Adherents.com - Religion by Location


Over 42,000 religious geography and religion statistics citations (membership statistics for over 4,000 different religions, denominations, tribes, etc.) for every country in the world.

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Japan, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Shinshu Kyo Japan - - - - 1921 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 112-113. "Kyoha Shinto: 'Sect Shinto'... In 1921... the official association of Shinto sects had 13 groups... list also included Izumo oyashiro-kyo, Jikko-kyo, Misogi-kyo, Shinshu-kyo, Shinto shuseiha and Shinri-rikyo. "
Shinshu Kyo Japan - - - - 1996 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 172. "Shinshu-kyo: Kami-practice-sect. A Meiji period Shinto new religious movement founded by Yoshimura, Masamochi (1839-1915), a member of the Shinto Onakatomi family. It received formal government recognition... in 1880... In focusing attention on the national rites, devotion to the emperor and the prosperity of the country Shinshu-kyo conformed closely with the aims of the taikyo undo. Today members undergo ascetic rituals of chinka-shiki, kugatachi-shiki, misogi and other forms of abstinence and meditation as methods of purification... "
Shinshu Kyo Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 136. "Sect Shinto consists of a wide range of sects with very different philosophies and practices. 13 are officially recognized... Shinshu Kyo and Misogi Kyo stress purification rites over everything else. "
Shinto Japan 18,000,000 - 16,000
units
- 1945 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 708. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] "The statistical totals for all sects combined show 18,000,000 adherents, 121,000 priests and teachers, and 16,000 churches. "
Shinto Japan - - - - 1945 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 282. "...since the American occupation following World War II, they have not been controlled by the government. In fact, it was only during the period from the Meiji Restoration of 1868 through the end of World War II that the government took any direct part in Shinto. "
Shinto Japan - - - - 1945 Stack, Peggy Fletcher. A World of Faith. USA: Signature Books (1998), pg. 45. "Shintoists... Thousands of shrines were built, honoring the various kami and the emperor. After Japan was defeated in World War II, however, the people stopped worshipping the emperor and made Shinto a religion of the people. "
Shinto Japan 77,780,320 89.42% - - 1953 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 368. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] Table: #s of adherents to major religious traditions "Numbers of people claimed by religious organizations as of 31 Dec. in a given year " [Note: figures consistently exceed pop. of Japan by up to 75% due to overlapping claims of Shinto & Buddhist org.]
Shinto Japan 76,844,824 83.74% - - 1958 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 368. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] Table: #s of adherents to major religious traditions "Numbers of people claimed by religious organizations as of 31 Dec. in a given year " [Note: figures consistently exceed pop. of Japan by up to 75% due to overlapping claims of Shinto & Buddhist org.]
Shinto Japan 80,284,640 83.49% - - 1963 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 368. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] Table: #s of adherents to major religious traditions "Numbers of people claimed by religious organizations as of 31 Dec. in a given year " [Note: figures consistently exceed pop. of Japan by up to 75% due to overlapping claims of Shinto & Buddhist org.]
Shinto Japan - - - - 1966 Welty, Paul Thomas. The Asians: Their Heritage and Their Destiny (Revised Edition). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. (1966), pg. 242. "Today shrines and temples exist peacefully together, representing to the Japanese mind not contradictions but only differences of function. Today in Japan a new baby may be taken to a Shinto priest for a religious service, but should he die, his funeral will be conducted by Buddhists priests. Many homes have both buddhist altars and Shinto sacred shelves. "
Shinto Japan - - - - 1966 Welty, Paul Thomas. The Asians: Their Heritage and Their Destiny (Revised Edition). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. (1966), pg. 243. "Shinto is not dead in Japan. It continues to grow and change and influence the lives of the Japanese people. "
Shinto Japan 83,458,688 82.36% - - 1968 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 368. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] Table: #s of adherents to major religious traditions "Numbers of people claimed by religious organizations as of 31 Dec. in a given year " [Note: figures consistently exceed pop. of Japan by up to 75% due to overlapping claims of Shinto & Buddhist org.]
Shinto Japan 68,311,816 67.00% - - 1969 Anderson, Norman (ed.). The World's Religions; Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. (1989). [1st pub. in 1950. 4th ed., completely revised, pub. 1975.] (Article: "Shinto " by Clark B. Offner.) Pg. 213. "the statistics given in the annual... Religious Yearbook cannot be accepted at face value owing to the questionable &... loose methods of... estimating adherents [but] 1969 Yearbook listing 68,311,818 adherents... about 2/3 of population... "
Shinto Japan 87,414,776 80.12% - - 1973 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 368. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] Table: #s of adherents to major religious traditions "Numbers of people claimed by religious organizations as of 31 Dec. in a given year " [Note: figures consistently exceed pop. of Japan by up to 75% due to overlapping claims of Shinto & Buddhist org.]
Shinto Japan - - 80,000
units
- 1975 Anderson, Norman (ed.). The World's Religions; Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. (1989). [1st pub. in 1950. 4th ed., completely revised, pub. 1975.] (Article: "Shinto " by Clark B. Offner.) Pg. 211. "Organizationally, the majority of Shinto shrines were soon joined together into a major, nation-wide shrine association which presently claims close to 80,000 members and a few national associations. "
Shinto Japan 98,545,704 85.56% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 368. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] Table: #s of adherents to major religious traditions "Numbers of people claimed by religious organizations as of 31 Dec. in a given year " [Note: figures consistently exceed pop. of Japan by up to 75% due to overlapping claims of Shinto & Buddhist org.]
Shinto Japan 3,800,746 3.30% - - 1979 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 379. "Another survey, conducted in 1979, asked people if they professed any religious faith. Affirmative replies [were] to 33.6%. " Most who said yes identified their faith as Buddhist (78.4%). Only 3.3% identified their faith as Shinto.
Shinto Japan - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 685. "The postwar period has been a difficult time for Shinto, and in modern homes the Shinto altar has been given up more frequently than the Buddhist altar (Butsudan). But some feel that the postwar changes present Shinto with the challenge it needs to form a new and vital tradition. Obligatory financing and participation in local shrines is no longer possible, and new forms of organzing local people along the lines of voluntary organizations are being tried. Shinto has long defined a distinctively Japanese spiritual tradition, and will continue to do so, both in Japanese culture generally as well as in its influence upon other religions, notably Buddhism and the new religions. "
Shinto Japan 85,000,000 - 81,000
units
- 1983 Dolan, Jr., Edward F. & Shan Finney. The New Japan; New York: Franklin Watts (1983), pg. 50. "Today, the Shinto religion claims about 85 million followers. Although few modern Japanese believe the Shinto legends, Shinto customs are still carried on... More than 81 thousand Shinto shrines... visited by worshipers & sightseers. "
Shinto Japan 115,602,000 95.54% 90,832
units
- 1985 *LINK* [Orig. source: The International Society for Educational Information, Inc., Tokyo (1998)] "Figures on religious orgs... in 1985 as reported by religious orgs. to the Agency for Cultural Affairs are as follows: Shinto Buddhism Christianity miscellaneous: Shrines, Temples & Churches: 90,832 84,613 8,616 42,027; Priests, Clergy & Ministers 102,000 269,000 22,000 253,000; Members: 115,602,000 92,065,000 1,688,000 14,444,000 "; "The total membership of all religious organizations exceeds the total population of the nation (121 million). The number of adherents to either Shinto or Buddhism alone comes close to the national population. This results from the fact that the same person is often counted as a member by the Shinto shrine of his neighbor hood and again by the Buddhist temple with which his ancestors became affiliated. (Christian church member ship, in principle, excludes affiliation with other religious groups.) "
Shinto Japan - - 81,000
units
- 1987 Bishop, Peter & Michael Darton (editors). The Encyclopedia of World Faiths: An Illustrated Survey of the World's Living Faiths. New York: Facts on File Publications (1987), pg. 293. "...an association of Shinto shrines was formed in 1946, to which at present about 80,000 shrines belong; about 1000 shrines remain independent. "
Shinto Japan - 40.00% - - 1992 Goring, Rosemary (ed). Larousse Dictionary of Beliefs & Religions (Larousse: 1994) pg. 581-584. Table: "Population Distribution of Major Beliefs "; "Figures have been compiled from the most accurate recent available information and are in most cases correct to the nearest 1% "
Shinto Japan - 3.00% - - 1992 *LINK* web site: "A Brief Survey of Religion in Modern Japan " (1998). By Paul A. Shew, December 1, 1992. (Waseda University, Tokyo) "In independent surveys where people are asked to state their own religion, there are the approximate results: Shinto 2-3%; Buddhism 20%; Christianity 1-2%; a new religion 10%; no religion 65% "
Shinto Japan 100,000,000 - - - 1992 Wolff, Michael. Where We Stand: Can America Make it in the Global Race for Wealth, Health, and Happiness? Bantam Books: New York (1992). Pg. 205. "In Japan, although Shintoism claims almost 100 million adherents and Buddhism nearly 90 million (more than the total Japanese population), polls indicate that fewer than 30% of Japanese people have any real religious beliefs. "
Shinto Japan - 27.00% - - 1992 Wolff, Michael. Where We Stand: Can America Make it in the Global Race for Wealth, Health, and Happiness? Bantam Books: New York (1992). Pg. 206-207. Chart
Shinto Japan 119,474,096 95.80% - - 1993 *LINK* Library of Congress Country Studies 124,711,551 [total pop.] (1993). Shinto 95.8 percent, Buddhist 76.3 percent (most observe both Shinto and Buddhist rites), and 12 percent other religions, including 1.4 percent Christian.
Shinto Japan - 80.00% - - 1995 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: Feb. `95 issue of GLOBAL PRAYER DIGEST); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) TOTAL POPULATION IN 1995: 126,319,000. Shinto: 80 percent -- (Overlaps with Buddhist); Buddhist: 58 percent; New Religions: (mostly Buddhist or Shinto offshoots) 24 percent; Muslim: 0.2 percent; Christian: 1.5 percent.
Shinto Japan 117,378,184 94.00% 85,668
units
- 1995 *LINK* web site: "Basic Facts Christianity in Japan at a Glance " (1998). 1996, 1997, 1998 Paul Tsuchido Shew. Source: 1995 Shukyo Nenkan (Religious Yearbook), Ministry of Education, Agency for Cultural Affairs, pp.30-31. Table: "Statistics on Religious Organizations in Japan as of December 31, 1995 "
Shinto Japan 117,670,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year. Pg. 781-783. Table; "Many Japanese practice both Shintoism and Buddhism, " so many people are double-counted
Shinto Japan - - - - 1996 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 173-174. "Shinto: A Sino-Japanese term meaning simply 'gods' or 'spirits'... There is little consensus on the meaning of Shinto by Western or Japanese scholars and in fact the term 'Shinto' has taken on a rather misleading aura of solidity and concreteness in Western writings that it has not enjoyed in Japan... Some scholars suggest we talk about type of Shinto such as popular Shinto, folk Shinto, domestic Shinto, sectarian Shinto, imperial household Shinto, shrine Shinto, state Shinto, new Shinto religions, etc. rather than regard Shinto as a single entity. This approach can be helpful but begs the question of what is meant by 'Shinto' in each case, particularly since each category incorporates... Buddhist, Confucian, Taoist, folk religious and other elements. "
Shinto Japan 112,000,000 93.33% - - 1996 Halverson, Dean C. (ed.) The Compact Guide to World Religions; Colorado Springs, Colorado: International Students Inc. (1996). [Publisher is an Evangelical missionary organization.] Pg. 206. "Only about 1.5 million of the 120 million Japanese declare themselves Christians. But 112 million adhere to Shinto. Many Japanese see themselves as followers of several religions, for 93 million are also Buddhists! "
Shinto Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 135-136. "The principal configurations of Shinto in modern times are Koshitsu, or State Shinto; Jinja, or Shrine Shinto; Kyoba, or Sect Shinto; and Minkan, or Popular Shinto. "
Shinto Japan - - 100,000
units
- 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 135. "Government-approved [Shinto] shrines alone number about 100,000, divided into 12 categories. "
Shinto Japan 105,615,544 84.00% - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) observe both Shinto and Buddhist 84%, other 16% (including Christian 0.7%); Total population: 125,732,794.
Shinto Japan - 80.00% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "; "There is considerable overlapping " between Shinto and Buddhism.
Shinto Japan - - - - 1998 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 281. "Polls asking Japanese in which religion they believe consistently yield results that total well over 100 percent -- most say they are followers of both Shinto and Budhism. Ask a Japanese how many gods there are, and the answer may be one or one thousand. Ask about the nature of the kamisama, or deities, that are worshipped, and a confused silence may result. There is no Japanese equivalent of the Bible or Koran, unless one counts the Kojiki (Record of Ancient Matters), which describes the mythological origins of the Japanese; even the most ardent ultranationalist does not accept the eighth-century chronicles as divine writ, however. "
Shinto Japan - - - - 1998 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 281. "A basic understanding of the Japanese religious sensibility must begin with Shinto -- not a 'national religion' in any current official sense (although it was once zealously nationalistic), but rather one that influences virtually ever aspect of Japanese culture and society. It is hard to give a simple definition of Shinto.. since it is not a systematized set of beliefs... The term shinto was not even invented until after the introduction of Buddhism, a date traditionally given as AD 552, and then only as a way of contrasting the native beliefs and the imported faith. In general, it can be said that Shinto shares with many other animistic beliefs the truth that all natural objects and phenomena possess a spiritual side. It is this animism, mixed with ancestor worship... that characterizes Shinto, then. "
Shinto Japan 100,000,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* web page: "The International Shinto Foundation Statement of Purpose " (viewed 1 March 1999). "Nearly 100 million Japanese identify with Shinto and its philosophy and culture have an immense influence on the nation's eonomic and sociological behavior. "
Shinto Japan - 94.00% - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "Basic Facts Christianity in Japan at a Glance " (1998). 1996, 1997, 1998 Paul Tsuchido Shew Table: "Statistical Variences of Religion Affiliation in Japan: Official Membership Statistics vs. Independent Survey Results " Official org. reporting, Shinto 94.%; survey of religious preference: 2-3%.
Shinto Japan - 3.00% - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "Basic Facts Christianity in Japan at a Glance " (1998). 1996, 1997, 1998 Paul Tsuchido Shew Table: "Statistical Variences of Religion Affiliation in Japan: Official Membership Statistics vs. Independent Survey Results " Official org. reporting, Shinto 94.%; survey of religious preference: 2-3%.
Shinto Japan - - - - 1999 *LINK* Japan Information Network website; "Religion and Customs " page. (Viewed 6 Oct. 1999) "Shinto no longer receives any official encouragement or privileges, though it still plays an important ceremonial role in many aspects of Japanese life. Shinto exists side by side with and sometimes overlaps in the popular mind with Buddhism. Many Japanese today go through Shinto rites when they marry and Buddhist funeral rites when they die. "
Shinto - clergy Japan 102,000 0.08% - - 1985 *LINK* [Orig. source: The International Society for Educational Information, Inc., Tokyo (1998)] "Figures... 1985 as reported by religious orgs. to the Agency for Cultural Affairs are as follows: Shinto Buddhism Christianity miscellaneous: Priests, Clergy & Ministers 102,000 269,000 22,000 253,000... total pop...121 mil. "
Shinto - clergy Japan 20,000 - - - 1996 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 172. "There are about 20,000 Shinto priests in Japan, the majority of whom serve more than one shrine and supplement their income by other employment... "
Shinto - government shrines Japan - - 209
units
- 1945 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 88. "Kansha: 'Government shrines'. A category of shrines identified as important by the Meiji government in 1871/2. Kansha were differentiated from shosha, general or miscellaneous shrines. In 1945 there were 209 kansha shrines and 109,824 shosha, of which over 105,000 were small 'village' or 'unranked' shrines. The kansha/shosha distinction was abolished in 1945 when Shinto was disestablished. "
Shinto - independent shrines Japan - - 1,000
units
- 1987 Bishop, Peter & Michael Darton (editors). The Encyclopedia of World Faiths: An Illustrated Survey of the World's Living Faiths. New York: Facts on File Publications (1987), pg. 293. "...an association of Shinto shrines was formed in 1946, to which at present about 80,000 shrines belong; about 1000 shrines remain independent. "
Shinto - Popular Japan - - - - 1996 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 123. "Minkan Shinko: 'Folk religion; 'Folk beliefs'. An academic category used to analyse the ocmplex interrelationships within Japanese religion. Minkan shinko may be defined as a developing substrate of folk-religious beliefs in Japan which incorporates elements from, yet transcends official distinctions between, 'Buddhism', 'Shinto', 'Taoism', 'Confucianism', 'Christianity' etc., and which manifests most powerfully today in the world-views and practices of the 'new religions'. It has been argued (notably by Hori, Ichiro) that folk religion, which Hori also calls 'popular Shinto' represents the true, indigenous and persistent character of 'Japanese religion.' "
Shinto - Popular Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 135-136. "The principal configurations of Shinto in modern times are Koshitsu, or State Shinto; Jinja, or Shrine Shinto; Kyoba, or Sect Shinto; and Minkan, or Popular Shinto... After Japan surrendered in 1945... Shrine Shinto continued to be practiced on a private level under the so-called Shinto Directive imposed by the victorious Allies... Although Shrine Shinto did not exist as a religious organization until after 1868, it is associated with the ancient forms of nature worship... Following the war, shrines were removed from government control and became dependent on support by the people. "
Shinto - Sect Japan - - - - 1921 "Kyoha Shinto: 'Sect Shinto'. An administrative category applied to certain religious groups. It emerged as a result of Meiji government legislation in 1876 designed to give all kinds of independent religious movements, some of which focused on a particular kami, a legal status... In 1921 the Kyoha Shinto Rengokai, the official association of Shinto sects had 13 groups, into which were forcibly incorporated many smaller groups which regrouped after 1945. The 13 sects included revelatory 'new' religious movements... such as Tenrikyo, Kurozumi-kyo and Konko-kyo together with sects which had begun as shrine-supporting networks... (e.g. Shinto Taisei-kyo, Ontake-kyo, Shinto Taikyo). Omoto-kyo which is sometimes listed as one of the 13 came under the auspices of Fuso-kyo. The list also included Izumo oyashiro-kyo, Jikko-kyo, Misogi-kyo, Shinshu-kyo, Shinto shuseiha and Shinri-rikyo. "
Shinto - Sect Japan 17,000,000 - - - 1939 Welty, Paul Thomas. The Asians: Their Heritage and Their Destiny (Revised Edition). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. (1966), pg. 243. "Prior to the war there were numerous Shinto sects and subsects with a total of about 17 million members. Although all the sects tech certain common doctrines, such as ritual purity and divinity in nature, they differ in their emphasis upon such things as the tradition of ancient Shinto, Confucian elements, worship of sacred mountains, purification, and faith healing. "
Shinto - Sect Japan 18,000,000 - - - 1983 Hopfe, Lews M. Religions of the World, Macmillan Publishing Co.: New York (1983) [3rd edition], pg. 281. "The adherents to these religions [Sectarian Shinto sects] are presently thought to number over 18 million; however statistics regarding religion are always suspect, and this is especially true in Japan... "
Shinto - Sect Japan - - - - 1996 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 112-113. "Kyoha Shinto: 'Sect Shinto'. An administrative category applied to certain religious groups... Numerous other sects [other than the official 13 of 1921] in modern Japan classified as 'sect Shinto' developed from or were classified under the thirteen recognised prewar sects and there are around fifty 'new sect shinto' organisations which began after 1945. In 1970 Tenri-kyo repudiated its Shinto identity. Kyoha shinto is also referred to as Shuha shinto. "
Shinto - Sect Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 135-136. "The principal configurations of Shinto in modern times are Koshitsu, or State Shinto; Jinja, or Shrine Shinto; Kyoba, or Sect Shinto; and Minkan, or Popular Shinto... Sect Shinto consists of a wide range of sects with very different philosophies and practices. 13 are officially recognized, from the so-called pure sects of Shinto Honkyoku, Shinri Kyo, and Taisha Kyo to the overtly Confucian-influenced sects Shusei Ha and Teisei Kyo. Hundreds of subsects were either subsumed by these or continue to thrive quietly alongside them. "
Shinto - Sect Japan - - - - 1998 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 282. "There are 13 mainstream Shinto sects and numerous sub-sects in Japan today, but since the American occupation following World War II, they have not been controlled by the government. "
Shinto - shosha shrines Japan - - 109,824
units
- 1945 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 88. "Kansha: 'Government shrines'. A category of shrines identified as important by the Meiji government in 1871/2. Kansha were differentiated from shosha, general or miscellaneous shrines. In 1945 there were 209 kansha shrines and 109,824 shosha, of which over 105,000 were small 'village' or 'unranked' shrines. The kansha/shosha distinction was abolished in 1945 when Shinto was disestablished. "
Shinto - Shrine Japan - - 98,966
units
- 1994 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 75-76. "Jinja Honcho: Usually translated into English as 'The Association of Shinto Shrines' or 'The Shrine Association', Jinja Honcho is the present co-ordinating or governing body for most of 'shrine Shinto'... More than 80% of shrines remain part of this national network. In 1993-4 the official Yearkbook of Religions (shukyo nenkan) gave the following statistics for incorporated shrines and individuals affiliated with Jinja Honcho... Shrines - 79,173... 'Kyoshi' (a loose term for 'clergy'...) - 20,336... 'Believers' - 82,631,196... It should be remembered that most of Jinja Honcho's 'Shinto' believers will also be among the 88 million or so who identify themselves in surveys as 'Buddhist' believers in a total population of ca.120 million. "
Shinto - Shrine Japan - - - - 1996 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 77-78. "Jinja shinto: 'Shrine Shinto'. One of a number of modern academic terms used in both the adminstration and analysis of Shinto... In the Shinto Directive it was one of the synonyms of 'state Shinto'. It has been defined by the Jinjo Honcho as 'the traditional religious practices carried on in shrines throughout Japan's history, as well as the attitudes to life which support these practices'... It is probably advisable to reserve the term 'shrine shinto' for the form of Shinto which has existed since 1945 in Japan in which shrines are on the same constitutional footing as all other religious institutions... In this sense, 'shrine Shinto' means the beliefs and practices currently associated with the shrines, particularly those who look to the Jinja Honcho for guidance. "
Shinto - Shrine Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 135-136. "The principal configurations of Shinto in modern times are Koshitsu, or State Shinto; Jinja, or Shrine Shinto; Kyoba, or Sect Shinto; and Minkan, or Popular Shinto. "
Shinto - State Japan - - - - 1888 Welty, Paul Thomas. The Asians: Their Heritage and Their Destiny (Revised Edition). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. (1966), pg. 242. "In 1882 Shinto was divided into Shrine Shinto, often referred to as State Shinto, and Sect Shinto, the traditional native religion. State Shinto was the official cult sponsored by the government for the purpose of inspiring in the Japanese single-minded obedience and loyalty to the emperor and, through him, to the state. Although it was placed above all other beliefs in Japan, officially it was declared not to be a religion. This distinction was somewhat artificial, because the same deities were worshipped and the same shrines honored in both sects; the division between the two Shintos was more political than religious. "
Shinto - State Japan - - - - 1938 Welles, Sam. The World's Great Religions, New York: Time Incorporated (1957), pg. 8. "In the period before the war in the Pacific it became customary to distinguish between religious and state Shinto... State Shinto, a nationalistic cult, focused on the divinity of the emperor. Most Japanese contended that state Shinto was essentially an expression of patriotism rather than a form of worship. The emperor or high officials would visit the shrine at Ise to report to Amaterasu, the sun goddess who, in terms of official mythology, was the great-great-grandmother of Jimmu Tenno, founder in the 7th Century B.C. of the imperial line. It was held that they were doing no more than discharging a duty of office which any Buddhist, Confucianist or even Christian might perform without disloyalty to his faith. "
Shinto - State Japan - - - - 1945 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 100. "Kokka shinto: A Japanese term used to translate the English 'state Shinto'. Unlike for example shuha shinto which was an administrative term used by the Japanese authorities to define and control certain Japanese religious groups, kokka shinto was a concept defined retrospectively and applied by the Occupation authorities in the Shinto Directive of 1945 to the post-Meiji religious system in Japan. In the Directive, state Shinto is defined as 'that branch of Shinto (Kokka Shinto or Jinja Shinto) which by official acts of the Japanese Government has been differentiated from the religion of sect Shinto and has been classified as a non-religious cult commonly known as State Shinto, National Shinto, or Shrine Shinto'. It is clear that there was no single term equivalent to 'State Shinto' at the time of the Directive... the term kokka shinto should be applied with caution; it does not adequately capture the Meiji - 1945 religious situation...'
Shinto - State Japan - - - - 1945 Welty, Paul Thomas. The Asians: Their Heritage and Their Destiny (Revised Edition). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. (1966), pg. 243. "State or Shrine Shinto, abolished in December 1945, is attempting to become Sect Shinto, a religion with an ethical content and an organized priesthood. Most of its individual shrines are now incorporated as religious bodies, and thousands of them have formed an association with headquarters in Tokyo. Shrine Shinto is also giving a good deal of attention to social work of all kinds. "
Shinto - State Japan - - - - 1996 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 188. "State Shinto: An analytical concept used since 1946 in Shinto studies in at least three different ways. (1) According to some Shinto theologians State Shinto (kokka shinto) was a relatively short-lived phenomenon which began in 1900 with the etablishment of a Shrine Office (Jinja kyoku)... and ended completely under the Occupation in 1945. (2) Other scholars mean by 'State Shinto' the 77 years of overt state sponsorship of Shinto from 1868 to 1945... (3) Even more broadly, the term State Shinto may be used to mean an ideology which promotes Shinto as integral to the state an natural to Japanese people of whatever religion, i.e. Shinto nationalism, a view which originated within the National Learning movmenet, flourished from 1868-1945, persists today and is reflected in unofficial government sponsorship of Shinto and may be rekindled in the future. "
Shinto - State Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 135-136. "The principal configurations of Shinto in modern times are Koshitsu, or State Shinto; Jinja, or Shrine Shinto; Kyoba, or Sect Shinto; and Minkan, or Popular Shinto... Following the Imperial Restoration of 1868, Buddhism was denounced, Shinto was made the official state religion, and the emperor was worshiped as a god. This State Shinto had obvious consequences in building popular support for the Japanese war effort... After Japan surrendered in 1945, Shinto lost its role as state religion... "
Shinto - Taisha shrines Japan - - 65
units
- 1945 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 194. "Taisha: 'Grand Shrine'. One of the shrine-title (shago). In 'Japanese' reading O-yashiro. From 1871-2 taisha referred to a sub-category of the 209 kansha (governmental) shrines. By 1945 there were 65 shrines thus classified as 'taisha' type, though the only shrine which actually had Taisha as part of its name was the Izumo Taisha or Izumo O-yashiro. "
Shinto - Taisha shrines Japan - - 78
units
- 1996 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 194. "Taisha: 'Grand Shrine'... By 1945 there were 65 shrines thus classified as 'taisha' type... Since the war the Jinja Honcho has allowed a dozen other major shrines within its jurisdiction to take the name -Taisha... In addition there is the Fushimi-Inari-Taisha, which is not affiliated to Jinja Honcho. "
Shinto Honkyoku Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 136. "Sect Shinto consists of a wide range of sects with very different philosophies and practices. 13 are officially recognized, from the so-called pure sects of Shinto Honkyoku, Shinri Kyo, and Taisha Kyo to the overtly Confucian-influenced sects Shusei Ha and Teisei Kyo. "
Shinto Taikyo Japan - - - - 1921 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 112-113. "Kyoha Shinto: 'Sect Shinto'... In 1921... the official association of Shinto sects had 13 groups... included... sects which had begun as shrine-supporting networks formed by shrine administrators (e.g. Shinto Taisei-kyo, Ontake-kyo, Shinto Taikyo).... "
Shinto Taikyo Japan - - - - 1996 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 177. "Shinto Taikyo: 'Great Teachings of Shinto'. One of the 13 groups of 'sect Shinto'... An organization with no single founder, it was etablished in 1873 by pro-Shinto Meiji administrators as the 'Temple of the Great Teaching' (Taikyo-in) to organise the missionary activities of the 'Great Prompulgation Campaign'... After the second world war Shinto Taikyo reformed its teachings to emphasise a way of peace founded on respect for the emperor... It was recognised as a shukyo hojin in 1951. In deference to its origins Shinto Taikyo is regarded as the representative of all the sect Shinto groups. "
Shinto Taisei-kyo Japan - - - - 1882 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 178. "Shinto taisei-kyo: 'Accomplishment of the Way of the Kami'. A religious group founded by Hirayama, Seisai or Shosai (1815-1890), a high-ranking member of the last Tokugawa government... After the collapse of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1868 he turned to ascetic religious practices including standing under a cold waterfall. Shinto taisei-kyo advocated service to the nation and conduct pleasing to the kami, and was recognised as a Shinto sect in 1882. "
Shinto Taisei-kyo Japan - - - - 1921 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 112-113. "Kyoha Shinto: 'Sect Shinto'... In 1921... the official association of Shinto sects had 13 groups... included... sects which had begun as shrine-supporting networks formed by shrine administrators (e.g. Shinto Taisei-kyo [Taisha Kyo], Ontake-kyo, Shinto Taikyo).... "
Shinto Taisei-kyo Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 136. "Sect Shinto consists of a wide range of sects with very different philosophies and practices. 13 are officially recognized, from the so-called pure sects of Shinto Honkyoku, Shinri Kyo, and Taisha Kyo [Taisei-kyo] to the overtly Confucian-influenced sects Shusei Ha and Teisei Kyo. "
Shugendo Japan - - - 1
country
1988 *LINK* Takafumi,Iida. "Folk Religion Among the Koreans in Japan The Shamanism of the 'Korean Temples' " in Japanese Journal of Religious Studies June-September 1988 15/2-3. (Viewed on JJRS web site, 30 Jan. 1999) "There are also some [Koreans residents of Japan] who are involved in Shugendo organizations. Shugendo is a traditional syncretistic Japanese mountain religion which emphasizes practicing religious austerities in the mountains, and actively participate in ascetic practices in the mountains or under waterfalls. People who have become simbang through cultivating shugen practices have created their own unique folk religion temples. These are [among] the many so-called 'Korean temples' found in the mountains near Osaka. "
Shugendo Japan - - - - 1996 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 184. "Shugendo: The traditional religious system followed by orders of mountain-based magico-religious ascetics called yamabushi. Shugendo incorporated Buddhist, Taoist and kami-based beliefs and practices. It was severely damaged by shinbutsu bunri from 1868 but survives in some parts of Japan. "
Shusei Ha Japan - - - - 1375 C.E. *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "SHUSHI SCHOOL: the ORTHODOX School of JAPANESE CONFUCIANISM introduced by ZEN monks in the fourteenth century and adopted by the Tokagawa Shogunate as the official system of Japanese morality. "
Shusei Ha Japan - - - - 1921 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 112-113. "Kyoha Shinto: 'Sect Shinto'... In 1921... the official association of Shinto sects had 13 groups... list also included Izumo oyashiro-kyo, Jikko-kyo, Misogi-kyo, Shinshu-kyo, Shinto shuseiha and Shinri-rikyo. "


Japan, continued

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