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Over 42,000 religious geography and religion statistics citations (membership statistics for over 4,000 different religions, denominations, tribes, etc.) for every country in the world.

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Russia, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Evenki Russia 30,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 141-143. "Evenki: Location: Russia (central and eastern Siberia); Population: 30,000; Religion: Shamanism "; Pg. 142: "Shamanism is the traditional religion of the Evenki... The rituals of Evenki shamans take the form of chanting, dancing, and beating on the ungtuvun... The rituals of shamans are intended to heal the sick, ease difficult childbirth, foretell the future, send the souls of the departed on their way to the world of the dead, and in general to ensure the people's well-being. "
Evens Russia 17,200 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 147, 149. "Evens: Alternate Names: Ewen; Location: Russia (northeastern Siberia); Population: 17,200; Religion: Mixture of shamanism and Russian Orthodox Christianity "; Pg. 149: "The Evens' religion is a unique mixture of shamanism and Russian Orthodox Christianity. Many Evens attend Orthodox church services, wear necklaces bearing crosses, undergo baptism and observe various Christian holidays... However these practices are integrated into a very ancient form of shamanism, which is based on the belief that the forces of nature are ruled by spirits wwho must be ritually honored... "
Evens Russia 17,200 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 147, 149. "Evens: Alternate Names: Ewen; Location: Russia (northeastern Siberia); Population: 17,200; Religion: Mixture of shamanism and Russian Orthodox Christianity "; Pg. 149: "The Evens' religious practices were forced underground as a result of the Soviet regime's antireligious policies from the 1930s on. They have begun to reemerge since the end of religious persecution in the 1980s, but the role of the Church and the shaman in everyday life has been much diminished. "
Family, The Russia 70 - - - 1997 *LINK* Shterin, Marat S. "NEW RELIGIONS, CULTS AND SECTS IN RUSSIA: A CRITIQUE AND BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE PROBLEMS " The Family (the former Children of God) has about 70 members (and, perhaps, 200 foreign missionaries).
Gaudiya Vaishnavism Russia - - - - 1999 *LINK* Non official site of Sri Sri Gopinath Gaudiya Math (in Russian) www.gopinath.da.ru; www.gopinath1.da.ru; (C)1999 Sri Sri Gopinath Gaudiya Math.; On 11 Dec. 1999 Georg Vartanyan [email: puridas@alfacom.net] sent the following URLs to Adherents.com, along with the message: "Gaudiya Vaishnavism (in russian) *Sri Sri Gopinath Gaudiya Math* "
Hasidic Jews - Lubavitch Russia - - - - 1813 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 439. "Lubavicher movement. Important and vigorous group in Eastern European Hasidism; the name comes from the Russian town of Lubavich, where Dov Ber, second leader and son of the founder, settled in 1813. "
Hutterian Brethren Russia 700 - - - 1870 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 10). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1376. "In the early 1870s the Russian government decided to impose obligations of military service on the various groups of foreign sectarians who had helped to settle their frontier regions, and the Hutterians decided, firmly in accordance with their principles, to resort once again to that pattern of response to the world that they had practiced over the centuries. They migrated; and the entire population of about 700 Hutterians settled in the territory that was to become South Dakota. "
Ingushetians Russia 300,000 - - - 1997 *LINK* Gamming, Jenny. They have a flag-but no country " in Swedish Expressen, 17 Aug. 1997. (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site. Translated by SSF/Goran Hansson. "The 300,000 Ingushetians is a Caucasian people. Most of them live in the Republic of Ingushetia, to the north of Georgia. To the east Ingushetia borders to Chechnya and there are strong ties between the two Muslim peoples. Ingushetia is a part of the Russian Federation. The republic suffers from an unemployment rate of 50 percent and considerable environmental problems. "
Inkeris Russia - - - - 1997 *LINK* Gamming, Jenny. They have a flag-but no country " in Swedish Expressen, 17 Aug. 1997. (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site. Translated by SSF/Goran Hansson. "The Inkeris are a Finnish people, which originally came from Inkeri, the territory surrounding St. Petersburg. The majority of the about 90,000 Inkeris live in other parts of Russia. "
ISKCON Russia 3,000 - - - 1997 *LINK* Shterin, Marat S. "NEW RELIGIONS, CULTS AND SECTS IN RUSSIA: A CRITIQUE AND BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE PROBLEMS " the Krishnas have 2,500 - 3000
ISKCON Russia - 0.50% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "; total population: 153,646,000; [Listed in table as "Hare Krishna "]
Islam Russia - - - - 1992 Geography Department (Mary M. Rodgers, series editor). Russia (series: Then and Now). Minneapolis, Minn.: Lerner Publications Co. (1992), pg. 26. "Islam... is practiced in areas bordering the former Soviet republics of central Asia. Many Muslims... in these republics are forming new alliances with Iran, Turkey, and other Middle Eastern states in which Islam is the dominant faith. "
Islam Russia 7,000,000 - - - 1995 *LINK* Originally published in Religious Studies News, Sept. 1995, Vol. 10, No. 3., p. 10. The Religious Roots of Conflict: Russia and Chechnya, An Essay by David Damrel. While the majority of the former Soviet UnionŐs 48 million Muslims gained independence with the dissolution of the USSR in 1991, the Russian Federation still contains over seven million ethnically and linguistically diverse Muslim peoples.
Islam Russia 64,624,768 - - - 1998 Ash, Russell. The Top 10 of Everything 1999. New York: DK Publishing (1998), pg. 77. Table: "Top 10 Largest Muslim Populations in the World "; Rank: #7
Islam Russia - 8.50% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "; total population: 153,646,000
Jehovah's Witnesses Russia 134,248 - - - 1997 *LINK* "RELIGIOUS FREEDOM IN RUSSIA HANGS ON A SIGNATURE. INTERNATIONAL CONCERN GROWS " text provided by Office of Public Affairs of Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, Brooklyn, NY; cited on web site: "Russian Religious News " A two-foot high stack of petitions landed on the desk of President Boris Yeltsin yesterday bearing the signatures of 134,248 Russians who are concerned that they are about to lose their freedom of worship.
Jehovah's Witnesses Russia 89,043 0.06% 626
units
- 1997 *LINK* official organization web site Adherent/member count is for "1997 Peak Witnesses "; Memorial attendance (annual sacrament meeting) for same year: 231,176.
Jehovah's Witnesses Russia 150,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* "Moscow official tries to ban Jehovah's Witnesses " in Ekspres khronika, 14 Sept. 1998. In this way the image of a "totalitarian sect " and assemblage of superstitions and villanies is created for an enormous religious movement that numbers in Russia alone no fewer than 150,000 adherents.
Jehovah's Witnesses Russia 100,012 0.07% 760
units
- 1998 *LINK* Jehovah's Witnesses official web site; section: "Statistics "; web page: "Worldwide Report " (viewed 16 April 1999). Table: "1998 Report of Jehovah's Witnesses Worldwide "; This adherent/member count is for "1998 Peak Witnesses "
Jehovah's Witnesses Russia - - 900
units
- 1999 *LINK* Stack, Peggy Fletcher (compiler). "World View: Witnesses Recognized In Russia " in Salt Lake Tribune May 8, 1999 (viewed online 8 May 1999). [Orig. source: Religion News Service] "The Jehovah's Witnesses, one of Russia's fastest-growing faiths, scored a surprise victory this week by winning nationwide government recognition as an authentic religion. The move will help smooth the way for the registration by local authorities of 900 Jehovah's Witnesses congregations across Russia by year's end, the deadline established under a controversial and restrictive 1997 religion law. "
Jehovah's Witnesses - Memorial attendance Russia 231,176 0.16% 626
units
- 1997 *LINK* official organization web site From 1997 Statistics "Memorial attendance " column. Count of all who attend this once-a-year meeting, whether or not a "publisher " in full standing. Most would be considered adherents.
Jehovah's Witnesses - Memorial attendance Russia 254,612 0.17% - - 1998 *LINK* Jehovah's Witnesses official web site; section: "Statistics "; web page: "Worldwide Report " (viewed 16 April 1999). Table: "1998 Report of Jehovah's Witnesses Worldwide "; "Memorial attendance " column indicates attendance at yearly communion meeting.
Jehovah's Witnesses - participants including associates Russia 200,000 - - - 1997 *LINK* "RELIGIOUS FREEDOM IN RUSSIA HANGS ON A SIGNATURE. INTERNATIONAL CONCERN GROWS " text provided by Office of Public Affairs of Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, Brooklyn, NY; cited on web site: "Russian Religious News " "Now they number more than 200,000 members and associates in Russia. "
Jehovah's Witnesses - participants including associates Russia 250,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* PRESS RELEASE from Moscow Office Administrative Center of Jehovah's Witnesses in Russia, Sept. 24, 1998. "There are about 10,000 Jehovah's Witnesses in Moscow and 250,000 associated throughout Russia. "
Judaism Russia - - 1,000
units
- 1917 Gilbert, Martin (ed.) The Illustrated Atlas of Jewish Civilization: 4,000 Years of Jewish History. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. (1990), pg. 218. "Of the approximately 1,000 synagogues [in Russia] in existence in 1917... "
Judaism Russia 1,300,000 - - - 1937 Gilbert, Martin (ed.) The Illustrated Atlas of Jewish Civilization: 4,000 Years of Jewish History. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. (1990), pg. 161. Map: "European Jewry on the Eve of the Holocaust 1937-41 "; "Figures show Jewish populations in 1937 and percentage of total population. "; [Central Russia: 900,000 Jews; White Russia: 400,000 Jews]
Judaism Russia 2,620,000 - - - 1983 Hopfe, Lews M. Religions of the World, Macmillan Publishing Co.: New York (1983) [3rd edition], pg. 356. "Recent statistics estimate that there are 14,435,900 Jews in the world. Three million are in Israel; 2,620,000 are in Russia; and 5,870,000 are in the United States. "
Judaism Russia 500,000 - - - 1992 Geography Department (Mary M. Rodgers, series editor). Russia (series: Then and Now). Minneapolis, Minn.: Lerner Publications Co. (1992), pg. 26. "Russia's Jewish population numbers more than 500,000. "
Judaism Russia 375,000 - - - 1995 Breuilly, Elizabeth, et al. Religions of the World: The Illustrated Guide to Origins, Beliefs, Traditions & Festivals. Facts on File Inc.: New York, NY (1997). Pg. 41. 1995 Chart and accompanying text: "The third largest Jewish population is in France (550,000), followed by Russia (375,000), Canada (360,000) and then by Great Britain (294,000). " Numbers represent self-identified religious Jews.
Judaism Russia - - - - 1995 Kort, Michael. Russia (series: Nations in Transition). New York: Facts on File, Inc. (1995), pg. 134. "The religious revival extends beyond Christianity. Although Russia's Jewish community has shrunk as hundreds of thousands of jews have emigrated, mainly to Israel, Jews who remain in Russia have been restoring their religious life. Many Jews, long denied the right to learn anything about their religion and history, are attending schools, summer camps, and worshipping in reopened synagogues... "
Judaism Russia 1,450,000 - - - 1997 Ash, Russell. The Top 10 of Everything, DK Publishing, Inc.: New York (1997), pg. 160-161. List: "Top 10 Largest Jewish Populations in the World "; (Rank: 3)
Judaism Russia 460,266 - - - 1998 Ash, Russell. The Top 10 of Everything 1999. New York: DK Publishing (1998), pg. 77. Table: "Top 10 Largest Jewish Populations in the World "; Rank: #4
Judaism Russia 550,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* Jewish Communities of the World web site (1998) Table: World Jewry. "collected our data from from demographic and other academic studies, community reports, and up-dates in the general media... consulted with experts to verify findings before reaching our assessments and estimates. "
Judaism Russia - 0.50% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "; total population: 153,646,000
Kalmyks Russia 174,528 - - - 1989 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 203, 205-206. "Kalmyks: Location: Russia (Republic of Kalmykia in the southwest); Population: 174,528 [1989]; Religion: Tibetan sect of Mahayana Buddhism (Lamaism) "; "The Kalmyks were faithful and fervent Buddhists, following the faith of their forebears. If Kalmykia is classified as a part of Europe, then the Kalmyks would be considered the only Buddhist ethnic group inhabiting Europe. They belong to the Tibetan 'Yellow Hat' or Gelugpa (Virtuous Way) sect of the Mahayana or Northern branch of Buddhism, which is also commonly referred to as Lamaism. It still contains an admixture of indigenous beliefs and shamanistic practices. The Kalmyks were converted from their earlier shamanistic beliefs to Tibetan Buddhism shortly before they reached the Lower Volga area in the early 17th century. "
Karachai Russia 156,000 - - - 1989 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 210-211. "Karachai [an ethnic group, not a separate religion]: Location: Caucasus mountains between Russia and Georgia (Karachaevo-Cherkessian Republic); Population: 156,000 (1989); Language: Karachai, Cherkessian, Russian; Religion: Islam "; "The Karachai are almost exclusively Muslim. For most of the 20th century, the Soviet government prohibited the Karachai from openly practicing Islam. Religions celebrations or funerals were often conducted secretly. Therefore, most Karachai do not adhere strictly to Islamic ritual... In the late Soviet and post-Soviet years, Karachai began to open and attend mosques. Some Karachai observe major Islamic festivals such as Ramadan and Eid. "
Khakass Russia 71,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 214. "Khakass: Location: Russia (Republic of Khakasia); Population: 71,000 "; "Russian Orthodox missionaries converted the Khakass to Christianity in the 2nd half of the 18th century. While the commitment of the Khakass to Christianity is an unresolved issue, there is no doubt that they remained firmly committed to their native religious beliefs and customs even during the Soviet period, when open manifestations of religious life were frequently suppressed. A partial result of the relatively late conversion of the Khakass to Christianity was that the Khakass retained many very archaic religious practices. "
Koriak Russia 9,200 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 217-219. "Koriak: Location: Russia (extreme northeastern Siberia); Population: 9,200; Religion: Native version of shamanism "; Pg. 218: "The traditional religion of the Koriak is a form of shamanism... Koriak shamans were severely persecuted by the Communist government; during Stalin's anti-religious campaigns in the 1930s, many of them were imprisoned and executed. Nevertheless, Koriak shamansim, like Soviet shamanism in general, may have suffered less than other religions. Since shamanism lacked the easily identified places of worship and the stable religious infrastructure of Christianity... it was harder for the government to attack it, and so it survived underground with relative ease. "
Lutheran Russia 5,000,000 - - - 1918 Rosten, Leo (ed.). Religions in America; New York: Simon & Schuster (1963), 8th ed. [1st pub. in 1952. 8th ed. completely revised], pg. 119. "Lutherans constitute almost half of the Protestants of the world. It is impossible to give the total accurately. Of the 5,000,000 Lutherans who were in Russian in 1918, no one knows how many there are now. "
Mari Russia 670,900 - - - 1989 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 247-249. "Maris: Location: Russia (Middle Volga River region); Population: 670,900 (1989) "; "Of all the peoples of the Middle Volga region, and arguably in all of Russia, the Maris have been the most successful at retaining their native religion while at the same time resisting the pressures of Islamization. Not only has the adherence to native religious traditions deeply influenced Mari folklore and cultural life in general, but it has also remained an important factor in Mari history, and, in the current period, in Mari politics as well. In any case, most Maris were converted to Eastern Orthodoxy during the 1st half of the 18th cen., & today roughly two-thirds of religious Maris are Orthodox Christians. [670,900 would be a measure of ethnic Maris, not adherents of the Mari religion.]
Molokan Russia 100,000 - - - 1900 *LINK* web page: "Molokan HomePage " (viewed 14 May 1999). By A.J. Conovaloff. "Molokans, like the Doukhobors, are sectarian Bible-centered Christians who evolved from Spiritual Christian Russian peasants who refused to join the Russian Orthodox Church in the 1600s. A Russian who was not Orthodox was 'sectarian'. During the 1800s both sects became widespread in Southern Russia. For insisting on religious freedom, many were persecuted by the Church and State, and many expelled to the Transcaucasus. By 1900, Molokans numbered over 100,000 in Russia. About 2,500 migrated to America just before the Russian Revolution. "
Molokan Russia 10,000 - - - 1999 *LINK* web page: "Molokan HomePage " (viewed 14 May 1999). By A.J. Conovaloff. "Today, approximately 20,000 people ethnically identify themselves as Molokans. They are equally divided between Russia and America, with a few in Australia. In Russia, almost all of the over a million descendants of the Molokans know very little about their past. Mainly elderly women (babushki) persist to revive the religion. "
Molokan Russia - - 150
units
- 1999 *LINK* web page: "Molokan HomePage " (viewed 14 May 1999). By A.J. Conovaloff. "Over 200 active Molokan churches exist worldwide. In Russia, most Molokan churches re-appeared due to laws now permitting religious freedom. The 150 Russian Molokan communities are mostly in the south, concentrated in the Northern Caucasus, throughout the Stavropol'skii krai, and the eastern Rostov oblast, Tselinskii raion. Since the reorganization of the former Soviet Union, almost all Russians, including Molokans, have been driven from the Caucasus. Of those who weren't resettled with existing Molokan communities, many were resettled throughout the Krasnodarskii oblast and Chernskii raion in the south Tula oblast. "
Mordvins Russia 1,150,000 - - - 1989 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 259-260. "Mordvins: Location: Russia (Moksha and Sura rivers region); Population: 1.15 million (1989) "; "Mordvin communities as a whole were converted to Russian Orthodox Christianity in the 1st half of the 18th cen... by the end of the 18th century, Russian observers often noted... Mordvins were not only the most Russified of the region's minority nationalities, but also the most thoroughly Christianized. In fact, Mordvins retained much of their native religious tradition, which coexisted with Christian traditions. Not only did Mordvins retain their native mythology, but they continued to venerate native spirits, shrines, and their ancestors, often without even imposing a Christian veneer. Their activites included communal prayers and animal sacrifices for various field spirits. This aspect of Mordvin religious life survived the Soviet period and is still evident today. "
Nanais Russia 12,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 262, 264. "Nanais: Location: Russia (extreme southeastern Siberia); Population: About 12,000 "; "The traditional Nanai religion is a form of shamanism... After the Nanais' homeland passed under Russian control, missionaries from the Russian Orthodox Church attempted to convert them to Christianity. Although many were formally baptized, they continued to practice their ancient religion. Nanai shamans, like those of other Siberian native peoples, suffered imprisonment and execution during Stalin's anti-religious campaigns, and as a result shamanism was driven underground. Since Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbechev ended the Soviet government's persecution of religion during the 1980s, the Nanais have begun to practice shamanism more openly. "
Nentsy Russia 34,190 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 269-270. "Nentsy: Location: Russia; Population: 34,190; Religion: Native form of shamanism with elements of Christianity "; "The Nentsy religion is a type of Siberian shamanism... In some areas, elements of Christianity (especially from the Russian Orthodox church) were mixed with the traditional pantheon of gods. Although it was forbidden to conduct religious rituals during the Soviet period, the Nenets religion seems to have survived and is enjoying a strong revival today. "
New Generation Russia 1,500 - 8
units
- 1998 "Restrictions on Religion Get Uneven Enforcement " in Christianity Today (Apr. 6, 1998), pg. 20. "New Generation, a Pentecostal group... today has 1500 members and eight congregations. "
Nivkhs Russia 4,631 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 278,280. "Nivkhs: Location: Russia (extreme southeastern Siberia); Population: 4,631; Religion: Traditional form of shamanism "; "The traditional Nivkh religion is a form of shamanism... Many Nivkh shamans were imprisoned and executed during Stalins anti-religious campaigns; as a result, shamanism was driven underground. The Nivkhs have practiced their religion more openly since Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev ended the Soviet government's persecution of religion during the 1980s. "
Nonreligious Russia - 32.50% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "; total population: 153,646,000
Old Believers Russia - - - - 1850 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 550. "Old Believers. Schismatic members of the Russian Orthodox Church. They rejected the liturgical reforms of Patriarch Nikon (seventeenth century), who imposed practices conforming to Greek usage. Old Believers insisted on retaining such older practices as making the sign of the cross with two fingers instead of three. In the course of time they split into two groups: priestly (popovtsy) and priestless (bespopovtsy). The latter group produced many smaller groups or sects... "
Old Believers Russia - - - - 1881 *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "OLD BELIEVERS: Russian ORTHODOX CHRISTIANS, largely peasants and anti-Western PRIESTS, who, in the seventeenth century, opposed LITURGICAL REFORM and were EXCOMMUNICATED in 1667. Persecution followed until 1881 when they were at last recognized by the State. "
Old Believers Russia 20,000,000 - - - 1917 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 15). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 2059. "There have never been any accurate statistics on the Old Believers, but it is quite commonly held by Soviet commentators today that there were not less than 20 million of them by 1917. "
Old Believers Russia 10,000,000 - - - 1917 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 550. "Despite severe persecution their numbers continued to grow; by 1917 there were about ten million Old Believers in Russia. "
Old Believers Russia 1,000,000 - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 15). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 2059. "There have never been any accurate statistics on the Old Believers, but it is quite commonly held by Soviet commentators today that there were not less than 20 million of them by 1917. They hasten to add that this number has now fallen to a maximum of one million but this, at best, with 'lost' communities still being discovered, can be no more than a guess; at worst, it is a figure devised for purely propagandistic purposes. It is not only the nationwide renewal of the movement after the Second World War which makes this figure suspect. Whole new communities in Poland and Latvia were enveloped by the pushing westward of Soviet frontiers just before the war--and these were more active and better organized than their counterparts who had endured the purges. "
Old Believers Russia - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 550. "Old Believers... Today their numbers are not known. They still preserve the traditions of Moscovite and rural piety, icons, and church music and are known for their particular steadfastness and loyalty to their faith. "
Old Believers Russia - - - - 1997 *LINK* Roshchin, Mikhail & Lawrence A. Uzzell. "Parliament's Religion Bill Alarms Old Believers, " Keston News Service (Tuesday, 15 July 1997). "Keston's sources are especially unhappy about the new bill's Article 8, which they say would have the practical effect of depriving their church of 'all-Russian' status and recognising it only as a 'regional' religious organisation. They say that the church currently has parishes in only 43 provinces of the Russian Federation, not enough to meet Article 8's requirements. "
Old Believers - Bespopovtsy Russia - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 15). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 2058. "...Old Believers... eventually divided into two main streams: those having priests, the Popovtsy, and those without them, the Bespopovtsy. The Erie community is an example of the latter... The personality of a local leader or the geographical isolation of a community was often a decisive enough factor to produce a new subdivision. The 'priestless' communities were naturally more inclined to fragment than those which retained or regained a hierarchical system. One Soviet researcher, F. I. Fedorenko, lists no less than 46 'denominations' among the Bespopovtsy. "
Old Believers - Popovtsy Russia - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 15). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 2058. "...Old Believers... eventually divided into two main streams: those having priests, the Popovtsy, and those without them, the Bespopovtsy. The Erie community is an example of the latter. "
Pentecostal Russia - - - - 1920 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 564. "Pentecostal churches... Pentecostalism spread rapidly around the world after 1906, due to a vigorous missionary program, and by 1920 it was established... in Russia by Ivan Voronaeff. "
Pentecostal Russia - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 16). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 2162. "It is claimed that there are a great many Pentecostalists in Russia, but numbers are uncertain. "
polygamy Russia - - - - 1968 Pinney, Roy. Vanishing Tribes. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1968), pg. 84. "Polygamy is rare among the less prosperous Maritime Chukchi, but it is fairly common among the Reindeer people. Many rich reindeer breeders who have several herds will keep a wife--and prospective bridegrooms of daughters--with each herd. There are also men with only one herd who will keep several wives in the same camp. In this case the man tries to keep them in separate tents, or at least in separate sleeping places under one tent. "
primal-indigenous Russia - 1.00% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "; total population: 153,646,000; listed in table as "animism "
Protestant Russia - 0.50% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "; total population: 153,646,000
Rahasya Sampradaya Russia 250 - 15
units
- 1993 *LINK* "Russian Swami Finds Forefather's Faith in Sanatana Dharma " in Hinduism Today International (Sept. 1993, Vol. 15, No. 10) There are fifteen spiritual communities and satsang groups with 250 members in Moscow and other towns
Ramakrishna Order Russia - - 1
unit
- 1998 *LINK* official organization web site Counted from "Ramakrishna Order Centers in the West " list
Romuva Russia - - 1
unit
- 1950 *LINK* official organization web site (1 Jan. 1999); web page: "ROMUVA - LITHUANIAN BALTIC RELIGION?1998 "; by Audrius Dundzila. "During the Soviet Occupation, a clandestine Romuva congregation met in Siberian exile in the 1940's - 1950's. "
Russian Orthodox Russia - - 100,000
units
- 1920 *LINK* Collins, Lois M. "Orthodox rebirth 'a miracle' " in deseret News, 25 Sept. 1999 (viewed online 25 Sept. 1999). "When the communist and totalitarian regimes in Russia set out to destroy the Russian Orthodox Church and other faiths, it didn't want to just discredit them. Under government direction, icons were stripped off altars and walls. Buildings were razed. By 1927, 90 percent of the Russian Orthodox churches had been reduced to rubble as part of one government's 'attempt to form a new kind of person ?one without God. We're all quite familiar with those very sad pages of history.'... before the revolution there had been about 100,000 Russian Orthodox churches in Russia, by World War II there were fewer than 1,000. "
Russian Orthodox Russia - - 10,000
units
- 1940 *LINK* Collins, Lois M. "Orthodox rebirth 'a miracle' " in deseret News, 25 Sept. 1999 (viewed online 25 Sept. 1999). "...before the revolution there had been about 100,000 Russian Orthodox churches in Russia, by World War II there were fewer than 1,000. "
Russian Orthodox Russia - - 56,000
units
- 1944 Time-Life Books. The Soviet Union (series: Library of Nations). Amsterdam: Time-Life Books (1984), pg. 106. "After more than half a century under an avowedly atheist government, the Russian landscape's most striking man-made features remain the onion domes of its Orthodox churches. More than 7,000 churches perform rites for crowds of worshippers much as they have over 10 centuries--although before the Revolution, Russia had eight times as many churches to serve half as many people. "
Russian Orthodox Russia - - 5,000
units
- 1992 Geography Department (Mary M. Rodgers, series editor). Russia (series: Then and Now). Minneapolis, Minn.: Lerner Publications Co. (1992), pg. 25-26. "Most Russians are members of the Russian Orthodox Church... Under Communist rule, the church received no state support, and many Orthodox places of worship were closed. In the late 1980s, however, the Soviet government eased restrictions on religious worship, and many Russian churches reopened. More than 5,000 Orthodox churches now hold services throughout Russia. "
Russian Orthodox Russia 60,000,000 - 6,000
units
- 1995 Kort, Michael. Russia (series: Nations in Transition). New York: Facts on File, Inc. (1995), pg. 132. "As it has for 1,000 years, Russian Orthodoxy remains the leading religion in Russia. It has over 60 million believers and over 6,000 newly reopened churches and monasteries. "
Russian Orthodox Russia 23,000,000 15.65% - - 1998 "Restrictions on Religion Get Uneven Enforcement " in Christianity Today (Apr. 6, 1998), pg. 20. "According to World Churches Handbook there are 23 million Russian Orthodox believers among Russia's 147 million people... 3.3 million practicing Christians, including Orthodox, Catholics and Protestants. "
Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia Russia - - 42
units
- 1998 *LINK* official organization web site (1998) Counted listings in directory of parishes.
Sakha Russia 382,000 - - - 1989 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 340-341. "Sakha: Location: Russia (far east Siberia); Population: 382,000 (1989 census); Religion: Native Sakha religion with animist, shamanist, & Russian Orthodox elements "; "Sakha religion derives from Turkic, Mongolic, Tungusic, & Russian ideas. Labels such as 'animist,' 'shamanist,' or 'Russian Orthodox' to not suffice... 19th cen. many Sakha declared themselves as Christian, but this did not mean they viewed Christianity & shamanism as mutually exclusive. Although shamans with full powers are rare, in the 1990s, urban as well as rural Sakha have adapted shamanistic rituals. Current Sakha shamans combine medical & spiritual practice... some Sakha maintain belief in shamans & supernatural powers. Others, struggling to recover spirituality after rejecting Marxist-Leninist materialism, accept aspects of shamanic philosophy. Still others, influenced by Soviet education and science, reject all religion as superstition. "
Sami Russia 2,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 345-346. [NOTE: This is an ethnic/cultural group, NOT a distinct religion] "It is thought that between 30,000 and 35,000 live in Norway, 10,000 in Sweden, 3,000 to 4,000 in Finland, and 1,000 to 2,000 in Russia. "; "Over the course of time, all of the Sami have been converted to Christianity... Today most Sami practice the dominant Lutheran religion of the Nordic countries in which they live. "


Russia, continued

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