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Roman Empire, continued...

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Cybele the Great Mother Roman Empire - - - - -204 B.C.E. Walker, Williston. A History of the Christian Church (3rd ed., revised by Robert T. Handy; 1st ed. 1918). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons (1970), pg. 10. "The great majority of those who felt religious longings simply adopted Oriental religions... The most popular of these Oriental religions were those of the Great Mother (Cybele) and Attis, originating in Asia Minor; of Isis and Serapis from Egypt; and of Mithras from Persia... That of the Great Mother, which was essentially a primitive nature worship, accompanies by licentious rites, reached Rome in B.C. 204, and was the first to gain extensive foothold in the West. "
Cybele the Great Mother Roman Empire - - - - 50 C.E. Bokenkotter, Thomas. A Concise History of the Catholic Church. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co. (1977), pg. 34-35. "One of the best-known mystery religions is that of Cybele, the Great Mother. Like the others it gives evidence of having originated in fertily rites associated with the vegetative rhythms of nature... Cybele, the mother of all gods and men, had as her companion the semidivine Attis, who betrayed her and then in remorse castrated himself and died. The Great Mother, however, restored him to life and deified him, making him immortal... "
Cybele the Great Mother Roman Empire - - - - 50 C.E. Bokenkotter, Thomas. A Concise History of the Catholic Church. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co. (1977), pg. 34. "Much more powerful as a rival to Christianity were the mystery religions that were quite numerous & rapidly spreading during this period. They were syncretistic kinds of faiths that fused Hellenic & Oriental thought. The most important ones were the Dionysian & Orphic mysteries of Thrace; the Eleusinian from Eleusis, near Athens; the religion of the Great Mother, Cybele, from Anatolia in Asia Minor; the Persian religion of Mithra and the Egyptian cult of Isis & Osiris. "
Cybele the Great Mother Roman Empire - - - - 50 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 14). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1928. "During the Hellenistic period... very little is heard about Mysteries. But at the time of the Roman Empire such religions suddenly sprang up. The best-known are the Mysteries of Isis and Mithras. However, there were also groups which worshipped Attis and the Great Mother (see Cybele)... "
Cynicism Roman Empire - - - - 300 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 305-306. "...Roman religion... included various moral schools, largely influenced by Greek philosophy... Cynicism... Stoicism... Epicureanism... All three schools were commonly adopted and practiced by the Romans until Christianity became predominant in the 3rd or 4th century and stamped them out as formal schools. "
Dionysus worship Roman Empire - - - - -500 B.C.E. Otto, Walter F. (Translated by Robert B. Palmer.) Dionysus: Myth and Cult. Dallas, Texas: Spring Publications (1981 - reissued; English translation first pub. 1965 by Indiana University Press), pg. 143-144. "What these mean to the followers of Dionysus can be seen in innumberable works of art... In Argos the grave of a maenad with the name of Xopeia was exhibited. We come across maenads making music on vase paintings and in the poetry of Nonnus... women who celebrate the Agrionia in Chaeronea. On the island of Naxos he is called... In the hymn of Philodamus of Skarpheia, it says that he went from Thebes to Pieriea, where the Muses received him... There were altars to Dionysus and the Charites at the Pelopion in Olympia... there was an oracle of Dionysus in Thrace with a prophetess... In Greece itself, of course, we know of only one Dionysiac oracle, that in Phocean Amphicleia... "
Dionysus worship Roman Empire - - - - 50 C.E. Bokenkotter, Thomas. A Concise History of the Catholic Church. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co. (1977), pg. 34. "Much more powerful as a rival to Christianity were the mystery religions that were quite numerous & rapidly spreading during this period. They were syncretistic kinds of faiths that fused Hellenic & Oriental thought. The most important ones were the Dionysian & Orphic mysteries of Thrace; the Eleusinian from Eleusis, near Athens... "
Dionysus worship Roman Empire - - - - 50 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 14). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1928. "The various Mysteries appealed to sociologically different strata of society. The Dionysiac Mysteries were often a cult of the upper bourgeoisie... "
Dionysus worship Roman Empire - - - - 50 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 307. "The Greeks called [Mithraism] and other such cults--like those of Eleusis, Dionysus, and Isis--mysteria, from a root meaning literally 'to keep one's mouth shut,' and from which the English words mystery and mysticism are derived. The term mystery applies to a sect capable of conferring initiation on its members. "
Eleusinian Roman Empire - - - - 50 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 307. "The Greeks called [Mithraism] and other such cults--like those of Eleusis, Dionysus, and Isis--mysteria, from a root meaning literally 'to keep one's mouth shut,' and from which the English words mystery and mysticism are derived. The term mystery applies to a sect capable of conferring initiation on its members. "
Epicurean Roman Empire - - - - 300 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 305-306. "...Roman religion... included various moral schools, largely influenced by Greek philosophy... Cynicism... Stoicism... Epicureanism... All three schools were commonly adopted and practiced by the Romans until Christianity became predominant in the 3rd or 4th century and stamped them out as formal schools. "
Gnosticism Roman Empire - - - - 203 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 302. "...2nd-century Phrygia in Asia Minor... c. 203... The evidence indicates that these [Montanism, Marcionites] and other Gnostic sects thrived alongside orthodox Christianity throughout the Mediterranean rim and hat in the early centuries the Gnostics may have outnumbered the orthodox. "
Helios of Emesa Roman Empire - - - - 50 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 14). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1928. "During the Hellenistic period... very little is heard about Mysteries. But at the time of the Roman Empire such religions suddenly sprang up. The best-known are the Mysteries of Isis and Mithras. However, there were also groups which worshipped... the Syrian gods Adonis, Jupiter Dolichenus and Helios of Emesa. "
Isis worship Roman Empire - - - - -80 B.C.E. Walker, Williston. A History of the Christian Church (3rd ed., revised by Robert T. Handy; 1st ed. 1918). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons (1970), pg. 10. "The great majority of those who felt religious longings simply adopted Oriental religions... The most popular of these Oriental religions were those of the Great Mother (Cybele) and Attis, originating in Asia Minor; of Isis and Serapis from Egypt; and of Mithras from Persia... That of Isis and Serapis, with its emphasis on regeneration and a future life, was well established in Rome by B.C. 80, but had long to endure governmental opposition. "
Isis worship Roman Empire - - - - -50 B.C.E. Casson, Lionel. Ancient Egypt. New York: Time-Life Books (1965), pg. 163. "Under such unpromising circumstances, Egypt was once again able to leave its mark upon history. The First Century B.C., and the several centuries that followed, was an age in which people throughout the Mediterranean world were in desperate search of a religious experience that could offer them some hope and comfort. The story of the great Egyptian deities, Osiris... Isis... and Horus... proved to possess universal appeal. The emphasis on immortality in the worship of this ideal family trinity gained numerous devotees throughout the length and breadth of the Roman Empire, from the ancient Near East to far-off Britain. "
Isis worship Roman Empire - - - - 30 C.E. Osborne, Richard. Philosophy for Beginners. New York, NY: Writers and Readers Publishing (1992), pg. 28. "Christianity had lots of rivals other than Judaism. There was the cult of Isis, Mithraism, the official divinities, and Orphic Mysticism. "
Isis worship Roman Empire - - - - 50 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 14). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1928. "During the Hellenistic period... very little is heard about Mysteries. But at the time of the Roman Empire such religions suddenly sprang up. The best-known are the Mysteries of Isis and Mithras... the conquest of Egypt by Augustus [was] a prerequisite for the mission of the Mysteries of Isis. "
Isis worship Roman Empire - - - - 50 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 14). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1928. "The various Mysteries appealed to sociologically different strata of society... the cult of Isis attracted the middle classes, wealthy freedmen and courtesans... "
Isis worship Roman Empire - - - - 50 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 307. "The Greeks called [Mithraism] and other such cults--like those of Eleusis, Dionysus, and Isis--mysteria, from a root meaning literally 'to keep one's mouth shut,' and from which the English words mystery and mysticism are derived. The term mystery applies to a sect capable of conferring initiation on its members. "
Isis worship Roman Empire - 0.00% - - 300 C.E. Casson, Lionel. Ancient Egypt. New York: Time-Life Books (1965), pg. 164. "But though this international cult [Osiris, Isis, Horus worship] endured for some centuries, it was doomed by the birth of a new religion in neighboring Palestine. By the Fourth Century A.D., Isis and the whole pantheon of Egyptian deities had fallen before a triumphant new rival, Christianity. As the new creed swept around the Mediterranean, one of its first stopping places was Egypt, and the ancient and exhausted land provided the inspiration for several features of incalculable importance to the young and vigorous religion. "
Judaism Roman Empire 8,000,000 10.00% - - 33 C.E. Bermant, Chaim. The Jews. New York: NY Times Books (1977), pg. 20. "Strife was not infrequent and a particularly vicious clash in 33 BC, which resulted in the destruction of property, desecration of synagogues and much loss of life, is sometimes referred to as the first pogrom... There were about eight million Jews in the Roman Empire out of a total population of about eighty million, and, though scattered, they were closely linked, so that action against any could mean trouble for all. "
Judaism Roman Empire - 10.00% - - 33 C.E. Frankforter, A. Daniel. A History of the Christian Movement; Chicago: Nelson-Hall (1978), pg. 49. "Some scholars estimate that, at the beginning of the Christian period, the Jews may have constituted between 7 and 10 percent of the population of the West, and they were by no means a weak or backward minority. "
Judaism Roman Empire - 10.00% - - 50 C.E. Rausch, David A. & Carl Hermann Voss. World Religions: Our Quest for Meaning; Trinity Press International: Valley Forge, PA (1993), pg. 158. "By... 200 C.E., Christianity could be found in all parts of the Roman Empire, and... constituted approximately 10% of the empire's population of 75 million. This is the same percentage the Jewish community had constituted a century and a half before. "
Jupiter Dolichenus Roman Empire - - - - 50 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 14). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1928. "During the Hellenistic period... very little is heard about Mysteries. But at the time of the Roman Empire such religions suddenly sprang up. The best-known are the Mysteries of Isis and Mithras. However, there were also groups which worshipped... the Syrian gods Adonis, Jupiter Dolichenus and Helios of Emesa. "
Men, the moon god of Asia Minor Roman Empire - - - - 50 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 14). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1928. "During the Hellenistic period... very little is heard about Mysteries. But at the time of the Roman Empire such religions suddenly sprang up. The best-known are the Mysteries of Isis and Mithras. However, there were also groups which worshipped Attis and the Great Mother, Men, the moon god of Asia Minor... "
Mithraism Roman Empire - - - - 30 C.E. Osborne, Richard. Philosophy for Beginners. New York, NY: Writers and Readers Publishing (1992), pg. 28. "Christianity had lots of rivals other than Judaism. There was the cult of Isis, Mithraism, the official divinities, and Orphic Mysticism. "
Mithraism Roman Empire - - - - 50 C.E. Bokenkotter, Thomas. A Concise History of the Catholic Church. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co. (1977), pg. 34. "Much more powerful as a rival to Christianity were the mystery religions that were quite numerous & rapidly spreading during this period. They were syncretistic kinds of faiths that fused Hellenic & Oriental thought. The most important ones were the Dionysian & Orphic mysteries of Thrace; the Eleusinian from Eleusis, near Athens; the religion of the Great Mother, Cybele, from Anatolia in Asia Minor; the Persian religion of Mithra and the Egyptian cult of Isis & Osiris. "
Mithraism Roman Empire - - - - 50 C.E. Bokenkotter, Thomas. A Concise History of the Catholic Church. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co. (1977), pg. 35. "The mystery religion that proved to be the most serious rival of Christianity, however, was Mithraism, which was restricted to men and very popular with soldiers. Originating in Persia, it was apparently spread around the Mediterranean by the soldiers of Alexander the Grat. Mithra was a Persian sun god who had slain the cosmic bull whose blood was the source of all life. His images always show him fighting for right against wrong--an appealing idea for soldiers. The cult promised immortality to its initiates. Its shrines have been uncovered in many places, a large one recently in London. "
Mithraism Roman Empire - - - - 50 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 14). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1928. "During the Hellenistic period... very little is heard about Mysteries. But at the time of the Roman Empire such religions suddenly sprang up. The best-known are the Mysteries of Isis and Mithras... The destruction of the Persian Empire by Alexander was a precondition for the spread of the Mithraic Mysteries as far as Rome... "
Mithraism Roman Empire - - - - 50 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 14). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1928. "The various Mysteries appealed to sociologically different strata of society... followers of Mithras were chiefly in the army and among the Imperial officials... "
Mithraism Roman Empire - - - - 100 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 14). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1862. "It is an open question whether the Roman Mithras mysteries were the same religion as the Persian Mithraic cult. The Persian religion changed to accommodate the different conditions of the Roman Empire. Certainly, many elements of the old religion were retained, but at the same time the Roman theology contained elements unknown to the Persians. For example, the Romans took their doctrine of the fate of the soul from Plato's philosophy. One could say that the Roman mysteries were a completely new religion. It may be that there were one or more founders of the new cult, dating from perhaps c 100 AD. The dated Roman Mithras monuments start from c 140 AD. "
Mithraism Roman Empire - - - - 100 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 307-308. "Mithraism was a mystery religion that probably came into existence in the Greco-Roman world, perhaps from Asia Minor, somtime during the 2nd or 1st century BC. Some scholars believe that its origin goes back to much earlier Zoroastrian beliefs... Images of Mithras survive, however, in paintings and sculptures found in hundreds of underground temples, from England to Asia Minor, that Christians overlooked... The Mithraic cult was introduced into Rome near the beginning of the 2nd century AD and proved especially popular among state bureaucrats, Roman legionnaires, and slaves... As paganism waned, Mithraism became Christianity's strongest competitor. The church finally suppressed it inthe 4th century... "
Mithraism Roman Empire - - - - 100 C.E. Walker, Williston. A History of the Christian Church (3rd ed., revised by Robert T. Handy; 1st ed. 1918). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons (1970), pg. 10. "The great majority of those who felt religious longings simply adopted Oriental religions... The most popular of these Oriental religions were those of the Great Mother (Cybele) and Attis, originating in Asia Minor; of Isis and Serapis from Egypt; and of Mithras from Persia... That of Mithras, the noblest of all, though having an extended history in the East, did not become conscpicuous at Rome till toward the year A.D. 100, and its great spread was in the latter part of the second and during the third centuries. It was especially beloved of soldiers. In the later years, at least of its progress in the Roman Empire, Mithras was identified with the sun--the Sol Invictus of the Emperors just before Constantine. Like other religions of Persian origin, its view of the universe was dualistic. "
Mithraism Roman Empire - - - - 200 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 14). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1862. "The Mithras cult was probably introduced into the legions from above, by officers who were posted from their headquarters in Rome to legions on the frontiers of the empire. The geographical distribution of archeological finds supports this hypothesis. Many Mithraic remains have been excavated in Rome and in areas in military conflict on the frontiers, such as the Euphrates, Danube, Rhine and in Britain; but almost none have been found in the pacified provinces such as Gaul or Spain, apart from the Mithraeum or temple in Merida, Spain, the seat of the Roman governor. "
Mithraism Roman Empire - - - - 300 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 14). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1861. "'If Christianity had been arrested in its growth... the world would have been Mithraist', said the French philosopher Ernest Renan, and there is no doubt that this austere, soldierly cult, with its rigorous ordeals undertaken in subterranean chambers, gained an immensely powerful hold in the Roman Empire: there are five temples to Mithras in Britain alone. The Mithraic mysteries made their appeal to soldiers and to officials in the service of the Roman emperors. But exactly how an ancient Persian god found his way to Rome, to be adopted by high-ranking army officers, is still not fully known. "
Mithraism Roman Empire - - - - 387 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 14). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1864. "Under Constantine the Great the Mithraic cult lost imperial favour. He publicly supported Christianity and while there are several dated Mithraic monuments up to 312 AD, after that there is only one rom the military frontiers of the empire. A collection of inscriptions from Rome, in which Mithras is mentioned, are dated from 357 to 387 and originate from the groups of pagan Roman senators who had rebelled against the new Christian Empire in Constantinople... These cults of the Roman opposition are no longer characteristic of the Mithraic mysteries, as at that time in Rome a fierce syncretism was being practised; the inscriptions mention Mithras only as one of many pagan gods. The genuine Mithraic mysteries ceased under Constantine, and the triumphant Christian Church erected its basilicas above the underground Mithraic caverns in Rome. "
Monophysitism Roman Empire - - - - 449 C.E. Corrick, James A. The Byzantine Empire. San Diego: Lucent Books (1997), pg. 45. "In the fifth century over a heresy called Monophysitism, Constantinople found itself in a struggle with Alexandria. Monophysitism dealt with the nature of Christ... concluded that Christ's nature was completely divine... Alexandria was the center of Monophysitism, while Constantinople held to the oppsing view of Christ's nature... To decide the Monophysitism issue, [Pope] Leo called a church council at Ephesus, in western Asia Minor, in 449. At the council, [Monophysitism was approved]... The Alexandrian's tactics led to a storm of protest... As a result, the Ephesus council's decision as not accepted, and a new council was held at 451 at Chalcedon... At Rome and Constantinople's urging, the council of Chalcedon accepted the view that Christ was an equal mixture of God and human... "
Montanism Roman Empire - - - - 150 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 325. "Montanism. As noted in the section on Gnosticism, Montanus, a 2nd century Phrygian enthusiast, claimed direct inspiration by the Holy Spirit. Practicing charismatic prophecy, many of Montanus's followers were women, who were allowed to teach, heal, and exorcise demons. "
Montanism Roman Empire - - - - 156 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 14). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1875. "The Christian sect of followers of the prophet Montanus originated in Asia Minor and spread to other parts of the Roman Empire... The movement seems to have begun in Phrygia c 156 AD... In c 172 synods of bishops in Asia condemned them... In doctrine it differed only slightly from the Christianity traditional in Phrygia when it arose; it was not heretical and, in intention, it was not schismatic. It led to schism only when it was condemned by the bishops of Asia Minor. "
Montanism Roman Empire - - - - 500 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 14). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1875. "The conversion of the Roman Empire Constantine and the rise of the Christian Empire resulted in edicts that made Montanism illegal, though tombstones from Asia Minor show tht there were adherents of the movement in the 4th century... As late as 550 a bishop of Ephesus dug up the corpses of Montanus and the prophetesses, and burned them. Under Justinian, a large group of Montanists committed suicide. By the 6th century the movement had obviously outlived it soriginal purpose, the preparation of the Christian community for life in the heavenly Jerusalem which was to appear immediately. It lived on, however, as a movement of protest against the worldiness of the Byzantine Church... "
mystery religions Roman Empire - - - - -100 B.C.E. *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "MYSTERY RELIGIONS: a GROUP of RELIGIONS which flourished in the Greaco-Roman world which involved the secret initiation of the believer. Often BAPTISM, sometimes in the blood of cattle, was involved as well as BELIEFS about IMMORTALITY and the survival of the SOUL. The most famous mystery religions are the ELEUSINIAN MYSTERIES, ORPHISM, MITHRAISM and various FORMS of GNOSTICISM. "
mystery religions Roman Empire - - - - 50 C.E. Bokenkotter, Thomas. A Concise History of the Catholic Church. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co. (1977), pg. 34. "Much more powerful as a rival to Christianity were the mystery religions that were quite numerous & rapidly spreading during this period. They were syncretistic kinds of faiths that fused Hellenic & Oriental thought. The most important ones were the Dionysian & Orphic mysteries of Thrace; the Eleusinian from Eleusis, near Athens; the religion of the Great Mother, Cybele, from Anatolia in Asia Minor; the Persian religion of Mithra and the Egyptian cult of Isis & Osiris. They were called mysteries because their central rites were kept secret from all but initiates. In spite of various differences, they all had certain characteristics in common: a sublime view of the godhead, a profound sense of cleavage between spirit & flesh, & a great yearning for a redeemer who would deliver devotes from all guilt & confess on them eternal life. "
mystery religions Roman Empire - - - - 50 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 14). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1928. "During the Hellenistic period (3rd-1st centuries BC) very little is heard about Mysteries. But at the time of the Roman Empire such religions suddenly sprang up. The best-known are the Mysteries of Isis and Mithras. However, there were also groups which worshipped Attis and the Great Mother (see Cybele), Men, the moon god of Asia Minor, the Syrian gods Adonis, Jupiter Dolichenus and Helios of Emesa. The fire cult of the theurgists had a Mystery character and Judaism and Christianity were partly assimilated to the new type of religion. "
mystery religions Roman Empire - - - - 75 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 14). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1925. "Striking similarities have been noted between Christianity and the Mystery religions, cults which catered essentially for the needs of the individual and which developed in the same period, under Roman Imperial rule. "
mystery religions Roman Empire - - - - 100 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 307. "The Greeks called [Mithraism] and other such cults--like those of Eleusis, Dionysus, and Isis--mysteria, from a root meaning literally 'to keep one's mouth shut,' and from which the English words mystery and mysticism are derived. The term mystery applies to a sect capable of conferring initiation on its members. "
Nestorian Roman Empire - - - - 450 C.E. *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "NESTORIANISM: a religious and PHILOSOPHICAL movement which emerged in Graeco-Roman society as a blend of essentially PLATONIC, PYTHAGOREAN, STOIC, and ARISTOTELIAN elements: its chief exponent was PLOTINUS. The philosophy had a strong MYSTICAL inclination and was easily adapted to the needs of CHRISTIAN thinkers seeking to reconcile Christian and PAGAN thought. "
Orphism Roman Empire - - - - -320 B.C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 15). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 2085. "The fact that Orpheus was adopted as the founder of the Eleusinian Mysteries should mean that he composed the sacred poetry, and a chronicle of 264 BC probably named him as the author of a cult poem on the rape of Persephone. In fact we possess such a poem, among the hymns ascribed to Homer, and parts of it are quoted as 'Orpheus'.... The practice of attributing to Orpheus poems composed for local cults became increasingly prevalent in the Hellenistic period and under the Roman Empire. As early as 320 BC he is the founder of Dionysus -mysteries. Later we find him linked with cults in Aegina, Sparta and Phrygia. We hear of a Corybanticum and of Enthronements for the Divine Mother, both belonging to rites in which initiates in the service of the Great Mother (See Corybantes; Cybele) were set on a throne... "
Orphism Roman Empire - - - - 30 C.E. Osborne, Richard. Philosophy for Beginners. New York, NY: Writers and Readers Publishing (1992), pg. 28. "Christianity had lots of rivals other than Judaism. There was the cult of Isis, Mithraism, the official divinities, and Orphic Mysticism. "
Orphism Roman Empire - - - - 200 C.E. "There is really no such thing as Orphism. There is Orpheus, the legendary singer, about whom various stories are told; and there is Orphic literature... a mass of poems, mainly now lost, composed in different places at different periods..., and for the most part having nothing in common except that Orpheus was claimed ass their author. Until not very long ago, it was taken for granted that these poems collectively represented the teaching of a body of people called Orphics, and a great religious movement called Orphism was constructed and extensively written about. The truth is that no prophet or sect had a monopoly on Orpheus' name. The 'Orphic' poems fit into no overall scheme. The most that can be said is that under the Roman Empire one poem of a somewhat encyclopedic nature achieved a sort of canonical authority: new Orphic poems took acount of it, and academic theologians accepted it as the authentic revelation of Orpheus. Its vogue is one thing that might be called Orphism. "
paganism Roman Empire - - - - 100 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 303-304. "To begin with, the term pagan was a Christian coinage, deriving from the Latin paganus ('country peasant' or 'civilian') and implying anyone who wasn't a soldier in Christ's army against idolatry. The term was not applied to Jews, who at least worshipped Yahveh (God the Father) but after the rise of Muhammad in the 7th century, it was laid on Muslims for a time despite their unswerving monotheism. Paganism was Christianity's name for the official religion of the Roman Empire, which involved worshipping an array of gods and occasionally participating in orgiastic festivals... Pagans did not, however, spend all their time worshipping idols, chugging wine, and copulating in the streets. They were often astute intellectuals capable of engaging in learned exchanges with or attacks on Christian bishops. "
paganism Roman Empire - - - - 313 C.E. Corrick, James A. The Byzantine Empire. San Diego: Lucent Books (1997), pg. 45-46. "Similar laws were aimed at destroying any pagan or non-Christian religion practiced in the empire. The major targest for these laws was the old Greek and Roman religion. Pagans were forbidden to worship, and they were fined if caught doing so. Their temples were torn down or converted to other uses... Heavy persecution destroyed the old classical pagan religion, which had been dying even before Christianity became the state religion of Rome in 313. "
paganism Roman Empire - - - - 350 C.E. Bokenkotter, Thomas. A Concise History of the Catholic Church. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co. (1977), pg. 68. "This pro-Christian imperial policy, as we have seen, began with Constantine, who favored the Christians and only tolerated paganism, hoping to see it die a natural death. His three sons, however, who succeeded him at his death in 337, took a more resolute stance. This was especially true of Constantius, who was left sole ruler in 350. He aimed at the total extirpation of paganism; he ordered the temples closed and imposed the death penalty for participating in sacrifices. Some pagans managed to carry on their worship at the great shrines in Heliopolis, Rome, and Alexandria, but they were caught in a tight squeeze. "
Parthians Roman Empire - - - - -40 B.C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 16). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 2143. "The crushing defeat inflicted by the Parthians on the Roman army at Carrhae in 53 BC alerted the Roman Republic to the powerful enemy on the eastern frontier of their Empire. The mounted archers, with their 'Parthian shots,' now became familiar figures in Wetern literature. In 40 BC the Parthians actually invaded the Roman provinces of Asia Minor and Syria, capturing Jerusalem among other places. Though forced to withdraw, for another two centuries they remained a constant threat to Rome's empire in the east. "
Platonism/Neo-Platonism Roman Empire - - - - 244 C.E. Walker, Williston. A History of the Christian Church (3rd ed., revised by Robert T. Handy; 1st ed. 1918). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons (1970), pg. 98. "Two other forces of importance arose in the religious world. The first was Neo-Platonism. Founded in Alexandria by Ammonius Saccus (?-c. 245), its real developer was Plotinus (205-270), who settled in Rome about 244... Neo-Platonism was a pantheistic, mystical interpretation of Platonic thoughts. God is simple, absolute existence, all perfect, from whom the lower existences come. He is the One, above the duality implied in thought... Neo-Platonism was much to influence Christian theology, notably that of Augustine. Its founders were not conspicuously organizers, however, and it remained a way of thinking for the relatively few rather than an inclusive association of many. "
Platonism/Neo-Platonism Roman Empire - - - - 529 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 14). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1966. "Neoplatonism. The religious philosophy which modern scholars call Neoplatonism is the final stage in the long development of the revived Platonism of the Roman Imperial period. It was a very long development. After a period of scepticism, Antiochus of Ascalon revived dogmatic, positive philosophical teaching in Plato's school at Athens, the Academy, in the 1st century BC. Later Platonism continued as a distinct philosophy, taught by its own pagan professors, till well after the official closing of the pagan schools at Athens by Justinian in 529 AD and therefore had a history of over 600 years... "
Sibyl Roman Empire - - - - 405 C.E. *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "SIBYLLINE ORACLES: a collection of PROPHECIES not to be confused with the PSEUDO-SIBYLLINE ORACLES. They were supposedly made by a PROPHETESS called Sibyl, and eventually gathered together in Rome where they were consulted in times of crisis, until their destruction in 405. "
Stoicism Roman Empire - - - - -270 B.C.E. Walker, Williston. A History of the Christian Church (3rd ed., revised by Robert T. Handy; 1st ed. 1918). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons (1970), pg. 6-7. "Greek philosophy... Two great answers were given, on of which was wholly foreign to... Christianity... and the other only partially foreign, and therefore destined prfoundly to influence Christian theology. These were Epicureanism and Stoicism... The other great answer was that of Stoicism, the noblest type of ancient pagan ethical thought, the nearest in some respects to Christianity... Its leaders were Zenos (B.C.?-264?), Cleanthes (B.C. 301?-232?), and Chrysippus (B.C. 280?-207?). Though developed in Athens, it flourished best outside of Greece, and notably in Rome, where Seneca (B.C. 3?-A.D. 65), Epictetus (A.D. 60?-?), and the Emperor, Marcus Aurelius (A.D> 121-180), had great influence. It was powerfully represented in Tarsus during the early life of the Apostle Paul. Stoicism was primarily a great ethical system, yet not without claims to be considered a religion. "
Stoicism Roman Empire - - - - 300 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 305-306. "...Roman religion... included various moral schools, largely influenced by Greek philosophy... Cynicism... Stoicism... Epicureanism... All three schools were commonly adopted and practiced by the Romans until Christianity became predominant in the 3rd or 4th century and stamped them out as formal schools. "
Theurgists Roman Empire - - - - 50 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 14). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1928. "During the Hellenistic period... very little is heard about Mysteries. But at the time of the Roman Empire such religions suddenly sprang up. The best-known are the Mysteries of Isis and Mithras. However, there were also groups... The fire cult of the theurgists had a Mystery character... theurgists had a sacred book, the Chaldean Oracles. "
Theurgists Roman Empire - - - - 50 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 14). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1928. "The various Mysteries appealed to sociologically different strata of society... theurgy was accessible only to a few philosophically educated people, being something quite exclusive. "
miscellaneous regional info Roman Empire - - - - 100 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 304-305. "One of the most influential early Christian communities grew up in Rome... The Roman religion was a state religion, ancient but lacking in profound spiritual content. It revolved around civic virtue and displays of loyalty to the emperor and household gods (lares and penates) and was administered by government workers. It was, in effect, a kind of official secularism that left citizens free to follow other creeds as long as they didn't interfere with the smoothe functioning of government. Those other creeds included various moral schools, largely influenced by Greek philosophy, which reflected on vice and virtue and the ethics of familial and interpersonal duties--rather like Confucianism, for centuries the state religion of China. "
Christianity Roman Empire - East - 10.00% - - 303 C.E. Bokenkotter, Thomas. A Concise History of the Catholic Church. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co. (1977), pg. 48-49. "With this act the final agony of the Church began; it was to last from 303 to 312... The struggle for the soul of the Empire raged on a vast scale, for though only a sprinkling in the West, Christians in the East numbered around 10% of the population, and in some cities even formed the majority. "
attendance - weekly Romania - 20.00% - - 1991 *LINK* web site: "The University of Michigan News and Information Services "; web page: "Study identifies worldwide rates of religiosity, church attendance " (viewed 17 April 1999). "News Release: December 10, 1997 " By Diane Swanbrow. Table: weekly church attendance in various nations. "Source: Based on latest avail. data from... World Values surveys. Results with an asterisk are from the 1990-1991 survey; all others are from 1995-1997 survey. "
Baptist Union of R.S. Romania Romania 75,000 - 1,323
units
- 1998 *LINK* Baptist World Alliance web site; page: "BWA Statistics " (viewed 31 March 1999). "Figures are for BWA affiliated conventions/unions only (no independents included). "; Table with 3 columns: Country, "Churches ", & "Members "; "1997/1998 Totals "
Baptist World Alliance Romania 84,078 0.37% 1,423
units
- 1998 *LINK* Baptist World Alliance web site; page: "BWA Statistics " (viewed 31 March 1999). "Figures are for BWA affiliated conventions/unions only (no independents included). "; Table with 3 columns: Country, "Churches ", & "Members "; "1997/1998 Totals "; [BWA stats. in individual countries are sum of figures for member bodies of BWA in the countries.]; [County population figures for 1998 from United Nations data available here.]
Catholic Romania 1,389,210 6.00% - - 1989 *LINK* Library of Congress Country Studies 23,153,475 [total pop.] (1989). About 70 percent Romanian Orthodox, 6 percent Uniate, 6 percent Roman Catholic, 6 percent Protestant, 12 percent unaffiliated or other.
Catholic Romania 2,654,000 11.70% 1,799
units
- 1995 1998 Catholic Almanac: Our Sunday Visitor: USA (1997), pg. 333-367. Figures are as of Dec. 31, 1995. Number used for "congregations " is from number of Catholic parishes.
Catholic Romania 1,140,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year. Pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop.
Catholic Romania 1,347,785 6.00% - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Total population: 22,463,077. Romanian Orthodox 70%, Roman Catholic 6% (of which 3% are Uniate), Protestant 6%, unaffiliated 18%
Catholic Romania - 12.00% - - 1998 *LINK* "Romanian Orthodox invite Pope to visit " on Golden Compass Religious Worldnews (July 20). [Orig. source: Catholic World News] Nearly 70 percent of the Romanian population is Orthodox, while about 12 percent is Catholic.
Catholic Romania - 7.00% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "; total population: 23,816,000
Catholic - Greek Catholic Romania - 10.00% - - 1918 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 324, 326. "When Romania finally became one unified country in 1918, over 80% of Romanians belonged to the Romanian Orthodox Church, while 10% belonged to the Greek Catholic Church (also known as the Unite Church). The rest of the population belonged to various Roman Catholic or Protestant Churches. "
Catholic - Latin Rite Romania 1,500,000 - - - 1999 *LINK* Stack, Peggy Fletcher ( "compiler "). "World View... ", subhead: "Pope Skips Transylvania " in Salt Lake Tribune (March 20, 1999), viewed online 21 March 1999. [Orig. source: Religion News Service] "Most of Romania's 1.5 million Latin Rite Catholics, who are in communion with Rome, are of Hungarian origin and live in Transylvania. " [Most all Roman Catholics in the world are in the "Latin Rite ", but in Romania between a third and a half of the Catholics are Uniate, or non-Latin Rite, hence the distinction made in this article.]
Catholic - Uniate Romania 1,500,000 - - - 1948 Zehavi, A.M. (editor) Handbook of the World's Religions. New York: Franklin Watts (1973), pg. 29. "In 1946 the Uniats of Ukraine (about 5,000,000) and in 1948 those of Rumania (1,500,000) were forcibly separated by the Communists from the Roman Catholic Church and joined to the Russian and Rumanian Orthodox churches. The change was affected by arresting the entire Catholic hierarchy and offering the clergy a choice between imprisonment (or death) and separation from Rome. "
Catholic - Uniate Romania 1,389,210 6.00% - - 1989 *LINK* Library of Congress Country Studies 23,153,475 [total pop.] (1989). About 70 percent Romanian Orthodox, 6 percent Uniate, 6 percent Roman Catholic, 6 percent Protestant, 12 percent unaffiliated or other.


Romania, continued

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