosnia - - - - 1626 Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 53-54. "From the early 17th century we do have some accounts by visiting Catholic priests who compiled detailed reports for Rome; but their figures must have been based on hearsay, their use of the term 'Bosnia' was elastic, and they were evidently keen to emphasize either the numerical strength of the Catholic Church or the degree of oppression it suffered. One such visitor gave a total of 250,000 Catholics for the whole of Bosnia in 1626, and added that the number of Muslims was larger than the total number of Christians. "
Islam Bosnia 925,926 - - - 1939 Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 192. "Altogether 75,000 Bosnian Muslims are thought to have died in the [Second World] war: at 8.1% of their total population, this was a higher proportion than that suffered by the Serbs (7.3%), or by any other people except the Jews and the Gypsies. "
Islam Bosnia 2,000,000 - - - 1985 Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 222. "...1980s... But even 'hundreds' of militants could have little effect on a population of two million Muslims, the absolute majority of whom did not think of themselves as religious believers and only followed some of the practices of Islam as a matter of culture and tradition. "
Islam Bosnia - - - - 1985 Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 222. "For many rural Muslims and the vast majority of urban ones, being a Muslim was reduced to a set of cultural traditions: 'Muslim names, circumcision, baklava and the celebration of Ramazan Bajram [the feast which marks the end of the fasting month of Ramadan], getting a godparent to cut a one-year-old child's hair, a preference for tiny coffett cups without handles, a sympahy for spiders and various other traditional practices, the origins of which are frequently unknown to those who practice them. "
Islam Bosnia - 44.00% - - 1990 Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 222-223. "When the votes were counted in the elections of December 1990... These proportions (41% Muslim, 35% Serb, 20% Croat) roughly matched those of the population as a whole (44, 31, and 17 per cent respectively). "
Islam Bosnia 4,000,000 - - - 1990 *LINK* Sells, Michael A. Essay: "Bosnia: Some Religious Dimensions of Genocide "; Originally published in Religious Studies News, May, 1994, Vol. 9, No. 2., pp. 4-5. An estimated 200,000 Bosnian Muslims have been killed (out of a pre-war Bosnian total population of some 4 million).
Islam Bosnia 1,980,000 44.00% - - 1991 Black, Eric. Bosnia: Fractured Region. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co. (1999), pg. 14. "In the country's last census--in 1991--44 percent of Bosnia's 4.5 million people identified themselves as Muslims, 31 percent as Serbs, and 17 percent as Croats... Neither does Bosnia have a dominant religion. Bosnian Serbs are mostly followers of the Serbian Orthodox Church, Bosnian Croats are mostly Roman Catholics, and Bosnian Muslims follow the Islamic faith. In most contexts, the term Muslim is a religious description, not an ethnic one. Most Arabs and Turks, many Asians, and some Africans follow Islam, although they represent different ethnic groups. In Bosnia, however, the term Muslim represents both a religion and an ethnicity, separating that group fromthe Bosnian Serbs and Bosnian Croats. Many Bosnian Muslims, in fact, do not actively practice the Islamic religion. "
Islam Bosnia 3,800,000 - - - 1994 *LINK* Sells, Michael A. Essay: "Bosnia: Some Religious Dimensions of Genocide "; Originally published in Religious Studies News, May, 1994, Vol. 9, No. 2., pp. 4-5. An estimated 200,000 Bosnian Muslims have been killed (out of a pre-war Bosnian total population of some 4 million).
Islam Bosnia - - - - 1997 Udovicki, Jasminka & James Ridgeway (editors). Burn this House: The Making and Unmaking of Yugoslavia; Durham & London: Duke University Press (1997), pg. 22. "Islam became the dominant religion and thousands converted. It has long been held that the conversion took place en masse, primarily by the adherents of the Bosnian Church, to reinforce their difference from their Catholic and Orthodox neighbors. "
Judaism Bosnia 2,000 - - - 1810 Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 112. "In the first few decades of the 19th century the Jewish population of Bosnia was 2000 or more. "
Judaism Bosnia 9,311 - - - 1900 Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 113. "The population of Jews in other parts of Bosnia was also swelled by immigration: by 1900 there were 9311 in the whole of the country. "
Judaism Bosnia - - - - 1999 Black, Eric. Bosnia: Fractured Region. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co. (1999), pg. 14. "Bosnia also includes a small number of Jews, Roma... and Albanians... "
Manichaeism Bosnia - - - - 1450 C.E. Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 32. "Fifteenth-century Catholic authors did sometimes refer to the 'Manichaeans' in Bosnia, but that term seems to have been a self-consciously archaizing label used by historically-minded writers who wanted to dignify their works with the terms used in early Christian history. "
Poturs Bosnia - - - - 1560 C.E. Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 59. "...one other mysterious element in Bosnian religious history, which, according to some writers, indicates a link between Islam and the medieval Bosnian Church: the Poturs. The original meaning of this name is obscure. It was generally used to refer to Islamicized or Turkicized Bosnian Slavs of a rather rustic and provincial kind, who may have retained some Christian practices. (Discussion of the Poturs has been dominated by one late source, a description by the English diplomat Paul Rycaut, which appears to give them the attributes of members of a religions sect; but this... is misleading). "
Poturs Bosnia - - - - 1566 C.E. Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 60. "Another Turkish source, the record of a court case in Sarajevo in 1566, distinguishes poturs, who are clearly local Bosnian inhabitants, from other Muslims, who may be Ottomans. And a Turkish-Bosnian (i.e. Turkish-Serbo-Croat) dictionary of 1631 translates 'potur' simply as 'villager'.... it seems likely that this was originally just a contemptuous term used for those Bosnian Slavs who, despite having converted to Islam, remained evidently primitive and provincial when seen through Ottoman eyes. "
primal-indigenous Bosnia - - - - 1904 Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 58. "Some of the folk-religion practices mentioned in early sources have had a long history in both the Christian and Islamic traditions... One traveller in 1904 was struck by the fact that Muslims and Christians shared 'the same superstitious belief in the power of amulets, which the Muslims often have blessed by the Franciscans, and which are worn by children around the neck, on their clothes or on their fez: snakes, fishes, eagle's claws, stag's antlers, and so on'. Many of the same festivals and holy days were celebrated by both religions: these included Jurjevo (St George's Day), and Ilinden (St Elias's day), which was known to the Muslims as Alidjun. "
religious Bosnia - 17.00% - - 1985 Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 222. "One survey in 1985 put the proportion of religious believers in Bosnia at 17 per cent. "
Roma Bosnia 30,000 - - - 1808 Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 116. "How large the total population [of Gypsies] was in Bosnia is very unclear: Chaumette-des-Fosses estimated 30,000 in 1808, but Persusier, who was there four years later, put it at only 8000. To judge by the other statistics they gae, Pertusier was the more reliable of the two. "
Roma Bosnia 8,000 - - - 1812 Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 116. "How large the total population [of Gypsies] was in Bosnia is very unclear: Chaumette-des-Fosses estimated 30,000 in 1808, but Persusier, who was there four years later, put it at only 8000. To judge by the other statistics they gae, Pertusier was the more reliable of the two. "
Roma Bosnia - - - - 1999 Black, Eric. Bosnia: Fractured Region. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co. (1999), pg. 14. "Bosnia also includes a small number of Jews, Roma... and Albanians... "
Serb Bosnia 1,395,000 31.00% - - 1991 Black, Eric. Bosnia: Fractured Region. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co. (1999), pg. 14. "In the country's last census--in 1991--44 percent of Bosnia's 4.5 million people identified themselves as Muslims, 31 percent as Serbs, and 17 percent as Croats... Bosnian Serbs are mostly followers of the Serbian Orthodox Church, Bosnian Croats are mostly Roman Catholics... "
Serbian Orthodox Bosnia 1,395,000 31.00% - - 1991 Black, Eric. Bosnia: Fractured Region. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co. (1999), pg. 14. "In the country's last census--in 1991--44 percent of Bosnia's 4.5 million people identified themselves as Muslims, 31 percent as Serbs, and 17 percent as Croats... Bosnian Serbs are mostly followers of the Serbian Orthodox Church, Bosnian Croats are mostly Roman Catholics... "
miscellaneous regional info Bosnia - - - - 1850 Black, Eric. Bosnia: Fractured Region. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co. (1999), pg. 36. "During Ottoman rule, most Bosnians identified themselves by their religious group--Muslim, Orthodox Christian, or Roman Catholic. Over time, these religious affiliations developed into cultural identities, wich each group defining itself by its religious and cultural practices. Despite these differences, each group considered itself Bosnian. It was not until the development of Serbian and Croatian nationalism in the 1800s that this changed. Once Serbian and croatian nationalists began to connect nationality with religion, Orthodox Christians in Bosnia began to identify themselves as Serbs, while Bosnian Catholics came to view themselves as Croats. During the decades of Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia, Serbian and Croatian nationalists worked to strengthen these national connections. "
miscellaneous regional info Bosnia - - - - 1991 Black, Eric. Bosnia: Fractured Region. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co. (1999), pg. 14. "In the country's last census--in 1991--44 percent of Bosnia's 4.5 million people identified themselves as Muslims, 31 percent as Serbs, and 17 percent as Croats. Bosnia also includes a small number of Jews, Roma... and Albanians... Bosnian Serbs are mostly followers of the Serbian Orthodox Church, Bosnian Croats are mostly Roman Catholics... "
Christianity Bosnia - central 194,625 99.15% - - 1469 C.E. Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 52. "The best source of information is the ottoman 'defters', tax-registers which recorded property-ownership & categorized people by their religion... The earliest defters, from 1468/9, show that Islam had established only a toehold in the first few years after conquest: in the area of east & central Bosnia which they cover, 37,125 households were Christian and only 332 were Muslim. Assuming an average of 5 people per household, this gives a figure of 185,625 Christians; separately listed were also nearly 9000 individual Christian bachelors & widows. "
Christianity Bosnia - central 155,251 87.72% - - 1485 C.E. Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 52. "The next defter to have been fully analysed covers the sandzak of Bosnia for 1485; it shows that Islam was not beginning to make significant progress. There were 30,552 Christian households, 2491 individual Christian bachelors and widows, 4134 Muslim households and 1064 Muslim bachelors. Again assuming 5 people per household, this gives a total of 155,251 Christians and 21,734 Muslims. "
Christianity Bosnia - central 98,095 53.67% - - 1525 C.E. Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 53. "...the defters of the 1520s yield total figures for the sandzak of Bosnia of 98,096 Christians and 84,675 Muslims. Since we know that there was no large-scale Muslim migration into Bosnia during that period, the figure must represent conversions of Bosnian Christians to Islam. "
Islam Bosnia - central 1,660 0.85% - - 1469 C.E. Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 52. "The best source of information is the ottoman 'defters', tax-registers which recorded property-ownership & categorized people by their religion... The earliest defters, from 1468/9, show that Islam had established only a toehold in the first few years after conquest: in the eare of east & central Bosnia which they cover, 37,125 households were Christian and only 332 were Muslim. Assuming an average of 5 people per household, this gives a figure of 185,625 Christians; separately listed were also nearly 9000 individual Christian bachelors & widows. "
Islam Bosnia - central 21,734 12.28% - - 1485 C.E. Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 52. "The next defter to have been fully analysed covers the sandzak of Bosnia for 1485; it shows that Islam was not beginning to make significant progress. There were 30,552 Christian households, 2491 individual Christian bachelors and widows, 4134 Muslim households and 1064 Muslim bachelors. Again assuming 5 people per household, this gives a total of 155,251 Christians and 21,734 Muslims. "
Islam Bosnia - central 84,675 46.33% - - 1525 C.E. Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 53. "...the defters of the 1520s yield total figures for the sandzak of Bosnia of 98,096 Christians and 84,675 Muslims. Since we know that there was no large-scale Muslim migration into Bosnia during that period, the figure must represent conversions of Bosnian Christians to Islam. "
Catholic - Franciscan Bosnia - northeastern - - 10
units
- 1516 C.E. Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 53. "in the period 1516-24... five out of the ten Franciscan monasteries [in north-eastern Bosnia] ceased to operate. "
Catholic - Franciscan Bosnia - northeastern - - 5
units
- 1524 C.E. Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 53. "in the period 1516-24... five out of the ten Franciscan monasteries [in north-eastern Bosnia] ceased to operate. "
Islam Bosnia - northeastern - - - - 1524 C.E. Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 53. "After the process of conquest was completed in the 1520s, Islimicization proceeded a little faster. The Dominican historian Father Mandic claims that there was--for the first time--a delibertae campaign of persecution against Catholics, forcing them to convert to Islam, in the period 1516-24. The most detailed study of north-eastern Bosnia during this period, by Adem Handzic, does not support Mandic's claim, however--though it does show that many Catholics emigrated from the area, and that five out of the ten Franciscan monasteries there ceased to operate. Handzic also demonstrate that catholics were more likely, understandably enough, to convert to Islam the further away they lived from Catholic churches. "
Islam Bosnia - northeastern - 33.00% - - 1533 C.E. Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 53. "Towns were usually more Islamicized than the countryside; the whole area of north-eastern Bosnia was roughly one-third Muslim by 1533, and 40 per cent Muslim by 1548. "
Islam Bosnia - northeastern - 40.00% - - 1548 C.E. Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994), pg. 53. "Towns were usually more Islamicized than the countryside; the whole area of north-eastern Bosnia was roughly one-third Muslim by 1533, and 40 per cent Muslim by 1548. "
Bogomilism Bosnia and Herzegovina - - - - 1000 C.E. Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 72. "Bosnia, like many isolated areas, developed a mixture of religious beliefs and practices that diverged from the mainstream. In the medieval era, Bosnian Christians embraced Bogomilism (an anticlerical, dualistic sect), considered heretical by the Roman Catholic Church. "
Bogomilism Bosnia and Herzegovina - - - - 1150 C.E. Shoemaker, M. Wesley. Russia, Eurasian States, and Eastern Europe 1997 (The World Today Series). Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Stryker-Post Publications (1997), pg. 369. "In the tenth century, a new religious sect arose in Bulgaria under the leadership of an Orthodox monk called Bogomil. Bogomilism, as it came to be called, spread through various parts of the Balkans and by the twelfth century was well established in Bosnia. The Kulin, the Bosnian leader, converted to Bogomilism and established it firmly throughout Bosnia, where it came to be known as the 'Bosnian Church.' Bogomilism shared many common characteristics with Catharism or Albigensianism--in particular a belief in a Manichaean dualism--and was eventually condemned as a heresy by both the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Churches. "
Bogomilism Bosnia and Herzegovina - - - - 1490 C.E. Shoemaker, M. Wesley. Russia, Eurasian States, and Eastern Europe 1997 (The World Today Series). Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Stryker-Post Publications (1997), pg. 369. "Various attempts were made to stamp out [Bogomilism] beginning in the 13th century, but the church still existed in the late 15th century when this area was overrun and incorporated into the Ottoman Empire. Most of the Bogomil aristocracy allied themselves with the Turks and assisted them in their conquest of the area. They then converted to Islam, impelled apparently by their hatred of the Roman Catholic Hungarians who had waged religious war against them for the previous two centuries. Their descendants are the modern Bosnian Moslems now fighting for their existence against efforts by Serbia and Serbs in Bosnia to wipe them out through a prcoess of ethnic cleansing. "


Bosnia and Herzegovina, continued

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