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Over 42,000 religious geography and religion statistics citations (membership statistics for over 4,000 different religions, denominations, tribes, etc.) for every country in the world.

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Japan, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Misogikyo Japan 124,960 0.11% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 373. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " Classified as Shinto new religion (year of origin: 1840).
Misogikyo Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 136. "Sect Shinto consists of a wide range of sects with very different philosophies and practices. 13 are officially recognized... Shinshu Kyo and Misogi Kyo stress purification rites over everything else. "
Mukyokai Japan - - - - 1930 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 502. "Mukyokai (Christian - Jap.; lit. 'non-church'). A movement initiated by the Japanese independent evangelist Kanzo Uchimura (1861-1930). Suggested translations include 'nonecclesiastical church movement,' anti-clerical church' and 'churchless Christianity.'... From the day he signed the 'Covenant of Believers in Jesus' prepared by Clark (1877) he was dedicated to proclaiming the gospel independently of the existing church. He formed prayer and Bible study groups throughout Japan, all of which were disbanded in accordance with his will when he died. "
Myochikai Kyodan Japan 686,205 0.60% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 373. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " Classified as Buddhist new religion (year of origin: 1950).
Myochikai Kyodan Japan - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 537. "Offshoots of Nichiren Buddhism total nineteen, including the popular 'new religions' such as Reiyukai, Rissho Koseikai, and Myochikai Kyodan. "
Nara Buddhism Japan - - - - 710 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 523. "Nara Buddhism (A.D. 710-784). Introduced to Japan in A.D. 538 and first supported by the Soga clan, Buddhism rose over the objections of the pro-Shinto Mononobe. When in 710 Emperor Shomu established a new capital at Nara modeled after the capital of China, Buddhism received official support and began to flourish. Internal corruption and growing secularism emerged in the second half of this period. The monk Dokyo exerted his influence on Empress Shotoku and plotted to ascend the throne. Finally, to curb such clerical interference, Emperor Kammu moved the capital to Heian (Kyoto) in 784. "; Pg. 524: "The six [Nara Buddhist] schools were overseen by the state. Though displaced by Heian Buddhism, some schools continued through the centuries. "
Nara Buddhism Japan - - - - 784 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 524. "The six Nara Buddhist schools. Six scholarly disciplines were pursuied by a small number of monks at designated home temples in Nara. They were extensions of Chinese scholarship... Kusha... Jojitsu... Sanron... Hosso... Kegon... Ritsu... "
Nara Buddhism Japan 4,190,308 3.36% - - 1993 O'Brien, J. & M. Palmer. The State of Religion Atlas. Simon & Schuster: New York (1993). Pg 26-27. "Shares of Buddhist sect membership in Japan, 1981: Tendai: 30%; Nichiren: 30%; Pure Land: 18%; Shingon: 10%; Zen: 8%; Nara: 4%. " Percentages and numbers made using est. of 84% of Japan being Buddhist, total pop. of country: 124,711,551 (1993).
Nenpo Shinkyo Japan 862,030 0.75% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 373. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " Classified as Buddhist new religion (year of origin: 1925).
New Religionists Japan - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 11). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1495. "It is not easy to say just how many new sects there are in Japan... estimates of new movements still vary from 170 to more than 700. Even if the smaller figure is more nearly accurate, the size and influence of Japan's new sects is still impressive. Several of them have recruited hundreds of thousands of members, built impressive headquarters and have sometimes constructed holy towns as their centres. "
New Religionists Japan - 10.00% - - 1992 *LINK* web site: "A Brief Survey of Religion in Modern Japan " (1998). By Paul A. Shew, December 1, 1992. (Waseda University, Tokyo) "In independent surveys where people are asked to state their own religion, there are the approximate results: Shinto 2-3%; Buddhism 20%; Christianity 1-2%; a new religion 10%; no religion 65% "
New Religionists Japan - 25.00% - - 1993 Rausch, David A. & Carl Hermann Voss. World Religions: Our Quest for Meaning; Trinity Press International: Valley Forge, PA (1993), pg. 111. "Today it is estimated that at least 25 percent of Japan's citizens are formal members of a new religion. "
New Religionists Japan - 20.00% - - 1994 Neusner, Jacob (ed). World Religions in America: An Introduction; Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press (1994); pg. 227. "One of the most interesting contemporary religious phenomena, the Japanese new religions have emerged... parallel to the emergence of Japan as a modern nation. As many as one-fifth of all Japanese now belong to one of the new religions. "
New Religionists Japan - 24.00% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "; "New Religions " = "Syncretistic religions of Shinto and New Age Philosophy "
Nichiren Buddhism Japan - - - - 1300 C.E. *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "NICHIREN BUDDHISM: Japanese MAHYNA BUDDHIST SECT which trace their origin to the thirteenth century Buddhist PRIEST NICHIREN who sought to restore what he saw as ORTHODOX Buddhism "
Nichiren Buddhism Japan - - - - 1350 C.E. Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 285. "Nichiren's followers have been called 'Buddhist Calvinists,' and are usually to be found among the petite bourgeoisie and lower classes. During the 14th century, they often engaged in pitched battles with Shinran's followers, usually farmers or townspeople. "
Nichiren Buddhism Japan 7,376,000 - 5,031
units
- 1945 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 105. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] "There are at present eight branches in Japan, with 5,031 temples and 7,376,000 adherents. The Nichiren School proper and the Kempon-Hokke (Elucidating the Original Lotus) branch are the most influential. "
Nichiren Buddhism Japan - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 537. "Nichiren Buddhism... A group of Japanese Buddhist sects in the Mahayana tradition which trace their origin to the thirteenth century Japanese priest Nichiren... Next to Jodo Shin-shu... Nichiren Buddhism has the largest constituency of all religions in Japan today. There are currently eighteen Nichiren sects registered in the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). Offshoots of Nichiren Buddhism total nineteen, including the popular 'new religions' such as Reiyukai, Rissho Koseikai, and Myochikai Kyodan. "
Nichiren Buddhism Japan 31,427,310 25.20% - - 1993 O'Brien, J. & M. Palmer. The State of Religion Atlas. Simon & Schuster: New York (1993). Pg 26-27. "Shares of Buddhist sect membership in Japan, 1981: Tendai: 30%; Nichiren: 30%; Pure Land: 18%; Shingon: 10%; Zen: 8%; Nara: 4%. " Percentages and numbers made using est. of 84% of Japan being Buddhist, total pop. of country: 124,711,551 (1993).
Nichiren Buddhism Japan - - - - 1998 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 285. "Today, many of Nichiren's followers in Japan belong to the Soka Gakkai, a... organization whose political arm, the Komei-to, or Clean-Government Party, has considerable strength in the National Diet. "
Nichiren Buddhism - traditional sects Japan 2,225,000 - - - 1969 Hutchinson, John A. Paths of Faith; New York: McGraw-Hill (1969), pg. 277. "In recent and contemporary times it has generated several significantly nationalistic sects. Among the older and more traditional forms of Nichiren Buddhism, there are today some 2 1/4 million adherents in Japan. "
Nichiren Shoshu Japan - - - - 1290 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 538. "Nichiren-shu and Nichiren Sho-shu. From among eighteen disciples Nichiren chose six to carry on the work he had begun and enjoined them to perform the prescribed duties at his grave. Nichiren sho-shu possesses two documents, the Minobu sojo and the Ikegami sojo, which it contends prove conclusively that Nichiren selected Nikko (1246-1333) alone to succeed him. In 1288, Nikko left Mt. Minobu and in 1290 he established Taisekiji [the head Nishiren Sho-shu temple]... The branch which Nikko established is known as Nichiren Sho-shu, which means 'The Orthodox Faith of Nichiren.' "
Nichiren Shoshu Japan - - 724
units
- 1998 *LINK* web site: "Introduction to Nichiren Shoshu Buddhism "; web page: "Nichiren Shoshu Temples " (viewed 1 March 1999) "At this time, including the Head Temple Taisekiji, Nichiren Shoshu has 724 temples throughout Japan. "
Nichiren Shu Japan - - - - 1290 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 538. "Nichiren-shu and Nichiren Sho-shu... The branch which Nikko established is known as Nichiren Sho-shu, which means 'The Orthodox Faith of Nichiren.' The doctrinal differences between Nichiren-shu and Nichiren Sho-shu may be summarized as follows: In Nichiren-shu, the Buddha is Sakyamuni, the dharma is Namu myo-ho-renge-kyo, which stands for the literal meaning of the Lotus Sutra, and the priest is Nichiren. In Nichiren Sho-shu, the Buddha is Nichiren himself..., the dharma is the Namu myo-ho-renge-kyo of the Three Great Hidden Laws, and the priest is Nikko. "
Nihon Kirisuto Keiteidan Japan 140 - 6
units
- 1998 *LINK* Mennonite World Conference web site. Directory 1998. Web page: "Asia/Pacific: Mennonite & Brethren in Christ Churches " JAPAN: Nihon Kirisuto Keiteidan... Members: 140; Congregations: 6
Nihon Menonaito Kirisuto Kyokai Kaigi Japan 813 - 18
units
- 1998 *LINK* Mennonite World Conference web site. Directory 1998. Web page: "Asia/Pacific: Mennonite & Brethren in Christ Churches " JAPAN... Nihon Menonaito Kirisuto Kyokai Kaigi... Members: 813; Congregations: 18
Nihon Menonaito Kyokai Kyogikai Japan 466 - 21
units
- 1998 *LINK* Mennonite World Conference web site. Directory 1998. Web page: "Asia/Pacific: Mennonite & Brethren in Christ Churches " JAPAN... Nihon Menonaito Kyokai Kyogikai... Members: 466; Congregations: 21
Nihonzan Myohoji Japan 1,120 0.00% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 373. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " Classified as Buddhist new religion (year of origin: 1917).
Nippon Menonaito Burezaren Kyodan Japan 1,951 - 25
units
- 1994 *LINK* Mennonite World Conference web site. Directory 1998. Web page: "Asia/Pacific: Mennonite & Brethren in Christ Churches " JAPAN... Nippon Menonaito Burezaren Kyodan... Members (1994): 1,951; Congregations: 25
Nonreligious Japan - 75.00% - - 1983 Dolan, Jr., Edward F. & Shan Finney. The New Japan; New York: Franklin Watts (1983), pg. 49. "perhaps three-quarters of the Japanese people would tell you that they do not believe in any given religion. But they still follow religious customs of old. "
Nonreligious Japan - 75.00% - - 1986 Pastva, Loretta. Great Religions of the World; Winona, Minnesota: Saint Mary's Press, Christian Brothers Publications (1995) [9th printing. 1st printing in 1986], pg. 130. "Less than 25% of the population [of Japan] professes any religion, & although new sects periodically flare up, materialism & religious indifference seem to have infected a people who less than 50 years ago were willing to sacrifice their lives for their faith. "
Nonreligious Japan - 80.00% - - 1988 Reischauer, Edwin O. The Japanese Today: Change and Continuity; Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press (1988), pg. 215. "But the majority of Japanese--some 70 to 80 percent--even though carried on the rolls of one or more religious body, do not contsider themselves believers in any religion. "
Nonreligious Japan - 65.00% - - 1992 *LINK* web site: "A Brief Survey of Religion in Modern Japan " (1998). By Paul A. Shew, December 1, 1992. (Waseda University, Tokyo) "In independent surveys where people are asked to state their own religion, there are the approximate results: Shinto 2-3%; Buddhism 20%; Christianity 1-2%; a new religion 10%; no religion 65% "
Nonreligious Japan - 70.00% - - 1992 Wolff, Michael. Where We Stand: Can America Make it in the Global Race for Wealth, Health, and Happiness? Bantam Books: New York (1992). Pg. 205. "In Japan, although Shintoism claims almost 100 million adherents and Buddhism nearly 90 million (more than the total Japanese population), polls indicate that fewer than 30% of Japanese people have any real religious beliefs. "
Nonreligious Japan - 65.00% - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "Basic Facts Christianity in Japan at a Glance " (1998). 1996, 1997, 1998 Paul Tsuchido Shew Table: "Statistical Variences of Religion Affiliation in Japan: Official Membership Statistics vs. Independent Survey Results ": Survey of religious preference: 65%
Nyorai-kyo Japan 34,030 0.03% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 373. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " Classified as Buddhist new religion (year of origin: 1802).
Obaku Japan 120,000 - 587
units
- 1945 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 104. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] "The Japanese Obaku Sect, founded by Ingen in 1654, has 587 temples and 120,000 adherents, while Soto has 14,257 and 6,848,000 and Rinzai has 5,979 and 2,530,000 respectively. "
Obaku Japan 100,000 - - - 1956 Hutchinson, John A. Paths of Faith; New York: McGraw-Hill (1969), pg. 275. [Orig. source: Morgan, Kenneth W. (ed.), "The Path of the Buddha "; New York: The Ronald Press Co. (1956), pg. 339.] "Zen was imported into Japan... by Eisai... founder of Rinzai sect; in 1244 by Dogen, who founded Soto; and in 1654 by Ingen, founder of the obaku school of Zen. Today the Rinzai sect claims 2,350,000 adherents, Soto 6,750,000, and Obaku about 100,000. "
Obaku Japan - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 254. "Obaku school with the Rinzai and Soto schools, one of the three schools of Zen in Japan. It was originated by the Chinese master Yin-yuan Lung-ch'I, who founded the school's main monastery, Mampuku-ji, in the middle of the 17th century in Uji near Kyoto. The Obaku school is a subsidieary lineage of the Rinzai school; in present-day Japan it pssesses hardly any active monasteries and is thus the least influential of the three schools of Zen in Japan. "
Okinawa Baptist Convention Japan 3,375 - 37
units
- 1998 *LINK* Baptist World Alliance web site; page: "BWA Statistics " (viewed 31 March 1999). "Figures are for BWA affiliated conventions/unions only (no independents included). "; Table with 3 columns: Country, "Churches ", & "Members "; "1997/1998 Totals "
Omoto Japan - - - - 1921 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 112-113. "Kyoha Shinto: 'Sect Shinto'... In 1921... the official association of Shinto sects had 13 groups... Omoto-kyo which is sometimes listed as one of the 13 came under the auspices of Fuso-kyo... "
Omoto Japan 2,000,000 - - - 1935 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 551. "Omoto (Japanese; lit. 'great source')... Now a relatively small though stable movement, Omoto had upward of two million members in the early 1930s and helped prepare leaders for other movements... "
Omoto Japan 163,760 0.14% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 373. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " Classified as Shinto new religion (year of origin: 1892).
Omoto Japan - - - - 1991 *LINK* Wilson, Andrew (ed). "The World Religions and their Scriptures " in World Scripture. International Religious Foundation, 1991. (viewed 9 July 1999) Other new religions have combined Shinto with ideas from Christianity, Buddhism, and Shamanism. Omoto Kyo, The Great Foundation, was founded by Nao Deguchi in 1892. Internationalist from the beginning (i.e., advocating the use of Esperanto), and for a time suppressed by the government... "
Omoto Japan - - - - 1996 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 139. "Omoto [-kyo]: 'Great Origin'. A religious movement founded by Deguchi, Nao (1836-1918), a peasant woman who suffered many hardships before in 1892 receiving the first of a sequence of divine revalations from a previously little-known deity Ushitora no konjin... The movement was only semi-recognized as a form of kyoha shinto under the wing of Fuso-kyo and experinced many hardships with the authorities... As a result of criticisms of the government Omoto-kyo was persecuted between 1921-27 and again from 1935 when the organisation and its buildings were ruthlessly destroyed and Onisaburo imprisoned. After the war the movement re-emerged... The teachings of Omoto have strongly influenced Ananaikyo and other groups including Sekai Kyusei-kyo... and Seicho-no-ie whose respective leaders... were both originally followers of Omot. "
Ontake-kyo Japan - - - - 1921 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 112-113. "Kyoha Shinto: 'Sect Shinto'... In 1921... the official association of Shinto sects had 13 groups... included... sects which had begun as shrine-supporting networks formed by shrine administrators (e.g. Shinto Taisei-kyo, Ontake-kyo, Shinto Taikyo).... "
Ontake-kyo Japan 734,390 0.64% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 373. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " Classified as Shinto new religion (year of origin: 1873).
Ontake-kyo Japan - - - - 1996 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 141. "Ontake-kyo: 'Great Mountain Sect'. Also known as Mitake-kyo. A religious movement recognised as a Shinto sect... in 1882. It was organised in the first half of the nineteenth century by Shimoyama, Osuke as a devotional association to encourage the ritual ascent of Mt. Mitake, popularly konwn as ontake-san ('Great Mountain'), in central Japan, site of a long-standing tradition of mountain worship. "
Ontake-kyo Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 136. "Sect Shinto consists of a wide range of sects with very different philosophies and practices. 13 are officially recognized... Some sects focus on worship of mountains... Members of Jikko Kyo and Fuso Kyo worship Mount Fuji...; Mitake Kyo [or 'Ontake-kyo'] centers around the worship of Mount Ontake... "
Otani Japan - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 163. "Jodo-shin-shu: Jap., lit. 'True School of the Pure Land' [distinct from Jodo-shu ('School of the Pure Land')]. The short form is Shin-shu (Shin school). A school of Japanese buddhism that was founded by Shinran (1173-1262) but first organized as a school by Rennyo (1414-99)... The Jodo-shin-shu has no monastic aspect; it is purely a lay community... Today the Jodo-shin-shu is the most important school of Buddhism in Japan and consists of 2 factions: Otani & Honganji. The main temples... are in Kyoto. This division took place in the 17th century... Both factions maintain large universities. "
Otani Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 125. Chapter: Buddhism. "Jodo Shin is the leading school of Buddhism in Japan today, with no religious ruls whatever that distinguish its members from ordinary folk. Its two main subschools are Otani and Honganji. "
other Japan 3,419,471 3.93% - - 1953 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 368. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] Table: #s of adherents to major religious traditions "Numbers of people claimed by religious organizations as of 31 Dec. in a given year " [NOTE: Other consists of adherents claimed by organizations which are OTHER THAN Shinto, Buddhist and Christian.]
other Japan 4,010,745 4.37% - - 1958 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 368. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] Table: #s of adherents to major religious traditions "Numbers of people claimed by religious organizations as of 31 Dec. in a given year " [NOTE: Other consists of adherents claimed by organizations which are OTHER THAN Shinto, Buddhist and Christian.]
other Japan 5,350,790 5.56% - - 1963 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 368. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] Table: #s of adherents to major religious traditions "Numbers of people claimed by religious organizations as of 31 Dec. in a given year " [NOTE: Other consists of adherents claimed by organizations which are OTHER THAN Shinto, Buddhist and Christian.]
other Japan 6,768,042 6.68% - - 1968 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 368. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] Table: #s of adherents to major religious traditions "Numbers of people claimed by religious organizations as of 31 Dec. in a given year " [NOTE: Other consists of adherents claimed by organizations which are OTHER THAN Shinto, Buddhist and Christian.]
other Japan 10,002,986 9.17% - - 1973 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 368. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] Table: #s of adherents to major religious traditions "Numbers of people claimed by religious organizations as of 31 Dec. in a given year " [NOTE: Other consists of adherents claimed by organizations which are OTHER THAN Shinto, Buddhist and Christian.]
other Japan 13,729,376 11.92% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 368. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] Table: #s of adherents to major religious traditions "Numbers of people claimed by religious organizations as of 31 Dec. in a given year " [NOTE: Other consists of adherents claimed by organizations which are OTHER THAN Shinto, Buddhist and Christian.]
other Japan 14,444,000 11.94% 42,027
units
- 1985 *LINK* [Orig. source: The International Society for Educational Information, Inc., Tokyo (1998)] [other here is religions NOT in Shinto, Buddhism, or Christianity. Frequently called "New Religions "] "Figures on religious orgs... in 1985 as reported by religious orgs. to the Agency for Cultural Affairs are as follows: Shinto Buddhism Christianity miscellaneous: Shrines, Temples & Churches: 90,832 84,613 8,616 42,027; Priests, Clergy & Ministers 102,000 269,000 22,000 253,000; Members: 115,602,000 92,065,000 1,688,000 14,444,000 "; "The total membership of all religious organizations exceeds the total population of the nation (121 million). The number of adherents to either Shinto or Buddhism alone comes close to the national population. This results from the fact that the same person is often counted as a member by the Shinto shrine of his neighbor hood and again by the Buddhist temple with which his ancestors became affiliated. (Christian church member ship, in principle, excludes affiliation with other religious groups.) "
other Japan 11,112,595 8.90% 16,231
units
- 1995 *LINK* web site: "Basic Facts Christianity in Japan at a Glance " (1998). 1996, 1997, 1998 Paul Tsuchido Shew. Source: 1995 Shukyo Nenkan (Religious Yearbook), Ministry of Education, Agency for Cultural Affairs, pp.30-31. Table: "Statistics on Religious Organizations in Japan as of December 31, 1995 " [ "Other " is religions NOT in Shinto, Buddhism, or Christianity]
other Japan 11,380,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year. Pg. 781-783. Table; "other " = NOT Shinto, Buddhist, or Christian
other Japan - 9.00% - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "Basic Facts Christianity in Japan at a Glance " (1998). 1996, 1997, 1998 Paul Tsuchido Shew Table: "Statistical Variences of Religion Affiliation in Japan: Official Membership Statistics vs. Independent Survey Results ": Official organization reporting: Other/New 9.%; survey of religious preference: 10%
other Japan - 10.00% - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "Basic Facts Christianity in Japan at a Glance " (1998). 1996, 1997, 1998 Paul Tsuchido Shew Table: "Statistical Variences of Religion Affiliation in Japan: Official Membership Statistics vs. Independent Survey Results ": Official organization reporting: Other/New 9.%; survey of religious preference: 10%
other - clergy Japan 253,000 0.21% - - 1985 *LINK* [Orig. source: The International Society for Educational Information, Inc., Tokyo (1998)] [other here is religions NOT in Shinto, Buddhism, or Christianity. Frequently called "New Religions "]; 1985 figures reported by religious orgs. to the Agency for Cultural Affairs: "Shinto Buddhism Christianity miscellaneous: Priests, Clergy & Ministers 102,000 269,000 22,000 253,000... total pop...121 mil. "; "New Religions, for their part, show a much higher ratio of priests to members than traditional religions, because most groups of this kind count lay leaders as clergy. "
PL Kyodan Japan 2,658,872 2.31% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 373. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " PL (Perfect Liberty) Kyodan classified as "other " new religion; origin yr: 1924.
PL Kyodan Japan - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 572. "At the time of the founding of PL Kyodan in 1946, the headquarters were set up in Kyushu, the southernmost island of Japan. After two other temporary relocations the headquarters (Daihoncho) were established at Tondabayashi, near Osaka... Miki Tokuchika... presides authoritatively over an extensive membership in Japan and abroad by means of a complex network of regional and local agencies... One of the most spectacular festivals in Japan is the PL Founder's Festival, held at Tondabayashi each August 1... features a three-hour display of fireworks, synchronized with symphonic music and the dancing waters of illuminated fountains. "
PL Kyodan Japan - - - - 1991 *LINK* Wilson, Andrew (ed). "The World Religions and their Scriptures " in World Scripture. International Religious Foundation, 1991. (viewed 9 July 1999) "Perfect Liberty Kyodan, founded by Miki Tokuharu in 1926, combines elements of Shinto and Buddhism. It worships 'the Supreme Spirit of the universe' but also stresses the role of ancestral spirits as part of one's karma. In stressing Life is Art, Perfect Liberty Kyodan draws upon the Buddhist teaching of non-self, by which what is truly authentic in a person comes to spontaneous expression. "
PL Kyodan Japan - - 464
units
- 1999 *LINK* Official web site of PL Kyodan; home page " (viewed 11 April 1999). "Originally founded as an order in Japan in 1924, this new faith has had a rise in membership that has been phenomenal. Today PL has over 500 churches in ten different countries with more than one million of members. " [Church Directory linked to to this site lists 36 churches outside of Japan: 10 in North America, 23 in South America, 1 in Oceania, and 2 in Europe. 500 - 36 = 464.]
poll - believe in life after death Japan - 18.00% - - 1981 Robertson, Ian. Sociology (2nd ed.); New York, NY: Worth Publishers (1981) [2nd edition is updated since 1977 1st edition], pg. 421. "Only a minority of Europeans... believe in life after death: the percentage ranges from 4% in Italy to a mere 35% in Scandinavia; and in Japan only 18% profess this belief. In contrast, nearly 71% of Americans say they believe in life after death. "
poll - say religion fairly important to them Japan - 34.00% - - 1976 Social Indicators 1976: Selected Data on Social Conditions & Trends in the U.S.. Census Bureau, U.S. Dept. of Commerce: Washington, D.C. (Dec. 1977), pg. 555. [Orig. source: American Institute of Public Opinion (Gallup Poll), Religion in America, 1976.] Table: "Importance of Religious Beliefs in Selected Countries: 1975-76 "; Respondents who say their religious beliefs are: (1) Not at all important, (2) Not too important, (3) Fairly important, (4) Very important.
poll - say religion not at all important to them Japan - 10.00% - - 1976 Social Indicators 1976: Selected Data on Social Conditions & Trends in the U.S.. Census Bureau, U.S. Dept. of Commerce: Washington, D.C. (Dec. 1977), pg. 555. [Orig. source: American Institute of Public Opinion (Gallup Poll), Religion in America, 1976.] Table: "Importance of Religious Beliefs in Selected Countries: 1975-76 "; Respondents who say their religious beliefs are: (1) Not at all important, (2) Not too important, (3) Fairly important, (4) Very important.
poll - say religion not too important to them Japan - 44.00% - - 1976 Social Indicators 1976: Selected Data on Social Conditions & Trends in the U.S.. Census Bureau, U.S. Dept. of Commerce: Washington, D.C. (Dec. 1977), pg. 555. [Orig. source: American Institute of Public Opinion (Gallup Poll), Religion in America, 1976.] Table: "Importance of Religious Beliefs in Selected Countries: 1975-76 "; Respondents who say their religious beliefs are: (1) Not at all important, (2) Not too important, (3) Fairly important, (4) Very important.
poll - say religion very important to them Japan - 12.00% - - 1976 Social Indicators 1976: Selected Data on Social Conditions & Trends in the U.S.. Census Bureau, U.S. Dept. of Commerce: Washington, D.C. (Dec. 1977), pg. 555. [Orig. source: American Institute of Public Opinion (Gallup Poll), Religion in America, 1976.] Table: "Importance of Religious Beliefs in Selected Countries: 1975-76 "; Respondents who say their religious beliefs are: (1) Not at all important, (2) Not too important, (3) Fairly important, (4) Very important.
Protestant Japan - - 2,882
units
- 1940 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 387. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] "Statistics covering the status of Protestant denominations at the close of 1940 showed 233,000 members of churches, 1,931 organized churches, and 951 self-supporting churches. "
Protestant Japan 718,000 - - - 1973 Bokenkotter, Thomas. A Concise History of the Catholic Church. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co. (1977), pg. 341. "An estimate in 1973 counted some 359,000 Catholics [in Japan] and almost twice that number ofProtestants. "
Protestant Japan - 1.00% - - 1988 Reischauer, Edwin O. The Japanese Today: Change and Continuity; Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press (1988), pg. 212. "Even today its adherents number less than 2% of the population--divided fairly evenly between Catholics and Protestants. "


Japan, continued

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