Adherents.com - Religion by Location


Over 42,000 religious geography and religion statistics citations (membership statistics for over 4,000 different religions, denominations, tribes, etc.) for every country in the world.

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back to Thailand, Tenrikyo - received the Sazuke

Thailand, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Thailand Baptist Churches Association Thailand 3,272 - 41
units
- 1998 *LINK* Baptist World Alliance web site; page: "BWA Statistics " (viewed 31 March 1999). "Figures are for BWA affiliated conventions/unions only (no independents included). "; Table with 3 columns: Country, "Churches ", & "Members "; "1997/1998 Totals "
Thailand Karen Baptist Convention Thailand 16,730 - 88
units
- 1998 *LINK* Baptist World Alliance web site; page: "BWA Statistics " (viewed 31 March 1999). "Figures are for BWA affiliated conventions/unions only (no independents included). "; Table with 3 columns: Country, "Churches ", & "Members "; "1997/1998 Totals "
Thailand Lahu Baptist Convention Thailand 8,130 - 108
units
- 1998 *LINK* Baptist World Alliance web site; page: "BWA Statistics " (viewed 31 March 1999). "Figures are for BWA affiliated conventions/unions only (no independents included). "; Table with 3 columns: Country, "Churches ", & "Members "; "1997/1998 Totals "
Theravada Buddhism Thailand - - - - 1987 *LINK* Library of Congress Country Studies Est. 53 million [total pop.] (1987). Almost all core Thai, some other Tai speakers, Khmer, and Mon practice Theravada Buddhism. Islam represented chiefly among Malay. Christians found among hill peoples and Vietnamese.
Theravada Buddhism Thailand - 95.00% 28,000
units
- 1988 Kusy, Frank & Frances Capel. Thailand & Burma; Chester, Connecticut: The Globe Pequot Press (1988), pg. 38-39. "professed religion of 95% of Thais is Theravada Buddhism. The greatest of all Thai institutions... some 300,000 monks, novices and nuns currently support Thailand's 28,000 or so Buddhist temples. "
Theravada Buddhism - monastic Thailand 165,000 - - - 1969 Hutchinson, John A. Paths of Faith; New York: McGraw-Hill (1969), pg. 125. "This has meant governmental support, but often also a large measure of governmental control for the 165,000 [Theravada Buddhist] monks in 20,000 Thai monasteries. "
Theravada Buddhism - monastic Thailand 300,000 - - - 1988 Kusy, Frank & Frances Capel. Thailand & Burma; Chester, Connecticut: The Globe Pequot Press (1988), pg. 38-39. "professed religion of 95% of Thais is Theravada Buddhism. The greatest of all Thai institutions... some 300,000 monks, novices and nuns currently support Thailand's 28,000 or so Buddhist temples. "
Theravada Buddhism - occasional temple-goers Thailand - 20.00% - - 1988 Kusy, Frank & Frances Capel. Thailand & Burma; Chester, Connecticut: The Globe Pequot Press (1988), pg. 40. "Bangkok Post recently reported... survey of 20,000 families throughout the country showed that only 4.5% of those living in municipal areas went to Buddhist temples regularly...; 20% said they went occasionally; & 75% said not at all... "
Theravada Buddhism - regular temple-goers Thailand - 4.50% - - 1988 Kusy, Frank & Frances Capel. Thailand & Burma; Chester, Connecticut: The Globe Pequot Press (1988), pg. 40. "Bangkok Post recently reported... survey of 20,000 families throughout the country showed that only 4.5% of those living in municipal areas went to Buddhist temples regularly...; 20% said they went occasionally; & 75% said not at all... "
unknown Thailand - 1.00% - - 1992 Goring, Rosemary (ed). Larousse Dictionary of Beliefs & Religions (Larousse: 1994) pg. 581-584. Table: "Population Distribution of Major Beliefs "; "Figures have been compiled from the most accurate recent available information and are in most cases correct to the nearest 1% "; Listed as "Unspecified "
Vipassana Meditation Centers Thailand - - 2
units
- 1999 *LINK* web site: "Vipassana Meditation "; web page: "Vipassana Meditation Centers in South Asia " (viewed 13 Feb. 1999) counted meditation centers listed in directory; Bangkok, Thailand; Phitsanulok, Thailand
Worldwide Evangelisation for Christ Thailand 700 - - - 1979 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: OPERATION WORLD 1979); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) "Baptists (4 groups) 8,000; Pentecostals 6,000; Various Evangelical Churches associated with OMF 2,000+; CMA 1,700; WEC 700. " [WEC = "Worldwide Evangelisation for Christ "; For reference: WEC website]
miscellaneous regional info Thailand - - - - 1988 Kusy, Frank & Frances Capel. Thailand & Burma; Chester, Connecticut: The Globe Pequot Press (1988), pg. 40. "Survival, not spiritual growth, now seems to be people's main concern. And while Thailand's minority religions--the Muslims of the far south, the Christians of the north, the Indian Hindus, Chinese Confucianists, Taoists & Mahayana Buddhists--have all made a few converts, the new gods of materialism and money look set to claim very many more. "
Amidism Tibet - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 27. "Amitabha in Tibet. In Tibet, unlike East Asia, Amitayus and Amitabha are considered names of two different Buddhas. Amitabha is particularly important, not as a savior figure, but as one of the five primordial, self-born Dhyani Buddhas; Avalokitesvara is his manifestation in active, bodhisattva form. Tibetans ritually recognize, for example, that the sacred mantra of Avalokitesvara, Om Manipadme Hum, derives primordially from Amitabha. "
Bon Tibet - 100.00% - - 600 C.E. Rice, Edward. Ten Religions of the East. New York: Four Winds Press (1978), pg. 109-110. "...the religion of Bon, the indigenous, pre-Buddhist faith of Tibet... before the Buddhists came (in the seventh century A.D.)... "
Bon Tibet - - - - 650 C.E. Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 45. "In the seventh century AD, another type of Buddhism, called Tantric Buddhism or Lamaism, was introduced into Tibet from India. With the influence of the monk Padmasambhava, it replaced the indigenous Bon religion, while at the same time taking over some of the elements of this naturalist religion. "
Bon Tibet - - - - 1962 Dalai Lama of Tibet. My Land and My People. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. (1962), pg. 239. "Before Buddhism was brought from India to Tibet, the bon religion was widespread in our country. It had originated in the neighboring country called Shang-Shung, and until recently there were still centers in Tibet where the followers of bon pursued deep study and meditation. In its beginning, I believe, it was not such a fruitful religion, but when Buddhism began to flourish in Tibet, bon also had an opportunity to enrich its own religious philosophy and meditational resources. "
Bon Tibet - - - - 1968 Norbu, Thubten Figme & Colin M. Turnbull. Tibet. New York: Simon & Schuster (1968), pg. 131-133. "We Buddhists believe that the Bon religion is quite separate from our own... I know two Bonpoda priests, both from Amdo, in the east. They studied first at the important Bon monasteries in western Tibet: Rala Yundrun, near Rong, and Thobgyal Drutsang Gon. Bon students from all over Tibet, from 2,000 miles away, come to study at these monasteries... The Bon people are represented in the government, and the government recognizes Bon monasteries and gives them large grants just as it does to any other monasteries. "
Bon Tibet - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 114. "Bon. The ancient, pre-Buddhist religion of Tibet and the traditions and practices that have persisted from it down to the present... The practitioners of this religion refer to themselves as Bon-Po. Bon is found in the more isolated... parts of northern and western Tibet, although originally its extent was much greater... After the mission of Padma-Sambhava in the mid-eighth century A.D. Buddhism emerged as dominant. Yet Bon continued to exist, partly in opposition to and partly in cooperation with Buddhism. "
Bon Tibet - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 41. "Bon... a general heading in Tibetan buddhism for various religious currents in Tibet before the introduction of Buddhism by Padmasambhava [circa 775 CE]... In the beginning of the 11th century Bon appeared as an independent school that distinguished itself from Buddhism through its claim to preserve the continuity of the old bon tradition. This school, which still exists, shares certain teachings with the Nyingmapas. "
Bon Tibet - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 765. "In western Tibet and pastoral areas of Qinghai and Sichuan, the native religion of Bon still exists. "
Bon - Black Bon Tibet - - - - 1968 Norbu, Thubten Figme & Colin M. Turnbull. Tibet. New York: Simon & Schuster (1968), pg. 130. "There is a sect called Black Bon, however, which seeks to throw off the refinements and moderating influence of Buddhism, and which still practices rites relating to basic primal powers. During the reignt of the last Gyalwa Rinpoche, the thirteenth, an edict had to be issued against the Black Bonpoba who were terrifying certain villages with their practices. "
Bon - White Bon Tibet - - - - 1968 Norbu, Thubten Figme & Colin M. Turnbull. Tibet. New York: Simon & Schuster (1968), pg. 130. "White Bon, which has taken pains to come as close as possible to Buddhism, even claims that Guru Rinpoche was born not of a lotus, as the Hindus claim, but as a man, and a Bon, in Shang Shung. White Bonpoba teach mystic contemplation, meditation, and the performance of correct ritual and the leading of a correct life. They also have scriptures like their Kyeddzog which teach tantric practices of possession and exorcism. "
Buddhism Tibet - - - - 700 C.E. Dalai Lama of Tibet. My Land and My People. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. (1962), pg. 239-240. "It was King Lho-Tho-Ri-Nyen-Tsen of Tibet who first introduced Buddhism to the country, well over a thousand years ago. It spread steadily, and in the couse of time many renowned Pandits of India came to Tibet and translated texts of Sutras and Tantras with their commentaries. "
Buddhism Tibet - - - - 750 C.E. Welty, Paul Thomas. The Asians: Their Heritage and Their Destiny (Revised Edition). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. (1966), pg. 77. "During the eighth century, Buddhist missionaries introduced Buddhism into Tibet where it took a mixed form called Tantrism. "
Buddhism Tibet - - - - 1966 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 45. "By the beginning of the Cultural Revolution in 1966, it seemed as if the Red Guards were intent on completely eradicating Buddhism. The autonomous Tibet was hard-hit by these excesses. Only a few important monasteries and cultural objects could be protected, and completely or only only partly preserved. "
Buddhism Tibet - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 135-136. "At present, with China and Tibet under the control of the People's Republic of China, Buddhism is no longer a living force in those countries. The Sangha has been decimated and the monasteries converted to museum pieces. "
Buddhism - monastic Tibet 213,148 - 42,318
units
- 1292 C.E. Li, Dun Jen. The Ageless Chinese: A History (3rd Ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons (1978), pg. 261. "Each year government expenses for Buddhist and various religious services accounted for more than one-half of its total expenditure! In 1292 it was said that altogether there were 42,318 Buddhist temples and monasteries and 213,148 monks and nuns. "
Buddhism - monastic Tibet - 16.50% - - 1950 Welles, Sam. The World's Great Religions, New York: Time Incorporated (1957), pg. 55. "In Tibet, where, at the time of Red China's occupation in 1950, a third of the male population was in Buddhist monasteries and where Buddhist piety was deeper... "
Chinese Tibet 7,500,000 55.56% - - 1999 *LINK* Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site; web page: "Tibet " (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). "Tibet has an estimated population of about 6 million Tibetans and 7.5 million Chinese settlers. "
Kadampa Tibet - - - - 950 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 167. "Kadampa, Tib., lit. 'oral instruction'; a school of Tibetan Buddhism founded by Atisha. After the degeneration of Buddhism in Tibet in the 10th century, this school saw the correct exposition of the traditional writings as its primary task... This school did not survive as an independent tradition, but the Kadampa transmissions were absorbed by the other schools, particularly by the Gelugpa school. "
Kagyu - Baram Tibet - - - - 1150 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 167-168. "Kagyupa, Tib., lit. 'oral transmission'; one of the four principal schools of Tibetan Buddhism... In the 12th century... Gampopa integrated the doctrines of the Kadampas into the Kagyu tradition and formed it into an independent school, which was named after the birthplace of its founder, Dagpo-Kagyu. Already in the next generation four further schools developed out of this: (1) Kamtshang or Karma Kagyu, (2) Tsalpa Kagyu, (3) Baram Kagyu, (4) Phagmo Drupa Kagyu. The last of these divided into 8 subschools of which the Drugpa Kagyu and the Drigung Kagyu still exist. "
Kagyu - Drigung Tibet - - - - 1150 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 167-168. "Kagyupa, Tib., lit. 'oral transmission'; one of the four principal schools of Tibetan Buddhism... In the 12th century... Gampopa integrated the doctrines of the Kadampas into the Kagyu tradition and formed it into an independent school, which was named after the birthplace of its founder, Dagpo-Kagyu. Already in the next generation four further schools developed out of this: (1) Kamtshang or Karma Kagyu, (2) Tsalpa Kagyu, (3) Baram Kagyu, (4) Phagmo Drupa Kagyu. The last of these divided into 8 subschools of which the Drugpa Kagyu and the Drigung Kagyu still exist. "
Kagyu - Drugpa Tibet - - - - 1150 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 167-168. "Kagyupa, Tib., lit. 'oral transmission'; one of the four principal schools of Tibetan Buddhism... In the 12th century... Gampopa integrated the doctrines of the Kadampas into the Kagyu tradition and formed it into an independent school, which was named after the birthplace of its founder, Dagpo-Kagyu. Already in the next generation four further schools developed out of this: (1) Kamtshang or Karma Kagyu, (2) Tsalpa Kagyu, (3) Baram Kagyu, (4) Phagmo Drupa Kagyu. The last of these divided into 8 subschools of which the Drugpa Kagyu and the Drigung Kagyu still exist. "
Kagyu - Kamtshang Tibet - - - - 1150 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 167-168. "Kagyupa, Tib., lit. 'oral transmission'; one of the four principal schools of Tibetan Buddhism... In the 12th century... Gampopa integrated the doctrines of the Kadampas into the Kagyu tradition and formed it into an independent school, which was named after the birthplace of its founder, Dagpo-Kagyu. Already in the next generation four further schools developed out of this: (1) Kamtshang or Karma Kagyu, (2) Tsalpa Kagyu, (3) Baram Kagyu, (4) Phagmo Drupa Kagyu. The last of these divided into 8 subschools of which the Drugpa Kagyu and the Drigung Kagyu still exist. "
Kagyu - Karma Tibet - - - - 1150 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 167-168. "Kagyupa, Tib., lit. 'oral transmission'; one of the four principal schools of Tibetan Buddhism... In the 12th century... Gampopa integrated the doctrines of the Kadampas into the Kagyu tradition and formed it into an independent school, which was named after the birthplace of its founder, Dagpo-Kagyu. Already in the next generation four further schools developed out of this: (1) Kamtshang or Karma Kagyu, (2) Tsalpa Kagyu, (3) Baram Kagyu, (4) Phagmo Drupa Kagyu. The last of these divided into 8 subschools of which the Drugpa Kagyu and the Drigung Kagyu still exist. "
Kagyu - Karma Tibet - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 175. "Karma Kagyu, Tib., lit. 'Orgal Transmission Lineage of the Karma-pas'; a subdivision of the Kagyupa school, founded in the 12th century by Dusum Khyenpa... The Karma Kagyus were strongly supportive of the Rime movement and are now one of the most successful Buddhist schools in the West. "
Kagyu - Phagmo Drupa Tibet - - - - 1150 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 167-168. "Kagyupa, Tib., lit. 'oral transmission'; one of the four principal schools of Tibetan Buddhism... In the 12th century... Gampopa integrated the doctrines of the Kadampas into the Kagyu tradition and formed it into an independent school, which was named after the birthplace of its founder, Dagpo-Kagyu. Already in the next generation four further schools developed out of this: (1) Kamtshang or Karma Kagyu, (2) Tsalpa Kagyu, (3) Baram Kagyu, (4) Phagmo Drupa Kagyu. The last of these divided into 8 subschools of which the Drugpa Kagyu and the Drigung Kagyu still exist. "
Kagyu - Shangpa Tibet - - - - 1350 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 167-168. "Kagyupa, Tib., lit. 'oral transmission'; one of the four principal schools of Tibetan Buddhism... A further school associated with the Kagyu, was founded by Khyungpo Naljor (1310-?). It bears the name Shangpa Kagyu and possesses a special mahamudra transmission, which originated with Naropa's sister Niguma. Through the effort of the Rime movement, this tradition still exists. "
Kagyu - Tsalpa Tibet - - - - 1150 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 167-168. "Kagyupa, Tib., lit. 'oral transmission'; one of the four principal schools of Tibetan Buddhism... In the 12th century... Gampopa integrated the doctrines of the Kadampas into the Kagyu tradition and formed it into an independent school, which was named after the birthplace of its founder, Dagpo-Kagyu. Already in the next generation four further schools developed out of this: (1) Kamtshang or Karma Kagyu, (2) Tsalpa Kagyu, (3) Baram Kagyu, (4) Phagmo Drupa Kagyu. The last of these divided into 8 subschools of which the Drugpa Kagyu and the Drigung Kagyu still exist. "
Lamaistic Buddhism Tibet - - - - 650 C.E. Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 45. "In the seventh century AD, another type of Buddhism, called Tantric Buddhism or Lamaism, was introduced into Tibet from India. With the influence of the monk Padmasambhava, it replaced the indigenous Bon religion, while at the same time taking over some of the elements of this naturalist religion. "
Lamaistic Buddhism Tibet - - - - 1950 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 12). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1589. "Lamas. At the head of Tibetan Buddhism, officially suppressed since the Chinese invasion, stands the Dalai Lama; now in exile, he recently announced his intention of establishing a miniature Tibet in India for the preservation of his country's religion... In Tibet the principle of reincarnation determined the succession to high ecclesiastical office for at least 500 years. The religion of the country was Lamaism, a development of Mahayana Buddhism, first introduced into Tibet from India in the 7th century AD. Before the Chinese invasion of 1950 the lamas (abbots of the Tibetan monasteries, though the term is also used for all fully ordained Tibetan Buddhist monks) enjoyed immense power and prestige. "
Rime Tibet - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 167-168. "Kagyupa, Tib., lit. 'oral transmission'; one of the four principal schools of Tibetan Buddhism... A further school associated with the Kagyu, was founded by Khyungpo Naljor (1310-?). It bears the name Shangpa Kagyu and possesses a special mahamudra transmission, which originated with Naropa's sister Niguma. Through the effort of the Rime movement, this tradition still exists. "
Rime Tibet - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 175. "Karma Kagyu, Tib., lit. 'Orgal Transmission Lineage of the Karma-pas'; a subdivision of the Kagyupa school, founded in the 12th century by Dusum Khyenpa... The Karma Kagyus were strongly supportive of the Rime movement and are now one of the most successful Buddhist schools in the West. "
Tibetan Tibet 6,000,000 44.44% - - 1997 *LINK* Gamming, Jenny. They have a flag-but no country " in Swedish Expressen, 17 Aug. 1997. (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site. Translated by SSF/Goran Hansson. "Tibet has 13.5 million inhabitants, of which 6 millions are ethnic Tibetans. The majority of the population is Chinese settlers. Tibet was invaded by China in 1949 and is, since 1951 an autonomous region in the Peoples republic of China. The land area of Tibet is about the same as the one in the European Union. The predominant religion is Lamaism, a special form of Buddhism. The religious leader of Tibet, Dalai Lama, lives in exile in India but travels much of the time in order to gain international support for the Tibet's struggle for freedom. "
Tibetan Tibet - 98.00% - - 1998 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 36. "Within China, only in Tibet is a natinoal minority group actually the majority, with 98 percent of the population. "
Tibetan Tibet 6,000,000 44.44% - - 1999 *LINK* Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site; web page: "Tibet " (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). "Tibet has an estimated population of about 6 million Tibetans and 7.5 million Chinese settlers. "
Tibetan Buddhism Tibet - - - - 1419 C.E. Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 45. "In the seventh century AD, another type of Buddhism, called Tantric Buddhism or Lamaism, was introduced into Tibet from India. With the influence of the monk Padmasambhava, it replaced the indigenous Bon religion, while at the same time taking over some of the elements of this naturalist religion. The monasteries in Tibet developed into centers of intellectual and worldly power, yet there were recurring arguments. Only the reformer Tsongkhapa (1357-1419) succeeded in rectifying conditions that had become chaotic. "
Tibetan Buddhism Tibet - - 6,000
units
- 1949 Kerr, Blake. Sky Burial: An Eyewitness Account of China's Brutal Crackdown in Tibet. Chicago: The Noble Press, Inc. (1993), xii-xiii. "The people of the free world have read many books and seen many pictures testifying to the destruction of 99% of Tibet's temples, shrines, hermitages, and monasteries... Since China's army invaded Tibet in 1950, one million Tibetans--one-fifth of my [Tenzin Gyatso, The XIV Dalai Lama] people--have died. Over 6,000 monasteries have been destroyed... "
Tibetan Buddhism Tibet - - - - 1950 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 12). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1589. "Lamas. At the head of Tibetan Buddhism, officially suppressed since the Chinese invasion, stands the Dalai Lama; now in exile, he recently announced his intention of establishing a miniature Tibet in India for the preservation of his country's religion... In Tibet the principle of reincarnation determined the succession to high ecclesiastical office for at least 500 years. The religion of the country was Lamaism, a development of Mahayana Buddhism, first introduced into Tibet from India in the 7th century AD. Before the Chinese invasion of 1950 the lamas (abbots of the Tibetan monasteries, though the term is also used for all fully ordained Tibetan Buddhist monks) enjoyed immense power and prestige. "
Tibetan Buddhism Tibet - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 149. "The future of Tibetan Buddhism. The secularization of the country by the Chinese has resulted in destruction of monasteries, the forced laicizing of monks, and the persecution of believers. Programs of education and youth groups based on Communist ideology have been used to win the younger generation of Tibetans. yet it would be impossible to conclude that so deep and pervasive a tradition has been completely eradicated. Into the mid-1970s, the Dalia Lama expressed hopes for a return to Tibet to meet the religious needs of the people. "
Tibetan Buddhism - Geluk order Tibet - - - - 1420 C.E. Li, Dun Jen. The Ageless Chinese: A History (3rd Ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons (1978), pg. 318. "Early in the fifteenth century a reform movement took place within the Lamaist church, and the reformers emphasized a more secluded, meditative life as a way to enlightenment. A new sect emerged from the reform movement, known as the Yellow Hat Sect [Geluk order] to distinguish it from the older Red Hat Sect. The founder of the new sect, Tsong-kha-pa, died in 1419, but his branch of Lamaism continued to grow. in time his divinity was supposedly divided among two lines of successors, the Dalai Lamas and the Panchen Lamas, the successors to his first and second disciples respectively... Theoretically both Lamas shared the same degree of divinity, but historically the Dalai Lama had always enjoyed a greater temporal power. "
Tibetan Buddhism - Geluk order Tibet 1,000,000 - - - 1945 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 102. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] "Yellow Hat Lamaism is prevalent in Tibet, Sinkiang, Mongolia, Manchuria, the Western border of China, and parts of Siberia and European Caucasus, with a total of some 1,000,000 priests and followers in Tibet alone. "
Tibetan Buddhism - Geluk order Tibet - - - - 1950 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 12). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1590. "As a political phenomenon the system of succession by reincarnation played na important role in the shapaing of the power structure of Tibet. The abbots of the great Gelugpa monasteries of the oly city of Lhasa were almost exclusively reincarnated lamas, and they exercised an important influence on the government of the country and the selection of the Dalai Lama, the Panchen Lama and the regents ruling Tibet during the infancy of the Dalia Lama. At the peak of the hierarchy stood the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama. The Dalai Lama was regarded as a reincarnation of all his predecessors in the exalted position of head of the Gelugpa Church... "
Tibetan Buddhism - Geluk order Tibet - - - - 1962 Dalai Lama of Tibet. My Land and My People. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. (1962), pg. 239-240. "The most prominent of these Tibetan schools are the Nyingma, Kagyud, Sakya, and Geluk. Each of them adheres to all the teachings of Hinayana and Mahayana, including Tantrayana, for Tibetan Buddhists do not separate these teachings, but pay equal respect to them all. "
Tibetan Buddhism - Geluk order Tibet - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 148. "There are four major orders:... The Gelugpa, the 'merit system ones,' or so-called 'Yellow Hats,' was founded in the fifteenth century as an outgrowth of the reform movement or Tsong-Kha-Pa. This reform order is headed by the present Dalia Lama, the latest in a line who ruled Tibet from the seventeenth century until 1959. "
Tibetan Buddhism - Geluk order Tibet - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 117. "Gelugpa Tib., roughly 'school of the virtuous; the last to be established of the 4 main schools of Tibetan Buddhism, founded by Tsongkhapa... Since the installation of the dalai lamas as heads of state in the 17th century, the Gelugpas have held political leadership. "
Tibetan Buddhism - Kagyu order Tibet - - - - 1050 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 167-168. "Kagyupa, Tib., lit. 'oral transmission'; one of the four principal schools of Tibetan Buddhism... The teachings were brought to Tibet from India in the 11th century by Marpa. Gampopa, a student of Milarepa's, organized them into the Kagyupa school. From this school is derived that of the Karma Kagyu and others... The Kagyu transmission has its point of origin in Vajradhara... and passed from Tilopa to Naropa. Marpa the Translator brought these teachings to Tibet. "
Tibetan Buddhism - Kagyu order Tibet - - - - 1962 Dalai Lama of Tibet. My Land and My People. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. (1962), pg. 239-240. "The most prominent of these Tibetan schools are the Nyingma, Kagyud, Sakya, and Geluk. Each of them adheres to all the teachings of Hinayana and Mahayana, including Tantrayana, for Tibetan Buddhists do not separate these teachings, but pay equal respect to them all. "
Tibetan Buddhism - Kagyu order Tibet - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 148. "There are four major orders:... The Kargyupa is a school of oral tradition in which the secret mystical traditions are passed on from teacher to pupil by word of mouth. It was founded by Marpa in the eleventh century and looks back to the great Indian teacher Naropa. "
Tibetan Buddhism - monastic Tibet - 20.00% - - 1950 Boorstin, Daniel J. The Seekers: The Story of Man's Continuing Quest to Understand His World. New York, NY: Random House (1998), pg. 71. "In Tibet after the 17th century Buddhist monastaries became major state institutions. Before the Communists conquered them, monks were said to form a fifth of the population. "
Tibetan Buddhism - monastic Tibet - 10.00% - - 1950 Dalai Lama of Tibet. My Land and My People. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. (1962), pg. 58. "Tibet has been called the most religious country in the world. I cannot judge if that is so or not, but certainly all normal Tibetans regarded spiritual matters as no less important than material matters, and the most remarkable thing about Tibet was the enormous number of monasteries in it. There are no exact figures, but probably ten per cent of the total population was monks or nuns. "
Tibetan Buddhism - monastic Tibet - 10.00% - - 1950 Hutchinson, John A. Paths of Faith; New York: McGraw-Hill (1969), pg. 140. "It has been estimated that prior to the Chinese Communist invasions of Tibet in 1950 and 1959, 20% of the male population were monks. " [10% of population is extrapolated from 20% of male pop. assuming 50/50 split between sexes.]
Tibetan Buddhism - Nyingma order Tibet - - - - 1962 Dalai Lama of Tibet. My Land and My People. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. (1962), pg. 239-240. "The most prominent of these Tibetan schools are the Nyingma, Kagyud, Sakya, and Geluk. Each of them adheres to all the teachings of Hinayana and Mahayana, including Tantrayana, for Tibetan Buddhists do not separate these teachings, but pay equal respect to them all. "
Tibetan Buddhism - Nyingma order Tibet - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 148. "There are four major orders: a) The Nyingmapa, the 'ancient ones,' or the 'Red Hat' order, so called because of the distinctive head wear that differentiates them from the later reform group that wears yellow hats. The Nyingmapa trace their lineage back to Padma-Sambhava. "
Tibetan Buddhism - Nyingma order Tibet - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 253. "Nyingmapa, Tib., lit. 'School of the Ancients'; one of the 4 principal schools of Tibetan Buddhism. The school that brings together the oldest Buddhist traditions in Tibet, which were brought to the country from India by Padmasambhava and the monks of Vimalamitra and Vairochana in the 8th century. Since the 15th century there has existed an independent collection of these teachings, which, however, is not included in the official Tibetan canon... In the 11th century the name nyingma ('old') came into use to distinguish their school from the new schools... "
Tibetan Buddhism - Sakya order Tibet - - - - 1962 Dalai Lama of Tibet. My Land and My People. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. (1962), pg. 239-240. "The most prominent of these Tibetan schools are the Nyingma, Kagyud, Sakya, and Geluk. Each of them adheres to all the teachings of Hinayana and Mahayana, including Tantrayana, for Tibetan Buddhists do not separate these teachings, but pay equal respect to them all. "
Tibetan Buddhism - Sakya order Tibet - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 148. "There are four major orders:... The Saskyapa, founded in the eleventh century and named for its chief monastery, wielded great political power at one time and was the first to establish the idea of a priestly monarchy. "
Tibetan Buddhism - Sakya order Tibet - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 295. "Sakyapa - a major school of Tibetan Buddhism named after the Sakya (lit. 'Gray Earth') Monastery, located in southern Tibet. In accordance with a prophecy of Atisha, the Sakya Monastery was founded in the year 1073, and its abbots, members of the Khon family, devoted themselves primarily to the transmission of a cycle of Vajrayana teachings known by the name of 'path and goal' (Lamdre)... In the 13th & 14th centuries it had great political influence in Tibet... Sakya Pandita's missionary activities were so successful that rulership of Central Asia was conferred upon the Sakya school in the year 1249. In the following centuries the Sakyapas played an important role in the spiritual life of Tibet. "
Tibetan Buddhism - Sakya order Tibet - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 118-120. "...in America, the Nyingma order became established in San Francisco, and the Geluk order, to which the Panchen and Dalai Lamas belong, has gained a following as well... The fourth major school is the Sakya, perhaps the least known outside of Tibet. "
Vajrayana Buddhism Tibet - - - - 1994 *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "VAJRAYNA: the final phase in the development of Indian MAHYNA BUDDHISM... It was eventually carried to Tibet where it became the dominant FORM of Buddhism. "
African indigenous churches Togo - 1.70% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "
African Traditional Religion Togo 447,000 95.10% - - 1900 *LINK* web page: "Geographical Distribution of Followers of ATR... " (viewed 13 March 1999); Arranged by Chidi Denis Isizoh from the entries made in: Barret, D.B. World Christian Encylopedia. Nairobi (1982). Table: "Geographical Distribution of Adherents of African Traditional Religion in the Continent of Africa "
African Traditional Religion Togo 1,102,260 56.20% - - 1970 *LINK* web page: "Geographical Distribution of Followers of ATR... " (viewed 13 March 1999); Arranged by Chidi Denis Isizoh from the entries made in: Barret, D.B. World Christian Encylopedia. Nairobi (1982). Table: "Geographical Distribution of Adherents of African Traditional Religion in the Continent of Africa "
African Traditional Religion Togo 1,146,650 51.00% - - 1975 *LINK* web page: "Geographical Distribution of Followers of ATR... " (viewed 13 March 1999); Arranged by Chidi Denis Isizoh from the entries made in: Barret, D.B. World Christian Encylopedia. Nairobi (1982). Table: "Geographical Distribution of Adherents of African Traditional Religion in the Continent of Africa "


Togo, continued

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