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South Dakota, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Evangelical Lutheran Synod South Dakota 85 0.01% 1
unit
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 72. [Listed as 'Evangelical Lutheran Synod.']
Evangelical Mennonite Brethren Conference South Dakota 80 0.01% 1
unit
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 70. [Listed as 'Evangelical Mennonite Brethren Conference.']
Evangelical/Born Again South Dakota - 0.70% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993), pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
Free Lutheran Congregations, Association of South Dakota 1,835 0.26% 18
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 1,413. [Listed as 'Free Lutheran Congregations Association Of.']
Free Methodist Church of North America South Dakota 166 0.02% 5
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 86. [Listed as 'Free Methodist Church of North America.']
Free Will Baptists, National Association of South Dakota 32 0.00% 1
unit
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 25. [Listed as 'Free Will Baptist, National Association Of, Inc..']
General Conference Mennonite Church South Dakota 2,932 0.42% 15
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 2,426. [Listed as 'Mennonite Church The General Conference.']
Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of North and South America South Dakota - - 1
unit
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. [Listed as 'Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of North and South America.']
Hinduism South Dakota - 0.00% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993), pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
Holiness/Holy South Dakota - 0.00% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993), pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
homosexual - couples heading households South Dakota 1,742 - - - 1990 Witt, Lynn; S. Thomas & Eric Marcus (ed.) Out in All Directions: A Treasury of Gay and Lesbian America. New York: Warner Books (1995), pg. 362. "The U.S. government completed its first-ever attempt to enumerate the number of gay and lesbian couples in the nation as part of its 1990 census. Data suggests that there are 145,130 such couples heading housholds in this country. California had 25% of all those responding... States wih the smallest percentages were Wyoming (0.6%), South Dakota (0.6%), and Idaho (1.7%). "
Hutterian Brethren South Dakota 700 - - - 1875 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 10). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1376. "In the early 1870s... the entire population of about 700 Hutterians settled in the territory that was to become South Dakota. "
Hutterian Brethren South Dakota - - - - 1970 Walker, Williston. A History of the Christian Church (3rd ed., revised by Robert T. Handy; 1st ed. 1918). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons (1970), pg. 331. "He left the 'Hutterite Brethren' economically so well organized that they were able to maintain their communit order, until 1622 in Moravia and until 1685 in Hungary and, later, in the Ukraine and since 1874 in the U.S., where groups of them exist to this day, especially in South Dakota. "
Hutterian Brethren South Dakota 5,000 0.72% 50
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. [Listed as 'Hutterian Brethren.']
IFCA International South Dakota - - 1
unit
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. [Listed in table as 'Independent Fundamental Churches of America.']
Independent Restoration Branches South Dakota - - 1
unit
- 1997 *LINK* web site: "Algonac Restoration Branch " "Directory of Restoration Branches: This is a list of the Restoration Branches that we know about... last updated 10/3/97 "
International Church of the Foursquare Gospel South Dakota 466 0.07% 4
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 361. [Listed as 'International Church of The Foursquare Gospel.']
Islam South Dakota - 0.30% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993), pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
Jehovah's Witnesses South Dakota - 0.30% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993), pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
Judaism South Dakota 135 0.02% 4
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. [Listed as 'Jewish Estimate.']
Judaism South Dakota - 0.20% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993), pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
Judaism South Dakota - 0.10% - - 1995 Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1997, 117th Edition. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Commerce (Oct. 1997), pg. 70. [Orig. source: American Jewish Year Book. New York, NY: American Jewish Committee (1995)] Table: "No. 87: Christian Church Adherents, 1990, and Jewish Population, 1995 - States "; "The Jewish population includes Jews who define themselves as Jewish by religion as well as those who define themselves as Jewish in cultural terms. Data... based primarily on a compilation of individual estimates made by local Jewish federations. "; [Fewer than 500 Jews]
Lakota South Dakota 100,000 - - - 1997 *LINK* Gamming, Jenny. They have a flag-but no country " in Swedish Expressen, 17 Aug. 1997. (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site. Translated by SSF/Goran Hansson. "The Sioux Indians comprise of Lakotas, Dakotas and Nakotas. One hundred thousand of the indigenous population is Lakota Indians. They all live in the state of South Dakota. A majority of the indigenous population lives in misery - alcohol- ism, 80% unemployment and a suicide rate which is twice as high as the average American. "
Lakota South Dakota 100,000 - - - 1999 *LINK* Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site; web page: "Lakota Nation " (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). "The total number of native North Americans is approximately 1.5 million, of which around 100,000 are Lakota. They reside near the Sacred Black Hills of South Dakota. "
Latter Day Saints South Dakota - 1.00% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993), pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
Latvian Evangelical Lutheran Church in America South Dakota 24 0.00% 1
unit
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 24. [Listed as 'Latvian Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.']
Lutheran South Dakota 161,692 23.23% 486
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. This "Lutheran " figure is an aggregate from organizational adherent statistics from the 12 major American Lutheran religious bodies.
Lutheran South Dakota - 30.30% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993), pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod South Dakota 32,968 4.74% 114
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 25,106. [Listed as 'Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod.']
Mennonite South Dakota - 0.30% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993), pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
Mennonite Brethren Churches, General Conference South Dakota 1,303 0.19% 11
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 1,017. [Listed as 'General Conference of Mennonite Brethren Churches.']
Mennonite Church South Dakota 34 0.00% 1
unit
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 31. [Listed as 'Mennonite Church.']
Methodist South Dakota - 10.50% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993), pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
Missionary Church South Dakota 123 0.02% 3
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 117. [Listed as 'Missionary Church.']
Native Americans South Dakota 50,575 7.30% - - 1990 Utter, Jack. American Indians: Answers to Today's Questions. Lake Ann, MI: National Woodlands Publishing Co. (1993), pg. 18-19. Table: "Indian population in each of the 50 states... "; From 1990 U.S. Census: figures include "Indian & Alaska Native Population [both Aleut and Eskimo].
Neo-Paganism South Dakota - - - - 1992 Berger, Helen A. A Community of Witches: Contemporary Neo-Paganism and Witchcraft in the United States. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press (1999), pg. 9-10. Table: "Distribution of Neo-Pagans Participating in Neo-Pagan Census in U.S. "; Cols: State; Number [of Census participants]; % [of particpants]; Pg. xvi: "[Received] more than 2,000 responses... survey was distributed through Wiccan & Neo-Pagan organizations..., published in journals,.. Internet [&] at festivals. [unable] to guarantee that the survey was randomly distributed. "; Pg. 10: "...actual % by state are at best an approximation. "; Raw number presented here based on state % from this table, as a portion of estimated 200,000 [1992] U.S. total (pg. 9). [NOTE: South Dakota was the only state with no respondents in census, so presumably there are very few Neo-Pagans there.]
Netherlands Reformed Congregations South Dakota 256 0.04% 2
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 118. [Listed as 'Netherlands Reformed Congregations.']
Nonreligious South Dakota - 2.50% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993), pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
North American Baptist Conference South Dakota 4,351 0.63% 23
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 3,402. [Listed as 'North American Baptist Conference.']
Open Bible Standard Churches South Dakota - - 11
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. [Listed as 'Open Bible Standard Churches, Inc..']
Orthodox (Eastern Christian) South Dakota - 0.20% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993), pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
Pentecostal South Dakota - 0.80% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993), pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
Pentecostal Church of God South Dakota 307 0.04% 4
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 138. [Listed as 'Pentecostal Church of God.']
Presbyterian South Dakota - 2.90% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993), pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) South Dakota 15,473 2.22% 91
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 11,961. [Listed as 'Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.).']
Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) South Dakota 11,044 1.50% 88
units
- 1995 *LINK* official organization web page: Comparative Statistics; [original source for states pop. data: U.S. Bureau of the Census] Table: "PCUSA Membership by State/Territory -- 1995 "; Columns: "Number of Members ", "Members as a Percent of State Population " and "Number of Congregations "
Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) South Dakota 10,727 1.45% 86
units
- 1997 *LINK* official organization web page: Comparative Statistics; [original source for states pop. data: U.S. Bureau of the Census] Table: "PCUSA Membership by State/Territory -- 1997 "; Columns: "Number of Members ", "Members as a Percent of State Population " and "Number of Congregations "
Presbyterian Church in America South Dakota 1,074 0.15% 4
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 875. [Listed as 'Presbyterian Church in America.']
Protestant - no denomination supplied South Dakota - 10.90% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993), pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
Quaker South Dakota 46 0.01% 2
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 22. [Listed as 'Friends.']
Reformed Church in America South Dakota 7,466 1.07% 26
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 4,266. [Listed as 'Reformed Church in America.']
Reformed Church in the United States South Dakota 1,250 0.18% 10
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 1,022. [Listed as 'Reformed Church in The United States.']
Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia South Dakota - - 1
unit
- 1998 *LINK* official organization web site (1998) Counted listings in directory of parishes.
Salvation Army South Dakota 732 0.11% 6
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 652. [Listed as 'Salvation Army.']
Seventh Day Baptist General Conference South Dakota 39 0.01% 1
unit
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 30. [Listed as 'Seventh Day Baptist General Conference.']
Seventh-day Adventist South Dakota 2,343 0.34% 24
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 1,809. [Listed as 'Seventh-Day Adventists.']
Seventh-day Adventist South Dakota - 0.00% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993), pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
Southern Baptist Convention South Dakota 7,300 1.05% 45
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 5,543.
Unitarian/Unitarian Universalist South Dakota 98 0.01% 4
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 79. [Listed as 'Unitarian Universalist Association.']
Unitarian/Unitarian Universalist South Dakota - 0.30% - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993), pg. 88-93. Table 3-1: Religious Composition of State Populations, 1990 (%). Self-identification of religious loyalty, phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by City U. of New York.
United Brethren in Christ South Dakota 24 0.00% 1
unit
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 21. [Listed as 'United Brethren in Christ.']
United Church of Christ South Dakota 18,607 2.67% 98
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 14,466. [Listed as 'United Church of Christ.']
United Church of God South Dakota - - 2
units
- 1998 *LINK* official organization web site Counted the churches in their listing.
United Methodist Church South Dakota 43,212 6.21% 175
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 33,703. [Listed as 'United Methodist Church.']
Unity Church South Dakota - - 3
units
- 1998 *LINK* official organization web site (viewed 1998) Counted the churches in their directory.
Urantia Book Readers, Fellowship of South Dakota - - 2
units
- 1997 *LINK* official organization web site (1998) directory: "1996-1997 International Study Group Directory for readers of The Urantia Book "
Wesleyan Church South Dakota 5,543 0.80% 31
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 1,808. [Listed as 'The Wesleyan Church.']
white supremacist groups South Dakota - - - - 1992 Thompson, S. E. Hate Groups. San Diego, CA: Lucent Books (1994), pg. 30. [Source: Klanwatch] Map: "White Supremacist Groups in the U.S. in 1992 " Klan, Nazi, Skinheads and/or Other.
Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod South Dakota 10,358 1.49% 59
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 7,817. [Listed as 'Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod.']
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints South Pacific 135,952 - - - 1980 Stark, Rodney. "The Rise of a New World Faith " in Latter-day Saint Social Life: Social Research on the LDS Church and its Members, edited by James T. Duke. Religious Studies Center, BYU: Provo, UT (1998), pg. 17. "Table: 1.3: Two Years of Mormon Growth, 1978-80 "; Two columns: "Percentage rate of membership growth 1978-80 " and "Number of members in 1980 "; Growth 1978-80: 17%
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints South Pacific 317,000 - 901
units
- 1995 Deseret News 1997-98 Church Almanac. Deseret News: Salt Lake City, UT (1996), pg. 525-529. Table: "Membership and units by lands "; latest figures from year-end 1995
Jehovah's Witnesses South-West Africa 337 0.03% 13
units
- 1983 Botting, Heather & Gary Botting. The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. Toronto: University of Toronto Press (1984), pg. 53-59. Table: "1983 Service Year Report of JWs Worldwide "; Adherent count here is from "1983 Peak Publishers " column; Location listed in table as "South-West Africa, " a country, not a region.
Jehovah's Witnesses - Memorial attendance South-West Africa 870 - 13
units
- 1983 Botting, Heather & Gary Botting. The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. Toronto: University of Toronto Press (1984), pg. 53-59. Table: "1983 Service Year Report of JWs Worldwide "; Data from columns: "No. of congs. " and "Memorial attendance "
anti-Semitism Soviet Union - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 41. "One of the last remaining strongholds of anti-Semitism is the Soviet Union, whose three million Jews suffer discrimination and often persecution. The vehement anti-Semitism of czarist Russia has appeared in new forms under the Russian communist regimes. "
Armenian Apostolic Church Soviet Union - - - - 1984 Time-Life Books. The Soviet Union (series: Library of Nations). Amsterdam: Time-Life Books (1984), pg. 79. "Armenians [during Soviet occupation]... continue to hold fast to their faith and observe its traditional practices; Armenian children still flock to the 17-centuries-old Gregorian church in Echmiadzin, leading their beriboned farm animals to be blessed before they are sacrificed. "


Soviet Union, continued

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