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Over 42,000 religious geography and religion statistics citations (membership statistics for over 4,000 different religions, denominations, tribes, etc.) for every country in the world.

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Asia, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Spiritism Asia 1,120,000 0.03% - - 1996 The World Almanac & Book of Facts 1998 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ) pg. 654. [Source: 1997 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year] Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1996 "
Spiritism Asia 2,000 0.00% - - 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999), pg. 695. [Source: 1999 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year] Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1998 "
Taoism Asia 31,260,000 - - - 1981 Popenoe, David. Sociology (5th Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. (1983), pg. 433. [Orig. source: 1981 Britannica Book of the Year.] Table: Membership in the Major Religions of the World "
Taoism Asia 30,260,000 1.16% - - 1982 Robertson, Ian. Sociology (2nd ed.); New York, NY: Worth Publishers (1981) [2nd edition is updated since 1977 1st edition], pg. 405. [Orig. source: Encyclopaedia Britannica Book of the Year, 1982] Table: "Estimated membership of the principal religions of the world "
Theravada Buddhism Asia - - - - -200 B.C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 299. "Hinayana. The pejorative name applied to all the early schools of Buddhism by an emergen, radical group (ca. 200 B.C.) which referred to itself as Mahayana (lit. 'large vehicle...'). Hinayana thus became a general designation for the two major early schools of Buddhism, the Sthaviras and Mahasanghikas, and their subschools (including the Theravadins). "
Theravada Buddhism Asia - - - - 1966 Welty, Paul Thomas. The Asians: Their Heritage and Their Destiny (Revised Edition). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. (1966), pg. 72. "Hinayana... is sometimes referred to as Southern Buddhism because it is stressed in Ceylon, Burma, and Thailand. Southern Buddhists prefer to use the term Theravada instead of Hinayana... "
Vedic religion Asia - - - - -1500 B.C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 307. "Vedic religion. The second early source of Indian religion, and that which was to give it much of its formal cultic structure, myth, and intellectual expression, was the religious beliefs and practices of the Aryan peoples who invaded Northwest India. These tribes were part of the great migrations that spread to the shores of the Atlantic in the West and to Central and South Asia in the East. This broad wandering and subsequent settling down of tribes having to some degree cognate societal, linguistic, and religious traditions was to provide India and adjacent areas to the West a common broad core of religious myths and related deities. The religion of the Aryans is known to us through hymns brought together in collections known as the Vedas. "
Wahhabi Sunni Asia - - - - 1799 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 800. "Dar'iya soon became a theocratic state and the center of an increasingly vast territory. Ibn Sa'u's able son, Abd al-'Aziz, continued military conquests, with Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab as religious guide. After the reormer's death the fortunes of the Sa'udi dynasty continued to advance. It's territorial dominion eventually included all of the Hejaz and Najd, and much of the rest of the Arabian Peninsula from the Red Sea to the Persian Gulf. The Wahhabis even went beyond Arabia in attacks on Damascus in Syria and Najaf in Iraq. Later there was a significant branch of the movement in India. "
Zen - Oryo Asia - - - - 900 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 256. "Oryo school - a lineage of Rinzai Zen stemming from the Chinese Ch'an (Zen) master Huang-lung Hui-nana. It belongs to the 'seven schools' (goke-shichishu) of Ch'an and was the first school of Zen in Japan, brought there by Eisai Zenji. It died out both in China and Japan after a few generations. Since the Oryo lineage developed out of the Rinzai school, it is also called the Rinzai Oryo school. "
Zoroastrianism Asia 256,000 - - - 1981 Popenoe, David. Sociology (5th Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. (1983), pg. 433. [Orig. source: 1981 Britannica Book of the Year.] Table: Membership in the Major Religions of the World "
Zoroastrianism Asia 257,000 0.01% - - 1982 Robertson, Ian. Sociology (2nd ed.); New York, NY: Worth Publishers (1981) [2nd edition is updated since 1977 1st edition], pg. 405. [Orig. source: Encyclopaedia Britannica Book of the Year, 1982] Table: "Estimated membership of the principal religions of the world "
Zoroastrianism Asia - - - - 1992 Ovendale, Ritchie. The Longman Companion to The Middle East since 1914. London & New York: Longman (1992), pg. 224. "Zoroastrians: Followers of a religion founded in Iran... around 6th century BC. Views the cosmos in terms of a battle between good (Ahura-Mazda) and evil (Ahriman). Small number of followers in modern Iran, and also in India (Parsees). "
Zoroastrianism Asia 269,000 0.01% - - 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999), pg. 695. [Source: 1999 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year] Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1998 "
Baptist Asia & Oceania 2,965,000 - - - 1994 *LINK* Statistics from Baptists Around the Worldby Albert W. Wardin
Islam Asia - Central - - 160
units
- 1989 Twining, David T. The New Eurasia: A Guide to the Republics of the Former Soviet Union. Westport, CT: Praeger (1993), pg. 141. "The 160 mosques in Central Asia in 1989 have increased to more than 5,000 in 1992, and the number of Islamic seminaries (medressehs) has risen from one to nine. "
Islam Asia - Central - - 5,000
units
- 1992 Twining, David T. The New Eurasia: A Guide to the Republics of the Former Soviet Union. Westport, CT: Praeger (1993), pg. 141. "The 160 mosques in Central Asia in 1989 have increased to more than 5,000 in 1992, and the number of Islamic seminaries (medressehs) has risen from one to nine. "
Islam Asia - Central 20,000,000 - - - 1993 Twining, David T. The New Eurasia: A Guide to the Republics of the Former Soviet Union. Westport, CT: Praeger (1993), pg. 143. "Some 11 million ethnic Russians live in Central Asia, and 20 million Muslims (of the 55 million Muslims who live in the former Soviet Union) live in Russia. "
Islam - clerics Asia - Central 35,000 - - - 1944 Time-Life Books. The Soviet Union (series: Library of Nations). Amsterdam: Time-Life Books (1984), pg. 79. "Some 25,000 mosques have been shuttered or levelled in Central Asia, and the number of clerics there has dwindled from 35,000 to 1,000. "
Islam - clerics Asia - Central 1,000 - - - 1984 Time-Life Books. The Soviet Union (series: Library of Nations). Amsterdam: Time-Life Books (1984), pg. 79. "The Soviets seem to be more wary of the Muslim religion, knowing that it can be explosively nationalistic. Some 25,000 mosques have been shuttered or levelled in Central Asia, and the number of clerics there has dwindled from 35,000 to 1,000. "
Catholic Asia - East - 2.00% - - 1987 Bishop, Peter & Michael Darton (editors). The Encyclopedia of World Faiths: An Illustrated Survey of the World's Living Faiths. New York: Facts on File Publications (1987), pg. 88. "The Church claims that 90% of the population of South America is Roman Catholic, while in the Far East that figure drops to 2%... "
Christianity Asia - East 200,000 0.20% - - 1500 C.E. Walls, Andrew. "Christianity " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st published in 1984], pg. 71-72. "Figure 2.2: Geography and statistics of Christian profession, 1500-2000 " [showing both population in millions and percentage of total population]
Christianity Asia - East 2,000,000 - - - 1900 *LINK* web site: "Monday Morning Reality Check " (Protestant); web page (1996 list): "Megatrend 12: Rise of the East Asian colossus " by Justin D. Long. (viewed 12 March 1999) "From just over 2 million believers around the turn of the century, the church has grown to well over 80 million today. The growth rate shows no sign of decline. Despite persecution and unceasing harassment, GEM's researchers estimate the church will grow to well over 200 million by 2025. "
Christianity Asia - East 19,000,000 1.80% - - 1980 Walls, Andrew. "Christianity " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st published in 1984], pg. 71-72. "Figure 2.2: Geography and statistics of Christian profession, 1500-2000 " [showing both population in millions and percentage of total population]
Christianity Asia - East 80,000,000 - - - 1996 *LINK* web site: "Monday Morning Reality Check " (Protestant); web page (1996 list): "Megatrend 12: Rise of the East Asian colossus " by Justin D. Long. (viewed 12 March 1999) "From just over 2 million believers around the turn of the century, the church has grown to well over 80 million today. The growth rate shows no sign of decline. Despite persecution and unceasing harassment, GEM's researchers estimate the church will grow to well over 200 million by 2025. "
Christianity Asia - East 32,300,000 2.40% - - 2000 Walls, Andrew. "Christianity " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st published in 1984], pg. 71-72. "Figure 2.2: Geography and statistics of Christian profession, 1500-2000 " [showing both population in millions and percentage of total population; year 2000 figures are projections, made circa 1980]
Christianity Asia - East 200,000,000 - - - 2025 *LINK* web site: "Monday Morning Reality Check " (Protestant); web page (1996 list): "Megatrend 12: Rise of the East Asian colossus " by Justin D. Long. (viewed 12 March 1999) "From just over 2 million believers around the turn of the century, the church has grown to well over 80 million today. The growth rate shows no sign of decline. Despite persecution and unceasing harassment, GEM's researchers estimate the church will grow to well over 200 million by 2025. "
Council for World Mission Asia - East 2,387,930 - 7,085
units
- 1999 *LINK* Web site: "Council for World Mission "; web page: "Churches " (viewed 31 May 1999). Added up memberships of constituent member bodies in region: Presbyterian Church in Taiwan, Presbyterian Church in Singapore, Presbyterian Church of Myanmar, Presbyterian Church of Korea, Hong Kong Council of the Church of Christ in China.
Buddhism Asia - South - - - - 1150 C.E. Lang, Robert. The Land and People of Pakistan (Portraits of the Nations series). Philadelphia & New York: J. B. Lippincott Co. (revised edition 1974), pg. 46. "Kanishka's military conquests spread the Buddhist doctrine eastward across India, and Buddhism continued to flourish nearly everywhere in the Indian subcontinent for several centuries. Then Hinduism reasserted itself, and Buddha came to be regarded as just another incarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu. Buddhsim in the the subcontinent after the yar 1000 became a kind of specialized Hindu sect. Its disappearance was hastened by the Muslim invasions; in the twelfth century the few remaining monasteries were pillaged and the great libraries of Buddhist thought were burned. "
Buddhism Asia - South 22,000,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 133. "Location: Sri Lanka; India; Nepal; Bhutan; Myanmar... Buddhists in South Asia number approximately 22 million people. They are present in all countries in the region, although their greatest concentration is in Sri Lanka. "
Christianity Asia - South 3,000,000 2.10% - - 1500 C.E. Walls, Andrew. "Christianity " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st published in 1984], pg. 71-72. "Figure 2.2: Geography and statistics of Christian profession, 1500-2000 " [showing both population in millions and percentage of total population]
Christianity Asia - South 109,100,000 7.60% - - 1980 Walls, Andrew. "Christianity " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st published in 1984], pg. 71-72. "Figure 2.2: Geography and statistics of Christian profession, 1500-2000 " [showing both population in millions and percentage of total population]
Christianity Asia - South 192,300,000 8.50% - - 2000 Walls, Andrew. "Christianity " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st published in 1984], pg. 71-72. "Figure 2.2: Geography and statistics of Christian profession, 1500-2000 " [showing both population in millions and percentage of total population; year 2000 figures are projections, made circa 1980]
Council for World Mission Asia - South 4,760,456 - 15,792
units
- 1999 *LINK* Web site: "Council for World Mission "; web page: "Churches " (viewed 31 May 1999). Added up memberships of constituent member bodies in South Asia region: Church of North India, Church of South India, Presbyterian Church of India, and Church of Bangladesh. "
Islam Asia - South 100,000,000 24.00% - - 1947 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 547. "Muslims in South Asia... Location: Pakistan; Bangladesh; India; Sri Lanka; Nepal; Bhutan; other countries of South Asia and worldwide "; "By 1847, Muslims in South Asia numbered an estimated 100 million people, roughly 24% of the peoples of the region. "
Islam Asia - South 199,000,000 27.00% - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 359. "Islam in South Asia... Islam is the second largest religion of the Asian subcontinent. According to recent census figures it claims in Pakistan 63 million out of a total population of 65 million; in Bangladesh, 64 million out of 77 million; and in India, 72 million out of 595 million, for a total of 199 million out of 737 million people... Moreover, among the worldwide Muslim community, South Asian Muslims constittue more than one third of its total membership (550 million)... "
Islam Asia - South 250,000,000 - - - 1983 Parshall, Phil. Bridges to Islam: A Christian Perspective on Folk Islam; Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House (1985) [2d printing. 1st printing: 1983], pg. 32. "India, Pakistan, & Bangladesh together have a pop. of a quarter of a billion Muslims... about one-third of the world's Islamic pop. These 3 countries, it must be understood, geographically & demographically constituted one entity prior to 1947. "
Islam Asia - South 400,000,000 - - - 1994 Lindsey, Hal. Planet Earth - 2000 A.D.. Palos Verdes, California: Western Front, Ltd. (1994), pg. 177. "Though Islam is Arab in origin, only one-fifth of the world's Muslims live in Arab countries. There are 400 million in Pakistan, Bangladesh and India. "
Islam Asia - South 375,000,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 547-548. "Muslims in South Asia... Pakistan; Bangladesh; India; Sri Lanka; Nepal; Bhutan... "; Pg. 548: "Muslims in South Asia today number around 375 million people. Of these, some two-thirds live in the two Muslim states in the region. Pakistan, in the west of the subcontinent, has 136 million Muslims, while Bangladesh, in the east, has a population of 106 million Muslims. "
Islam Asia - South 375,000,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 547. "Muslims in South Asia... Location: Pakistan; Bangladesh; India; Sri Lanka; Nepal; Bhutan; other countries of South Asia and worldwide; Population: 900 million worldwide; 375 million in South Asia "
Judaism Asia - South 25,000 - - - 1947 Gilbert, Martin (ed.) The Illustrated Atlas of Jewish Civilization: 4,000 Years of Jewish History. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. (1990), pg. 210. "There were about 25,000 Jews in the Indian subcontinent before partition in 1947. Most were members of one of three communities: the Iraqi-Jewish community living mainly in Bombay and Calcutta; the Beni Israel community, centered on the Konkan coast, Bombay state; and the Jews in Cochin, Kerala state, on the southern tip of India... Today there are no more than 5,000 Jews left in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. "
Judaism Asia - South 5,000 - - - 1990 Gilbert, Martin (ed.) The Illustrated Atlas of Jewish Civilization: 4,000 Years of Jewish History. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. (1990), pg. 210. "Today there are no more than 5,000 Jews left in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. "
Naga Asia - South 3,000,000 - - - 1997 *LINK* Gamming, Jenny. They have a flag-but no country " in Swedish Expressen, 17 Aug. 1997. (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site. Translated by SSF/Goran Hansson. "Nagaland is situated where the borders of India, China and Burma meet. The Naga People, who immigrated to Nagaland from Mongolia in the 10th century, consist of three million people. They belong to a different culture and race than the rest of the population in the area. When India became independent in 1947 the Nagas proclaimed their own independence but was, despite this, incorporated into India. Nagaland is still a part if India, much because of a massive presence of Indian military in Nagaland. "
Parsis Asia - South 80,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 627. "Parsis: Location: India (mainly Bombay); Pakistan; Population: 80,000; Religion: Zoroastrianism "; "Parsi (Parsee) is the name by which Zoroastrians in South Asia are known. "; "Parsis in South Asia are a small community, estimated to number around 80,000 people... Today, the community is almost exclusively urban, concentrated mainly in the city of Bombay. "
Santal Asia - South 4,000,000 - - - 1981 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 667, 669. "Santals: Alternate Name: Hor ko; Hor hopon ko; Manjhi; Location: India; Bangladesh; Population: Over 4 million (1981 census); Language: Santali; Religion: Native Santal religion with influences of Hinduism "; Pg. 669: "Christian missionary efforts among the Santals began during the 19th century, and just under 3% of Santals are now Christian. "
Santal religion Asia - South - - - - 1981 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 667, 669. "Santals: Alternate Name: Hor ko; Hor hopon ko; Manjhi; Location: India; Bangladesh; Population: Over 4 million (1981 census); Language: Santali; Religion: Native Santal religion with influences of Hinduism "; Pg. 669: "Christian missionary efforts among the Santals began during the 19th century, and just under 3% of Santals are now Christian. "
Shiite Asia - South 23,000,000 - - - 1994 Halm, Heinz. Shi'a Islam: From Religion to Revolution. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers (1997). Translated from German by Allison Brown. (German version publ. 1994 in Munich by Verlag C.H. Beck). Page ix-x. "...on the Indian subcontinent, there are larger islands of predominantly Shi'i populations in the Pakistani Punjab (approx. 5.5 million); other Shi'i populations exist in India, around Avadh (Oudh) north of the Ganges and around Hyderabad in the central Deccan peninsula, as well as the Kashmir region disputed by India and Pakistan (together approx. 23 million). "
Christianity Asia - South - Santals 120,000 3.00% - - 1981 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 667, 669. "Santals: Alternate Name: Hor ko; Hor hopon ko; Manjhi; Location: India; Bangladesh; Population: Over 4 million (1981 census); Language: Santali; Religion: Native Santal religion with influences of Hinduism "; Pg. 669: "Christian missionary efforts among the Santals began during the 19th century, and just under 3% of Santals are now Christian. "
Santal religion Asia - South - Santals 3,880,000 97.00% - - 1981 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 667, 669. "Santals: Alternate Name: Hor ko; Hor hopon ko; Manjhi; Location: India; Bangladesh; Population: Over 4 million (1981 census); Language: Santali; Religion: Native Santal religion with influences of Hinduism "; Pg. 669: "Christian missionary efforts among the Santals began during the 19th century, and just under 3% of Santals are now Christian. "
ancestor veneration Asia - Southeast - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 710. "In many tribal religions [of Southeast Asia] ancestor veneration is widely practices, and in some, several types of ancestral spirits are distinguished. "
Black Tai Asia - Southeast - - - 2
countries
1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 712. "For example, among the Black Tai of Laos and northern Vietnam there is a hereditay priesthood (mo) from which the chief priests are drawn... "
Brao Asia - Southeast 20,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 539-540. "The Brao tribes live in northeastern Cambodia and just across the border in Laos. The total Brao population is between 10,000 and 20,000, about evenly divided between Cambodia and Laos. "
Chong Asia - Southeast 5,500 - - - 1984 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 539-540, 544. "The Pearic group is made up of numerous smaller tribes totaling about 10,000 people. The Pear live in north central and Western Cambodia. The Chong live in the Cardamom Mountains in Battambang Province in northwest Cambodia and in neighboring Thailand... "; "The Chong, who numbered approximately 5,500 in 1984, are related to the Pear and Saoch... "; Pg. 544: "Most tribal groups now practice wet rice cultivation rather than horticulture and frequently intermarry with Khmer. Most Chong and Pear, for example, are not assimilated into Cambodian society. "
Hinduism Asia - Southeast - - - - 850 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 321. "The first major adaptation of Hindu religion in Southeast Asia came during the period from the ninth to the fourteenth centuries when the 'Indianized' civilizations of Southeast Asia held sway. Subsequently, Hindu religious elements were molded into a new syncretism with Islam in Java and were accorded a supporting role in the world views of Buddhism in mainland Southeast Asian societies. "
Hinduism Asia - Southeast - - - - 1150 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 321. "The eleventh and twelfth centuries saw the climax of Indianized civilizations with Angkor in Cambodia, Champa in southern Vietnam, Pagan in Burma, and Majapahit in Java. These civilizations were Indianzied not because they had been created or peopled by natives from the Indian subcontinent... but because their culture, art, architecture, and patterns of sociopolitical action had been formulated with reference to the thought of India. "
Hinduism Asia - Southeast - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 321. "While Hinduistic practices are still followed among a small number of Chams, in southern Vietnam and Cambodia, only among the Balinese in Indonesia did a distinctive Southeast Asian Hinduism remain and develop. During the nineteenth century migrants from India, many from Hindu backgrounds, began to settle in large numbers in several Southeast Asian states. Yet their Hinduism also underwent significant change as they adapted their religious practices to life in their new homes. "
Islam Asia - Southeast 76,000,000 - - - 1950 Zehavi, A.M. (editor) Handbook of the World's Religions. New York: Franklin Watts (1973), pg. 135. "Islam... In most areas there are no exact censuses, but approximate figures for the mid-20th century are as follows, by major groups:... in Indonesia and Southeast Asia, 76,000,000... "; [Indonesia IS PART OF Southeast Asia]
Islam Asia - Southeast - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 362. "Islam in Southeast Asia stretches east and south from Southern Thailand through Malaysia, Singapore, and the island chain of Indonesia, then to the north as far as the Southern Philippines. It predominates only in Malaysia and Indonesia, which together form a population of perhaps 150 million, the majority of whom are at least nominally Muslim. "
Karens Asia - Southeast 300,000 - - - 1997 *LINK* Gamming, Jenny. They have a flag-but no country " in Swedish Expressen, 17 Aug. 1997. (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site. Translated by SSF/Goran Hansson. "The 300,000 Karennis live mainly in the mountainous border area between Burma and Thailand. The Karenni State was independent prior to 1881 when it became a part of the British Empire. When Burma became independent in 1948 the Karenni State was incorporated in it. The Karenni People has never accepted this. "
Karens Asia - Southeast 300,000 - - - 1999 *LINK* Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site; web page: "Karenni State " (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). "Karenni State is situated between Burma and Thailand... The Karenni people, who with the Mon people are the oldest indigenous inhabitants of present day Burma, number approximately 300,000 people. "
Krung & Kravet Asia - Southeast 12,000 - - - 1984 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 539-540. "Mountain Mon-Khmer Groups: Location: Cambodia; Laos, Thailand; Viet Nam "; "The Krung and Kravet totaled about 12,000 in 1884. "; Pg. 540: The people of the hill tribes continue the traditional beliefs and practices of their ancestors... "
Kuy Asia - Southeast 100,000 - - - 1984 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 539-540. Chapter about Mountain Mon-Khmer Groups: "The Kui (Kuoy, Soai) number more than 100,000 in east-central Thailand, northeast Cambodia, and Laos. "; Pg. 540: The people of the hill tribes continue the traditional beliefs and practices of their ancestors... " [Year: 1984, similar to accompanying text this section?]
Kuy Asia - Southeast 300,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 539-540, 544. "Between 150,000 and 200,000 Kuy live in north central Cambodia in the provinces of Kampong Thom, Preah Vihear, and Stung Trung and in neighboring Thailand. Maybe half that number live in Cambodia-proper. "; Pg. 544: "Most Kuy living in Cambodia have been assimiliated into Cambodian culture, as Kuy living in Thailand have been incorporated into Thai society. Most Kuy practice wet rice cultivation, have converted to Buddhism, and speak both the national language and their tribal language. "
Moi Asia - Southeast 500,000 - - 3
countries
1968 Pinney, Roy. Vanishing Tribes. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1968), pg. 68. "In the mountains of central Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia live a number of primitive tribes whose total population is pehaps 500,000. They are called colectively by the Vietnamese word Moi, a generic term that means simply 'savage.' The Laotians call them the Kha and the Cambodians the Pnong. They live in the inaccessible jungle areas of the Indochina peninsula... "
Mon-Khmer hill tribespeople Asia - Southeast 100,000 - - - 1975 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 539-540. Chapter about Mon-Khmer Groups: "In the late 1960s, the hill people were estimated to number between 70,000 and 100,000. Present-day estimates of their numbers are about the same. Population figures are difficult to determine because of the geographical roughness of the terrain and its isolation from lowland Cambodians. "; Pg. 540: The people of the hill tribes continue the traditional beliefs and practices of their ancestors... "
Mon-Khmer hill tribespeople Asia - Southeast 100,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 539-540. "Mountain Mon-Khmer Groups: Alternate Names: Hill tribespeople; Location: Cambodia; Laos; Thailand; Viet Nam; Population: 70,000-100,000; Language: Mon-Khmer; Austronesian; Religion: Traditional spirit-based beliefs "; Pg. 540: The people of the hill tribes continue the traditional beliefs and practices of their ancestors. they believe that magical spirits live in the natural world, thus inhabiting rocks, mountains, rivers, and trees... "
Pearic Asia - Southeast 10,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 539-540. "The Pearic group is made up of numerous smaller tribes totaling about 10,000 people. The Pear live in north central and Western Cambodia. The Chong live in the Cardamom Mountains in Battambang Province in northwest Cambodia and in neighboring Thailand. The Saoch live in southern Cambodia. The Samre live in northwestern Cambodia, and the Suoi live in Cambodia. "
primal-indigenous Asia - Southeast - - - - 1966 Welty, Paul Thomas. The Asians: Their Heritage and Their Destiny (Revised Edition). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. (1966), pg. 289. "Followers of all the world's religions are to be found in Southeast Asia today, but the beliefs and practices of the vast majority of the people stem either from animism, Hinduism, buddhism, or Islam or from a combination of two or more of these religions... But regardless of which imported religion predominates, certain beliefs and practices indigenous to the various countries of Southeast Asia remain an integral part of the religious life of the people. this is particularly true of animism, which was the original religion of almost all the people of Southeast Asia. "
primal-indigenous Asia - Southeast - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 709-710. "There are well over a hundred different tribal groups on the mainland of Southeast Asia and their members speak languages belonging to a number of quite distinct languages (Austro-asiatic or Mon-Khmer, Tibeto-Burman, Austronesian or Malayo-Polynesian, Tai, Maio-Yao, Karen, and Viet-Muong). While all the tribal peoples of insular part of the region speak languages belonging to the same language family (Austronesian or Malayo-Polynesian), there are still over sixty distinct groups. While each tribal religion in Southeast Asia has unique characteristics which reflect adaptation and development in different contexts, these religions also share certain patterns... "
primal-indigenous Asia - Southeast - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 709. "In Southeast Asia, a region which includes the countries of Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines, and the British dependency of Brunei, there are several million people who adhere to religions which are communicated through oral rather than a written tradition. These religions are followed by tribal people who live mainly on the peripheries of the dominant societies; that is, by people who live in the mountainous regions of the larger islands and of the mainland of Southeast Asia or on the small isolated islands of the eastern archipelago. "
primal-indigenous Asia - Southeast - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 712. "For centuries tribal peoples in Southeast Asia have been steadily, if slowly, assimilated into neighboring Buddhist, Islamic, Sinitic, and Christian civilizations. The pace of change greatly accelerated from about the middle of the 19th century on, when the impact of the world economy and of colonial governments (except in Thailand, where indigenous rulers played much the same role) also began to be felt in previously remote areas. Christian missionaries have, where political conditions permitted, been very assiduous over the past century in taking their message to tribal peoples, and the changing political and economic situation has often made these peoples quite receptive to the Christian message. "
primal-indigenous - nomadic Asia - Southeast 10,000 - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 709. "In Southeast Asia, a region which includes the countries of Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines, and the British dependency of Brunei... A few tribal peoples--totaling perhaps not more than ten thousand--live in nomadic bands and support themselves through hunting and gathering in the forests of the region. While their numbers are small, the religions of such groups as the Negrito Semang on the Malay Peninsula, the Punan-Penan of Borneo, the elusive Mrabri of Yumbri (the 'spirits of the yellow leaves') of northern Thailand, and the recently 'discovered' Tasaday of Mindanao in the Philippines hold special interest because they reflect, at least in part, an adaptation to a hunting-and-gathering mode of existence. "
Qadiriya Asia - Southeast - - - - 1700 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 722. "The time of greatest influence for the Sufi orders... Ottoman and Mogul empires... 1500-1800. The number of Muslims affiliated with Sufi brotherhoods during this period was certainly not less than half the population and may have been as high as 80 percent... Distant Southeast Asia withstood any wide-scale Islamization until the late sixteenth century. But it as Qadiri and Shattari masters who succeeded in penetrating the complex Hindu-Javanese belief system of the archipelago. In fact, the belated ascendancy of mystical Islam in Indonesia aptly illustrates the flexibility of the shaikhs as agents in the spread of Islam. "
Shattari Asia - Southeast - - - - 1700 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 722. "The time of greatest influence for the Sufi orders... Ottoman and Mogul empires... 1500-1800. The number of Muslims affiliated with Sufi brotherhoods during this period was certainly not less than half the population and may have been as high as 80 percent... Distant Southeast Asia withstood any wide-scale Islamization until the late sixteenth century. But it as Qadiri and Shattari masters who succeeded in penetrating the complex Hindu-Javanese belief system of the archipelago. " [Different from Shadhili/Shadhiliyaa? "Shadhiliyaa " is mentioned a few sentences prior.]
Stieng Asia - Southeast 25,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 539-540. "The Stieng also number between 20,000 and 25,000 and live along the Cambodian-Vietnamese border. "
Tai Asia - Southeast - - - 2
countries
1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 709. "For the most part these tribal people live in village-based societies, but a few groups--e.g., the Tai of northern Laos and northern Vietnam--have been organized, at least until recently, into chiefdoms. "


Asia - Southeast, continued

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