Adherents.com Home Page

Adherents.com - Religion by Location


Over 42,000 religious geography and religion statistics citations (membership statistics for over 4,000 different religions, denominations, tribes, etc.) for every country in the world.

To Index

back to Japan, Protestant

Japan, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Protestant Japan 1,000,000 - - - 1994 *LINK* Japan Information Network website; "Religion and Customs " page. (Viewed 6 Oct. 1999) "Among Christians in Japan, it was estimated that there were 440,000 Catholics and around 1 million Protestants as of the end of 1994. "
Protestant Japan 527,408 0.42% 2,597
units
- 1995 *LINK* web site: "Basic Facts Christianity in Japan at a Glance " (1998). 1996, 1997, 1998 Paul Tsuchido Shew. Source: 1995 Shukyo Nenkan (Religious Yearbook), Ministry of Education, Agency for Cultural Affairs, pp.30-31. Table: "Statistics on Religious Organizations in Japan as of December 31, 1995 "; "Total population of Japan 125,034,000 "
Protestant Japan - 1.00% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "
Protestant - affiliated Japan 233,000 - - - 1940 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 387. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] "Statistics covering the status of Protestant denominations at the close of 1940 showed 233,000 members of churches, 1,931 organized churches, and 951 self-supporting churches. "
Pure Land Buddhism Japan 18,500,000 - - - 1956 Hutchinson, John A. Paths of Faith; New York: McGraw-Hill (1969), pg. 275. [Orig. source: Morgan, Kenneth W. (ed.), "The Path of the Buddha "; New York: The Ronald Press Co. (1956), pg. 332-333.] "Today Pure Land Buddhists number some 18,500,000 adherents. Of these, 77 percent are Shin and 16 percent are Jodo, with the rest spread over several smaller groups. "
Pure Land Buddhism Japan - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 587. "The Pure Land sects in Japan have split into many different ecclesiastical groups, each with its own doctrinal emphases and religious traditions... The Pure Land groups have more members than any other Japanese Buddhist sects, and Pure Land devotion such as the nembutsu is practiced by many people not formally affiliated with the Pure Land sects. "
Pure Land Buddhism Japan 18,856,386 15.12% - - 1993 O'Brien, J. & M. Palmer. The State of Religion Atlas. Simon & Schuster: New York (1993). Pg 26-27. "Shares of Buddhist sect membership in Japan, 1981: Tendai: 30%; Nichiren: 30%; Pure Land: 18%; Shingon: 10%; Zen: 8%; Nara: 4%. " Percentages and numbers made using est. of 84% of Japan being Buddhist, total pop. of country: 124,711,551 (1993).
Pure Land Buddhism Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 123. Chapter: Buddhism. "The most popular school of Buddhism in China and Japan today is commonly known as Pure Land. "
Raelian Japan 4,000 - - - 1995 *LINK* web site: "New Religious Movements " (University of Virginia); web page: "Raelians " (viewed 31 Jan. 1999); "Created by Faye Whittemore For Sociology 497, Fall 1998 " "Size of Group:... the figure offered by Susan Palmer, a sociologist who has studied the group... Japan (4,000 members), and Quebec (4,000 members). "
Ramakrishna Order Japan - - 1
unit
- 1998 *LINK* official organization web site Counted from "Ramakrishna Order Centers in the West " list
Reiyukai Japan 3,000,000 - - - 1969 Hutchinson, John A. Paths of Faith; New York: McGraw-Hill (1969), pg. 294. "Several other less extreme offshoots of Nichiren are among the new religions. Among these are Reiyukai, or the 'Association of the Friends of the Spirit, " which claims some three million adherent... "
Reiyukai Japan 2,838,000 2.46% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 373. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " Classified as Buddhist new religion (year of origin: 1923).
Reiyukai Japan - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 537. "Offshoots of Nichiren Buddhism total nineteen, including the popular 'new religions' such as Reiyukai, Rissho Koseikai, and Myochikai Kyodan. "
Reiyukai Japan - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 609-610. "Reiyukai (Japanese; lit. 'friends of the spirit association'). A movement within Nichiren Buddhism, founded in Tokyo in 1925 by Kubo Kakutaro (1890-1944)... It was perhaps the most successful new religion prior to and during World War II, when, unlike most other movements, it was free from interference by the government. However, being prone to schism prone, it has been weakened by frequent defections... Under the presidency of the founder's son, Kubo Tsuginari... Reiyukai has been modernized and regenerated, with an influx of young people. A training center has been built on the Izu Peninsula. A sophisticated periodical, Inner Trip, attracts a wide leadership. The headquarters are in Tokyo. "
religious Japan 38,698,500 33.60% - - 1979 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 379. "Another survey, conducted in 1979, asked people if they professed any religious faith. Affirmative replies [were] to 33.6%. " Most who said yes identified their faith as Buddhist (78.4%). Only 3.3% identified their faith as Shinto.
Revival Fellowship Japan - - 1
unit
- 1998 *LINK* official organization web site directory of assemblies (or contacts?). This is the number of listings in a particular country, but I'm not sure it can be taken as a count of congregations.
Rinzai Japan - - - - 1150 C.E. *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "RINZAI: one of the two most important SECTS in ZEN BUDDHISM founded in China in the ninth century and introduced to Japan during the twelfth century. "
Rinzai Japan - - - - 1300 C.E. Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 285. "Zen... Two Buddhist priests in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries -- Eisai, founder of the Rinzai Zen sect, and his disciple Dogen, who established the Soto Zen sect -- are given the lion's share of credit for bringing the principle of 'emptiness' into Japanese Buddhism. "
Rinzai Japan 2,530,000 - 5,979
units
- 1945 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 104. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] "The Japanese Obaku Sect, founded by Ingen in 1654, has 587 temples and 120,000 adherents, while Soto has 14,257 and 6,848,000 and Rinzai has 5,979 and 2,530,000 respectively. "
Rinzai Japan 2,350,000 - - - 1956 Hutchinson, John A. Paths of Faith; New York: McGraw-Hill (1969), pg. 275. [Orig. source: Morgan, Kenneth W. (ed.), "The Path of the Buddha "; New York: The Ronald Press Co. (1956), pg. 339.] "Zen was imported into Japan... by Eisai... founder of Rinzai sect; in 1244 by Dogen, who founded Soto; and in 1654 by Ingen, founder of the obaku school of Zen. Today the Rinzai sect claims 2,350,000 adherents, Soto 6,750,000, and Obaku about 100,000. "
Rinzai Japan - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 290. "Rinzai school - one of the most important schools of Ch'an (Zen). It originated with the great Chinese Ch'an master Lin-chi I-hsuan (Jap., Rinzai Gigen) and was one of the goke-shichishu. At the beginning of the 11th century the Rinzai school split into two lineages, the Rinzai Yogi lineage and the Rinzai Oryo lineage. The Rinzai school is one of the two schools of Zen still active in Japan. "
Rissho Koseikai Japan 5,081,286 4.41% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 373. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " Classified as Buddhist new religion (year of origin: 1938).
Rissho Koseikai Japan - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 537. "Offshoots of Nichiren Buddhism total nineteen, including the popular 'new religions' such as Reiyukai, Rissho Koseikai, and Myochikai Kyodan. "
Rissho Koseikai Japan - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 537. "Offshoots of Nichiren Buddhism total nineteen, including the popular 'new religions' such as Reiyukai, Rissho Koseikai, and Myochikai Kyodan. "
Rissho Koseikai Japan - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 291. "Rissho Koseikai - Jap., lit. 'Society for the Establishment of Justice and Community for the Rise [of Buddha]'; a modern Buddhist folk movement of Japan, which is based on the teachings of Nichiren. It was founded in 1938 by Niwano Nikkyo (b. 1906) and Naganuma Myoko (1889-1957)... administers organizations for social assistance and education and has its own publishing facilities and journals. "
Rissho Koseikai Japan - - - - 1991 *LINK* Wilson, Andrew (ed). "The World Religions and their Scriptures " in World Scripture. International Religious Foundation, 1991. (viewed 9 July 1999) "Several Buddhist lay movements are offshoots of the branch of Japanese Buddhism founded by Nichiren (1222-1282) and rely upon the Lotus Sutra as their scripture. These include Rissh-o K-osei Kai, whose leader, Nikky-o Niwano, has been much involved in international peace movements... "
Ritsu Japan - - - - 745 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 209. "Lu-tsung - Chin., roughly 'school of discipline'; school of Chinese Buddhism originated by Tao-hsuan (596-667)... Although the school is of Hinayana origin, it was also regarded as authoritative by the Mahayana schools of China. The teachings of this school were brought to Japan in 745 by Chien-chen (Ritsu school). "
Ritsu Japan - - - - 784 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 524. "The six Nara Buddhist schools. Six scholarly disciplines were pursuied by a small number of monks at designated home temples in Nara. They were extensions of Chinese scholarship... Kusha... Jojitsu... Sanron... Hosso... Kegon... Ritsu (Chin.: Lu; Skt. Vinaya) School. Dedicated to the study of Hinayanist monastic precents or disciplines... "
Ritsu Japan - - - - 1282 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 538. "Nichiren Buddhism has been criticized as... intolerant... Nichiren condemned other sects in the stinging phrase: Nembutsu mugen, Zen tenma, Shingon bokoku, Ritsu kokuzoku (the Nembutsu--Amida Buddhism--is hell; Zen is a devil; Shingon is the nation's ruin; and Ritsu is treason).' "
Ritsu Japan - - - - 1290 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 609-624. "Ritsu (Jap.; lit. 'discipline'; translation of the Skt. vinaya). One of the schools of Nara Buddhism. A Reformed Ritsu School was founded by Eison (1201-1290) on the basis that one can informally vow to live by the Buddhist discipline. "
Ritsu Japan - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 291. "Ritsu school - Jap., lit. 'discipline school'; school of Japanese Buddhism that developed out of the original Chinese form of this school (Lu-tsung). It was brought to Japan in the year 754 by... Chien-chen... The Ritsu school survives until the present but has never been of great importance... "
Ritsu Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 122. Chapter: Buddhism. "By the Nara period (710-94), six schools had been brought over from China: Sanron and Jojitsu (both established in 624), Hosso (654), Kusha (658), Kegon (736), and Ritsu (754); Jojitsu, Kusha, and Ritsu were Hinayana, the other three Mahayana. Of the six, only Hosso, Kegon, and Ritsu have survived in modern Japan, and these have only historical significance and slight membership. "
Ryobu Shinto Japan - - - - 575 C.E. Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 283. "As early as the sixth century, for example, Ryobu Shinto began to emerge as a syncretic compromise with Buddhism. In this hybrid belief system, kamisama were regarded as temporary manifestations of the Buddhist deities. "
Ryobu Shinto Japan - - - - 1300 C.E. Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 145. "Ryobu Shinto: 'Two-sided' or 'Dual' Shinto. The full name is Ryobu shugo shinto or Daishiryu-shinto. An interpretation of kami beliefs and practices developed in the Kamakura period and maintained by the Shingo school of esoteric Buddhism... "
Ryobu Shinto Japan - - - - 1300 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 633. "Ryobu Shinto... In medieval Japan a syncretistic coordination of Buddhist divinities with the Kami of Japanese religion. For example, the Sun Goddess Amaterasu was equated with the Sun Buddha Vairocana, and the inner and outer shrines at Ise came be be regarded as representing the two Mandalas of Shingon. "
Ryobu Shinto Japan - - - - 1994 *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "RYOBU-SHINTO: a SYNCRETISTIC movement which sought to unify JAPANESE SHINT with BUDDHISM. It was suppressed during the Meiji period from 1868-1912 although certain FORMS still prosper today. "
Saijo Inari-kyo Japan 286,270 0.25% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 373. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " Classified as Buddhist new religion (year of origin: 1951).
Sanno Ichijitsu Shinto Japan - - - - 1943 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 153. "Sanno ichijitsu shinto: Also known as Tendai Shinto, Hie Shinto, Sanno Shinto. A tradition of ritual, cosmology and art which developed within the esoteric Tendai tradition based at Mt. Hiei, whose guadian deity sanno... was regarded as a manifestation or avatar of Shakyamuni Buddha... Twenty-one shrines on Mt. Hiei are considered to be gongen of various bosatsu and buddhas. The main proponent of Sanno-ichijitsu-shinto was the Edo period monk Tenkai (Jigen Daishi, 1536-1643) who built the Nikko Toshugu to enshrine Tokugawa, Ieyasu according to Sanno ichijitsu rites. "
Sanron Japan - - - - 624 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 122. Chapter: Buddhism. "By the Nara period (710-94), six schools had been brought over from China: Sanron and Jojitsu (both established in 624), Hosso (654), Kusha (658), Kegon (736), and Ritsu (754); Jojitsu, Kusha, and Ritsu were Hinayana, the other three Mahayana. Of the six, only Hosso, Kegon, and Ritsu have survived in modern Japan, and these have only historical significance and slight membership. "
Sanron Japan - - - - 625 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 305. "Sanron school from Jap. sanron, 'three treatises'; the Japanese form of the Chinese San-lun school, which in turn comes from the Indian Madhyamaka. This school was brought to Japan by the Korean monk Ekwan in the year 625 and further spread there by two of his students. These two set in motion two currents within the Sanron school (Jojitsu school). The Sanron in Japan was never an independently organized school; its teachings were studied by followers of all Buddhist schools... The Sanron school was a major influence on Prince Shotoku (574-622), who unified Japan. "
Sanron Japan - - - - 650 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 303-304. "San-lun school - Chin., lit. 'School of Three Treatises'... In the 7th century it was brought to Japan by Ekwan, a Korean student of Chi-tsang's. After the appearance of the Fa-hsiang school, the San-lun school decreased in importance. "
Sanron Japan - - - - 784 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 524. "The six Nara Buddhist schools. Six scholarly disciplines were pursuied by a small number of monks at designated home temples in Nara. They were extensions of Chinese scholarship... Kusha... Jojitsu... Sanron (Chin.: San-lun, Three Treatises) school. The Mahayana Madhyamika (Middle Path) philosophy of emptiness committed to a systematic negation of any positon by exposing the antinomies innate to 'realist' thinking, thereby endorsing the nonduality of samsara and nirvana as well as other opposites and encouraging a freedom based on nongrasping (of anything as absolute)... Hosso... Kegon... Ritsu... "
Scientology Japan - - 2
units
- 1999 *LINK* web page (OPPOSING VIEW): "Scientology Worldwide " (viewed 13 Feb. 1999); "Last Update on 10th Feb. 1999 " Number here ( "# congregations ") represent total of all orgs: Dianetic Centers, Celebrity Centers, missions, etc.; "CoS web sites have lists of Missions (1998) & Orgs (1996) from which the Table below is derived. Original concept and research by 'Inducto'. "
sects Japan - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 11). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1495. "It is not easy to say just how many new sects there are in Japan... estimates of new movements still vary from 170 to more than 700. "
Seicho-No-Ie Japan - - - - 1930 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 669. "Seicho no Ie had its official beginning in 1930 when Taniguchi began to publish a magazine bearing this name. The initial subscribers became the charter members of the new movement. From its headquarters in Kobe it was moved to Tokyo in 1934 and has remained centered there. The decade of the 1930s, a time of impressive growth for Seicho no Ie, saw also the rapid escalation of Japanese militarism and imperialism "
Seicho-No-Ie Japan 3,242,911 2.82% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 373. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " Classified as "other " new religion. Listed as "Seicho no Ie ".
Seicho-No-Ie Japan - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 669. "Because of the apparent implication in the war effort Taniguchi and some of his staff were purged in 1945 by the Occupation officials. Though Seicho no Ie suffered some decline in the immediate postwar period, Taniguchi was able to hold his organization together and when the Occupation ended in 1952 was fully ready to resume his publishing activities. Since then the movement has grown remarkably, with a special appeal to middle- and upper-middle-class Japanese, including a notable number of intellectuals. "
Seicho-No-Ie Japan - - - - 1991 *LINK* Wilson, Andrew (ed). "The World Religions and their Scriptures " in World Scripture. International Religious Foundation, 1991. (viewed 9 July 1999) "The doctrines of Seicho-no-Ie, that mind is the sole reality and that the body can be healed through faith and mental purification, bear a marked resemblance to those of Christian Science. The teachings of its founder Masaharu Taniguchi, who had also been a member of Omoto Kyo, are represented by the Nectarean Shower of Holy Doctrines, Song of the Angel, and Holy Sutra for Spiritual Healing. "
Seicho-No-Ie Japan 3,000,000 - - - 1993 Clarke, Peter B. (editor), The Religions of the World: Understanding the Living Faiths, Marshall Editions Limited: USA (1993); pg. 208. "Seicho No Ie is found in many countries. In Japan its following is about three million... "
Sekai Kyuseikyo Japan - - - - 1935 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 670. "Sekai Kyusei-kyo; Sekai Meshia-kyo. A religious movement founded by Okada Mokichi (1882-1955), who was known as the Meishu-sama ('spiritual leader'). It heralded the creation of an ideal world--a paradise on earth characterized by peace, health, prosperity, and beauty--through the purifying power of a divine light... Okada... left Omoto in 1934 and in the following year formed his own organization, Dai Nihon Kannon Kai (lit. 'Great Japan Kannon Association')... forced to curtail his activities for the duration of World War II. In the new freedom of postwar Japan, Okada resumed his work with great success. In 1950 he adopted a new name for his flourishing movment, Sekai Kyusei-kyo or Sekai Meshiya-kyo... "
Sekai Kyuseikyo Japan 803,841 0.70% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 373. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " Classified as "other " new religion (neither Shinto nor Buddhist); origin year: 1934.
Sekai Kyuseikyo Japan - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 670. "Sekai Kyusei-kyo... As a symbol and foretaste of the new age, the World Messianity Church has built two mini-paradises in Hakone and Atami, both beautiful resort areas. The tombs of the founder and his wife and an excellent art museum are located at Hakone. Administrative offices, as well as a great sanctuary and a second art museum, are at Atami. A training center and school have been established at Kyoto. "
Sekai Kyuseikyo Japan - - - - 1991 *LINK* Wilson, Andrew (ed). "The World Religions and their Scriptures " in World Scripture. International Religious Foundation, 1991. (viewed 9 July 1999) "Sekai Kyusei Kyo, The Church of World Messianity, was founded by Mokichi Okada (1882-1955), a former staff member of Omoto Kyo who in 1926 received revelations and was empowered to be a channel of God's Healing Light (jorei) to remove illness, poverty, and strife from the world and inaugurate a new messianic age. Okada's teaching is represented by the scripture Johrei, which has been edited and translated by the Society of Johrei, an offshoot of Okada's movement. "
Sekai Kyuseikyo Japan - - - - 1996 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 157. "Sekai Kyusei-kyo: Religion for the Salvation of the World. A religious movement originally founded by a former Omoto member Okada, Mokishi (1882-1955) following a revalation from Kannon. In 1928 he set up the Great Japan Association for the Worship of the Bodhisattva Kannon (Dainihon Kannon-kai)... In 1950 following a schism Okada formed Sekai Meshiya kyo 'Religion of World Messiah-ship', a name later changed to Sekai Kyusei-kyo... The organisation is usually known in the West under the initials MOA (Mokishi Okada Association). "
Sekai Mahikari Bunmei Kyodan Japan - - - - 1991 *LINK* Wilson, Andrew (ed). "The World Religions and their Scriptures " in World Scripture. International Religious Foundation, 1991. (viewed 9 July 1999) "The founder of Mahikari, Yoshikazu Okada (1901-1974), was a member of Sekai Kyusei Kyo before receiving his own revelations in 1959... The two sects Mahikari [i.e. Sekai Mahikari Bunmei Kyodan] and Sukyo Mahikari both practice a nearly identical form of healing called okiyome... "
Shin Japan 13,327,000 - 19,815
units
- 1945 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 105. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] "Pure Land School [of Buddhism]:... Minor differences exist in the four Japanese sects of Jodo (8,245 temples & 3,646,000 adherents), Shin (19,815 & 13,327,000), Yuzenembutsu (357 & 153,000), and Ji (494 & 350,000). "
Shin Japan 14,245,000 - - - 1956 Hutchinson, John A. Paths of Faith; New York: McGraw-Hill (1969), pg. 275. [Orig. source: Morgan, Kenneth W. (ed.), "The Path of the Buddha "; New York: The Ronald Press Co. (1956), pg. 332-333.] "Today Pure Land Buddhists number some 18,500,000 adherents. Of these, 77 percent are Shin and 16 percent are Jodo, with the rest spread over several smaller groups. "
Shin Japan - - - - 1957 Welles, Sam. The World's Great Religions, New York: Time Incorporated (1957), pg. 57. "Shin shu is the most powerful [Buddhist] sect [in Japan], counting the greatest number of temples, monks and teachers. It believes in the Amitabha Buddha and the madonna-like Kuan Yin. "
Shin Japan - - - - 1966 Welty, Paul Thomas. The Asians: Their Heritage and Their Destiny (Revised Edition). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. (1966), pg. 244. "Buddhism entered Japan as both a bearer and an aspect of Chinese culture and is fundamentally the same as in China. It is divided into various sects, of which the largest and most popular today is the Shin-shu. Shin-shu follows the Chinese type of Mahayana Buddhism and teaches salvation by faith in Amitabha Buddha. It is a ceremonial and pageant-loving sect. "
Shin Ritsu Japan 58,000 - 23
units
- 1945 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 98. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] "The School belongs to the Hinayana and hardly exists in China as an independent sect. It has 23 temples and 58,000 adherents in Japan where it is called Shin Ritsu (New Disciplinary School) since it was reformed by Eison, 1201-1290... "
Shingaku Japan - - - - 1868 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 681. "Shingaku (Jap.; lit. 'heart [mind] learning'). A religious and ethical movement begun by Ishida Baigan (1685-1744) in 1729 and ocntinuing until about the time of the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Its principle appeal was to merchants living in cities, initially in Kyoto and Osaka, later in Tokyo and other major cities throughout Japan; but it also affected the peasantry and samurai and left a residue of influence in the ethics textbooks of the new public school system developed by the Meiji government. "
Shingaku Japan - - - - 1868 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 681. "While Ishida was Shingaku's founder and tone-setter, the movement owed much of its effectiveness and longevity to the organizational skill of one of his pupils, Teshima Toan (1718-1786)... [who] aided the movement most by giving it structure. The result was a controlled extension of Shingaku throughout much of Japan, with dozens of able preachers and writers reaching thousands of Japanese citizens with a message that seemed both timely and challenging. By the middle of the nineteenth century Shingaku began to lose is cohesiveness through the spliting off of independent regional centers. Finally the policies of the Meiji government, favoring Shinto... caused the demise of the fragmented movement. The consequence of its existence, however, can be traced in a multitude of longer-range influences. "
Shingon Japan - - - - 806 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 681. "Shingon (Buddhism - Jap.; lit. 'true or mystical word,' translation of Skt. Mantra). The Japanese sect of esoteric Buddhism founded and organized by Kukai... The esoteric tradition was so popular that it spread to other sects and became an important influence on culture and popular beliefs. The origins of Shingon go back to the Buddhist version of Tantrism in India... There was no school in India directly corresponding to Shingon, but the bulk of esoteric Buddhist writings and rituals arrived in China about the eighth century A.D... however, no full-scale esoteric Buddhist sect developed in China. Kukai traveled to China in 804... and spent thirty months... brought back to Japan... the basis for his formulation of the Shingon sect... "
Shingon Japan - - - - 806 C.E. *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "SHINGON: a highly MYSTICAL and syncretistic Japanese BUDDHIST religious movement founded in 806 by KB DAISH. It incorporates the GODS and even demons from other religious TRADITIONS within its MYTHOLOGY as manifestations of the BUDDHA whose body is the entire COSMOS and is distinguished by its use of the MANDALA or diagram representing the vitality and potentiality of the UNIVERSE. "
Shingon Japan - - - - 1282 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 538. "Nichiren Buddhism has been criticized as... intolerant... Nichiren condemned other sects in the stinging phrase: Nembutsu mugen, Zen tenma, Shingon bokoku, Ritsu kokuzoku (the Nembutsu--Amida Buddhism--is hell; Zen is a devil; Shingon is the nation's ruin; and Ritsu is treason).' "
Shingon Japan 9,117,000 - 11,947
units
- 1945 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 105. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] "In Japan, on the other hand, the [Mystical] School (Shingon) is the second larget Buddhist sect, having 11,947 temples and 9,117,000 adherents with the Koya Mountain as the center. "
Shingon Japan - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 229. "Mi-tsung - Chin., lit. 'School of Secrets'; Tantric school of Chinese Buddhism... This school was systematized and brought to Japan by Kukai, a Japanese monk and student of the Mi-tsung master Hui-Kuo... The school is known as Shingon in Japan, where it is one of the most important Buddhist schools. "
Shingon Japan - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 322. "Shingon school - Jap., lit. 'School of the True Word [mantra]'; school of esoteric Buddhism founded by Kukai (Kobo Daishi) 774-835... The Shingon school is still today one of the largest Buddhist schools of Japan. "
Shingon Japan 10,475,770 8.40% - - 1993 O'Brien, J. & M. Palmer. The State of Religion Atlas. Simon & Schuster: New York (1993). Pg 26-27. "Shares of Buddhist sect membership in Japan, 1981: Tendai: 30%; Nichiren: 30%; Pure Land: 18%; Shingon: 10%; Zen: 8%; Nara: 4%. " Percentages and numbers made using est. of 84% of Japan being Buddhist, total pop. of country: 124,711,551 (1993).
Shinnyo-en Japan 543,959 0.47% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 373. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " Classified as Buddhist (year of origin: 1948). Listed as "Shinnyo-en ".
Shinreikyo Japan - - - - 1921 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 112-113. "Kyoha Shinto: 'Sect Shinto'... In 1921... the official association of Shinto sects had 13 groups... list also included Izumo oyashiro-kyo, Jikko-kyo, Misogi-kyo, Shinshu-kyo, Shinto shuseiha and Shinri-rikyo. "
Shinreikyo Japan 266,120 0.23% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 373. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " Classified as Shinto new religion (year of origin: 1843).
Shinreikyo Japan 100,000 - - - 1991 *LINK* Wilson, Andrew (ed). "The World Religions and their Scriptures ", subpage: "Shinreikyo " in World Scripture. International Religious Foundation, 1991. (viewed 9 July 1999) "Statistics on the size and influence of our organization: According to the Cultural Affairs Agency of the Japanese government, Shinreikyo has a membership of about 100,000. Amazingly, almost every follower has personally experienced miracles in one form or other. This is truly unprecedented in the history of humanity. "
Shinreikyo Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 136. "Sect Shinto consists of a wide range of sects with very different philosophies and practices. 13 are officially recognized, from the so-called pure sects of Shinto Honkyoku, Shinri Kyo, and Taisha Kyo to the overtly Confucian-influenced sects Shusei Ha and Teisei Kyo. "
Shinshu Kyo Japan - - - - 1890 *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "SHINSHUKYO: an ESOTERIC SHINTO religious movement founded by Yoshimura Masamochi in the late nineteenth century to restore SHINTO ORTHODOXY and promote divine healing. Its best known Rites are a fire walking ceremony and bodily purification using boiling water. "


Japan, continued

Search Adherents.com

Custom Search
comments powered by Disqus
Collection and organization of data © 23 April 2007 by Adherents.com.   Site created by custom apps written in C++.  
Research supported by East Haven University.
Books * Videos * Music * Posters

We are always striving to increase the accuracy and usefulness of our website. We are happy to hear from you. Please submit questions, suggestions, comments, corrections, etc. to: webmaster@adherents.com.