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Over 42,000 religious geography and religion statistics citations (membership statistics for over 4,000 different religions, denominations, tribes, etc.) for every country in the world.

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Japan, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Honmon Butsuryushu Japan 465,158 0.40% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 373. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " Classified as Buddhist new religion (year of origin: 1857).
Hosso Buddhism Japan - - - - 700 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 134. "Hosso school: Jap. (Chin. - Fa-hsiang school), lit. 'school of the characteristics of dharma'; school of Japanese Buddhism, continuation of the Chinese Fa-hsiang school (which in turn was based on the Yogachara school of India). The Hosso school was brought to Japan by the Japanese monk Dosho (629-700). He went to China in 653 and was there a student of Hsuan-tsang for ten years... Back in Japan Dosho propagated the Hosso teaching at the Guan-go-ji monastery... The lineage founded by him was called the transmission of the teaching of the Southern Monastery... The Hosso school never flourished in Japan to the extent that its counterparts had in India & China. "
Hosso Buddhism Japan - - - - 784 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 524. "The six Nara Buddhist schools. Six scholarly disciplines were pursuied by a small number of monks at designated home temples in Nara. They were extensions of Chinese scholarship... Kusha... Jojitsu... Sanron... Hosso (Chin.: Fa-hsiang, Dharma-characteristics) school. Representing the Buddhist idealism of Yogacara specifically, the Vijnaptimatrata (Representation Only) philosophy of Dharmapala and committed to seeing all realities as mere ideations of the mind... Kegon... Ritsu... "
Hosso Buddhism Japan 19,000 - 42
units
- 1945 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 99-100. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] Idealistic School: One of two wings of Mahayana Buddhism in India, the Yogacara (Self-concentration) School founded by Asanga (c. 410-500 A.D.?)... Eventually absorbed by Fa-hsiang (Jap.: Hosso)... In Japan are 42 Hosso temples and 19,000 adherents.
Hosso Buddhism Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 122. Chapter: Buddhism. "By the Nara period (710-94), six schools had been brought over from China: Sanron and Jojitsu (both established in 624), Hosso (654), Kusha (658), Kegon (736), and Ritsu (754); Jojitsu, Kusha, and Ritsu were Hinayana, the other three Mahayana. Of the six, only Hosso, Kegon, and Ritsu have survived in modern Japan, and these have only historical significance and slight membership. "
Hotokusha Japan - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 328. "Hotoku movement. (Jap.; lit. 'repayment of blessings' movement). A religious and ethical movement founded by the 'peasant sage' Ninomiya Sontoku (1787-1856) for the benefit of the peasantry. An eclectic teaching--a 'pill,' as Ninomiya described it, composed two parts of Shinto and one part each of Confucianism and Buddhism--it was perhaps more importantly a practical application of ethical principles to the solution of rural economic problems... Ninomiya developed and implemented plans for the restoration of neglected farm land and villages and for the improvement of agricultural production... One of Ninomiya's disciples, Fukuzumi Masae, organized the Hotokusha (lit. 'society for repayment of blessings'), which still functions throughout Japan in spreading the teaching and work of the master. "
Hua-yen Japan - - - - 740 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 145. "Hua-yen school: Chin. (Jap. - Kegon school)... lit. 'Flower Garland school'; important school of Chinese Buddhism... It was founded by Fa-tsang (643-712), but its earliest beginnings go back to the monks Tu-shun (557-640) and Chih-yen (602-68)... 5th patriarch... was Tsung-mi (780-841), who is considered the outstanding master of the school. The Hua-yen school was brought to Japan in the year 740 by Shen-hsiang (Jap., Shinsho). There it was propagated under the name Kegon. "
Hua-yen Japan 23,000 - 35
units
- 1945 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 99. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] "Hua-yen School (Skr. Avatansaka, Chin. Hua-yen, Jap. Kegon, all meaning 'Wreath' or 'Flowery Splendor')... The Hua-yen doctrine was brought to Japan by Shinsho in 737. The School has now 35 temples and 23,000 adherents in Japan... "
Hua-yen Japan - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 178. "Kegon school: Japanese, lit. 'School of the Flower Garland'; school of Japanese Buddhism corresponding to the Chinese Hua-yen school. It was brought to Japan from China around 740 by Shen-hsiang (Jap., Shinsho). The first Japanse representative of the Kegon school was Roben (689-722). Emperor Shomu (724-48) wanted to rule Japan according to the principles of Kegon. He had the Toda-ji (Great Eastern Monastery) built in Nara, in which there is a colossal image of the buddha Vairochana. This monastery is still today the center of the Kegon school. "
Hua-yen Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 122. Chapter: Buddhism. "By the Nara period (710-94), six schools had been brought over from China: Sanron and Jojitsu (both established in 624), Hosso (654), Kusha (658), Kegon (736) [in Chinese: Hua-yen], and Ritsu (754); Jojitsu, Kusha, and Ritsu were Hinayana, the other three Mahayana. Of the six, only Hosso, Kegon, and Ritsu have survived in modern Japan, and these have only historical significance and slight membership. "
Islam Japan 10,000 1.00% - - 1986 *LINK* Web site: "Arabic Paper "; web page: "Muslim Countries of the World " (viewed 15 June 1999). [Written 1998.] [NOTE: Unreliable statistical methodology.] "In 1986... Muslim Education Trust organization [U.K.] obtained... 1971 census & [info. from] Embassies of the respective countires... 1971 census showed the Muslim Minorities countries had around 308 Million Muslim.. "; "...add (784.5M [independent Muslim countries]+ 308M) = 1092.5 Million Muslims in 1971 "; Table shows country, "population " [number of Muslims in the country], & % Muslim. Total adds up to 317,391,000, so these figures are apparently intended to be estimates for 1986.
Islam Japan 100,000 - - - 1994 *LINK* Japan Information Network website; "Religion and Customs " page. (Viewed 6 Oct. 1999) "...it is estimated that there are more than 100,000 Muslims, including non-Japanese temporarily residing in the country. "
Islam Japan 155,000 - - - 1995 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: 2/18/95 issue of GLOBAL PRAYER DIGEST); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) There are over 155,000 Muslims in Japan. They are steadily growing with converts and are very respected by most of the Japanese, especially the women.
Islam Japan - 0.20% - - 1995 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: Feb. `95 issue of GLOBAL PRAYER DIGEST); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) TOTAL POPULATION IN 1995: 126,319,000. Shinto: 80 percent -- (Overlaps with Buddhist); Buddhist: 58 percent; New Religions: (mostly Buddhist or Shinto offshoots) 24 percent; Muslim: 0.2 percent; Christian: 1.5 percent.
Islam Japan 150,000 - - - 1996 RISEAP. Muslim Almanac - Asia Pacific. Table: Muslim Population in Asia Pacific Region (1996)
Izumo Oyashirokyo Japan - - - - 1921 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 112-113. "Kyoha Shinto: 'Sect Shinto'... In 1921... the official association of Shinto sects had 13 groups... list also included Izumo oyashiro-kyo, Jikko-kyo, Misogi-kyo, Shinshu-kyo, Shinto shuseiha and Shinri-rikyo. "
Izumo Oyashirokyo Japan 1,051,206 0.91% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 373. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " Classified as Shinto new religion (year of origin: 1873).
Japan Baptist Conference Japan 463 - 8
units
- 1998 *LINK* Baptist World Alliance web site; page: "BWA Statistics " (viewed 31 March 1999). "Figures are for BWA affiliated conventions/unions only (no independents included). "; Table with 3 columns: Country, "Churches ", & "Members "; "1997/1998 Totals "
Japan Baptist Convention Japan 500 - 16
units
- 1947 Armstrong, O.K. & Marjorie Armstrong. The Baptists in America. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co. (1979) [revised 2nd edition; originally published in 1967 under the title The Indomitable Baptists], pg. 299. "Only sixteen Japanese congregations of Baptists related to the Southern Baptist Convention survived the war. Membership was about 500. A small group of leaders met in Fukuoka in 1947 and organized the Japan Baptist Convention. "
Japan Baptist Convention Japan 25,000 - 246
units
- 1977 Armstrong, O.K. & Marjorie Armstrong. The Baptists in America. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co. (1979) [revised 2nd edition; originally published in 1967 under the title The Indomitable Baptists], pg. 300. "When the Convention celebrated its thirtieth anniversary in 1977 with 174 churches and 72 missions, having a total of 25,000 members, the Foreign Mission Board announced the Japan Baptist Convention had become self-supporting. "
Japan Baptist Convention Japan 33,211 - 244
units
- 1998 *LINK* Baptist World Alliance web site; page: "BWA Statistics " (viewed 31 March 1999). "Figures are for BWA affiliated conventions/unions only (no independents included). "; Table with 3 columns: Country, "Churches ", & "Members "; "1997/1998 Totals "
Japan Baptist Union Japan 4,814 - 57
units
- 1998 *LINK* Baptist World Alliance web site; page: "BWA Statistics " (viewed 31 March 1999). "Figures are for BWA affiliated conventions/unions only (no independents included). "; Table with 3 columns: Country, "Churches ", & "Members "; "1997/1998 Totals "
Jehovah's Witnesses Japan 82,160 0.07% 1,504
units
- 1983 Botting, Heather & Gary Botting. The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. Toronto: University of Toronto Press (1984), pg. 53-59. Table: "1983 Service Year Report of JWs Worldwide "; Adherent count here is from "1983 Peak Publishers " column
Jehovah's Witnesses Japan 220,663 0.18% 3,771
units
- 1997 *LINK* official organization web site Adherent/member count is for "1997 Peak Witnesses "; Memorial attendance (annual sacrament meeting) for same year: 376,853.
Jehovah's Witnesses Japan 222,912 0.18% 3,802
units
- 1998 *LINK* Jehovah's Witnesses official web site; section: "Statistics "; web page: "Worldwide Report " (viewed 16 April 1999). Table: "1998 Report of Jehovah's Witnesses Worldwide "; This adherent/member count is for "1998 Peak Witnesses "
Jehovah's Witnesses - Memorial attendance Japan 198,052 - 1,504
units
- 1983 Botting, Heather & Gary Botting. The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. Toronto: University of Toronto Press (1984), pg. 53-59. Table: "1983 Service Year Report of JWs Worldwide "; Data from columns: "No. of congs. " and "Memorial attendance "
Jehovah's Witnesses - Memorial attendance Japan 376,853 0.30% 3,771
units
- 1997 *LINK* official organization web site From 1997 Statistics "Memorial attendance " column. Count of all who attend this once-a-year meeting, whether or not a "publisher " in full standing. Most would be considered adherents.
Jehovah's Witnesses - Memorial attendance Japan 366,637 0.29% - - 1998 *LINK* Jehovah's Witnesses official web site; section: "Statistics "; web page: "Worldwide Report " (viewed 16 April 1999). Table: "1998 Report of Jehovah's Witnesses Worldwide "; "Memorial attendance " column indicates attendance at yearly communion meeting.
Ji Japan 350,000 - 494
units
- 1945 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 105. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] "Pure Land School [of Buddhism]:... Minor differences exist in the four Japanese sects of Jodo (8,245 temples & 3,646,000 adherents), Shin (19,815 & 13,327,000), Yuzenembutsu (357 & 153,000), and Ji (494 & 350,000). "
Jikko Kyo Japan - - - - 1921 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 112-113. "Kyoha Shinto: 'Sect Shinto'... In 1921... the official association of Shinto sects had 13 groups... list also included Izumo oyashiro-kyo, Jikko-kyo, Misogi-kyo, Shinshu-kyo, Shinto shuseiha and Shinri-rikyo. "
Jikko Kyo Japan - - - - 1996 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 69. "Jikko-kyo: 'Practice Teaching'. One of the thirteen sects of kyoha [sect] shinto. It developed out of a lay mountain-religion tradtion founded in the early 18th century by Ito, Jikigyo... The teachings were reinterpreted by Kotani Sanshi Rokugyo (d. 1841)... it was recognized as a sect supervised by the Shinto jimukyoku... in 1873. In 1882 it became an independent sect called Shinto Jikko-kyo... The sect combined reverence for Mt. Fuji with emperor-worship and broadly Confucian ethical principles... Today the teachings emphasise cheerfulness and sincerity in daily work. Thousands of members dressed in white climb Fuji every August... "
Jikko Kyo Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 136. "Sect Shinto consists of a wide range of sects with very different philosophies and practices. 13 are officially recognized... Some sects focus on worship of mountains... Members of Jikko Kyo and Fuso Kyo worship Mount Fuji...; Mitake Kyo centers around the worship of Mount Ontake... "
Jingu-kyo Japan - - - - 1872 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 71. "Jingu-kyo: A religious and educational organisation founded in 1872 attached to the Ise Jingu. It acquired the status of a Shinto sect during the Meiji period but is not counted among the thirteen 'Sect Shinto' groups... It was dissolved in September 1899 to be reclassified as a secular organisation, the Jingu Hosai-kai (Ise Shrine Offering Association). It was later renamed the Tokyo-dai-jingu. "
Jinja Honcho Japan 58,511,648 - 78,986
units
- 1970 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 75-76. "In 1993-4 the official Yearkbook of Religions (shukyo nenkan) gave the following statistics for incorporated shrines and individuals affiliated with Jinja Honcho [1970 figures are given in square brackets for comparison]. Shrines - 79,173 [78,986]. 'Kyoshi' (a loose term for 'clergy'...) - 20,336 [17,011]. 'Believers' - 82,631,196 [58,511,647]. "
Jinja Honcho Japan 82,631,200 68.86% 79,173
units
- 1994 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 75-76. "Jinja Honcho: Usually translated into English as 'The Association of Shinto Shrines' or 'The Shrine Association', Jinja Honcho is the present co-ordinating or governing body for most of 'shrine Shinto'... In 1993-4 the official Yearkbook of Religions (shukyo nenkan) gave the following statistics for incorporated shrines and individuals affiliated with Jinja Honcho [1970 figures are given in square brackets for comparison]. Shrines - 79,173 [78,986]. 'Kyoshi' (a loose term for 'clergy'...) - 20,336 [17,011]. 'Believers' - 82,631,196 [58,511,647]. It should be remembered that most of Jinja Honcho's 'Shinto' believers will also be among the 88 million or so who identify themselves in surveys as 'Buddhist' believers in a total population of ca.120 million. "
Jinja Honcho - clergy Japan 17,011 - - - 1970 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 75-76. "In 1993-4 the official Yearkbook of Religions (shukyo nenkan) gave the following statistics for incorporated shrines and individuals affiliated with Jinja Honcho [1970 figures are given in square brackets for comparison]. Shrines - 79,173 [78,986]. 'Kyoshi' (a loose term for 'clergy'...) - 20,336 [17,011]. 'Believers' - 82,631,196 [58,511,647]. "
Jinja Honcho - clergy Japan 20,336 0.02% - - 1994 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 75-76. "In 1993-4 the official Yearkbook of Religions (shukyo nenkan) gave the following statistics for incorporated shrines and individuals affiliated with Jinja Honcho... Shrines - 79,173... 'Kyoshi' (a loose term for 'clergy'...) - 20,336... 'Believers' - 82,631,196... total Japanese population of ca.120 million. "
Jodo Japan - - - - 1175 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 163. "Jodo-shu: Jap., lit. 'School of the Pure Land'; school of Japanese Buddhism derived from the Pure Land school of China. The Jodo-shu was brought to Japan, along with other Buddhist teachings, by the monk Ennin (793-864)... Important representatives... were Kuya (942-1017). In their time recitation of Amida's name was a component of the pratice of all Buddhist schools, especially of the Tendai and Shingon schools. In the 12th century Honen (1133-1212) founded the actual Jodo school... He succeeded in assembling a great host of followers around him & forming them into a powerful organization. "
Jodo Japan 3,646,000 - 8,245
units
- 1945 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 105. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] "Pure Land School [of Buddhism]:... Minor differences exist in the four Japanese sects of Jodo (8,245 temples & 3,646,000 adherents), Shin (19,815 & 13,327,000), Yuzenembutsu (357 & 153,000), and Ji (494 & 350,000). "
Jodo Japan 2,960,000 - - - 1956 Hutchinson, John A. Paths of Faith; New York: McGraw-Hill (1969), pg. 275. [Orig. source: Morgan, Kenneth W. (ed.), "The Path of the Buddha "; New York: The Ronald Press Co. (1956), pg. 332-333.] "Today Pure Land Buddhists number some 18,500,000 adherents. Of these, 77 percent are Shin and 16 percent are Jodo, with the rest spread over several smaller groups. "
Jodo Japan - - - - 1998 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 284. "The single most popular sect [of Buddhismin Japan] is Jodo Shinshu, founded by Shinran... About half of the Japanese Buddhists belong to either Jodo Shinshu, or to Jodo, another form of Amidaism established by Honen... "
Jodo Shinshu Japan - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 537. "Next to Jodo Shin-shu (see Pure Land Sects) Nichiren Buddhism has the largest constituency of all religions in Japan today. "
Jodo Shinshu Japan - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 163. "Jodo-shin-shu: Jap., lit. 'True School of the Pure Land' [distinct from Jodo-shu ('School of the Pure Land')]. The short form is Shin-shu (Shin school). A school of Japanese buddhism that was founded by Shinran (1173-1262) but first organized as a school by Rennyo (1414-99)... The Jodo-shin-shu has no monastic aspect; it is purely a lay community... Today the Jodo-shin-shu is the most important school of Buddhism in Japan and consists of 2 factions: Otani & Honganji. The main temples... are in Kyoto. This division took place in the 17th century... Both factions maintain large universities. "
Jodo Shinshu Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 125. Chapter: Buddhism. "Honen was followed by a disciple named Shinran (1173-1262), whose Jodo Shin ('True Pure Land') sect eschews monasticism, although its leadership is hereditary... Jodo Shin is the leading school of Buddhism in Japan today, with no religious ruls whatever that distinguish its members from ordinary folk. Its two main subschools are Otani and Honganji. "
Jodo Shinshu Japan - - - - 1998 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 284. "The single most popular sect [of Buddhismin Japan] is Jodo Shinshu, founded by Shinran... About half of the Japanese Buddhists belong to either Jodo Shinshu, or to Jodo, another form of Amidaism established by Honen... "
Jojitsu Japan - - - - 624 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 122. Chapter: Buddhism. "By the Nara period (710-94), six schools had been brought over from China: Sanron and Jojitsu (both established in 624), Hosso (654), Kusha (658), Kegon (736), and Ritsu (754); Jojitsu, Kusha, and Ritsu were Hinayana, the other three Mahayana. Of the six, only Hosso, Kegon, and Ritsu have survived in modern Japan, and these have only historical significance and slight membership. "
Jojitsu Japan - - - - 625 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 164. "Jojitsu school: Jap., lit. 'School of the Perfection of Truth'; name of the Japanese branch of the Satyasiddhi school. This teaching was brought to Japan in 625 by Ekwan, a Korean monk who had studied this school in China. Since then, this teaching has been studied in Japan by students of many Buddhist leanings but never regarded as an independent school, rather as part of the Sanron school. "
Jojitsu Japan - - - - 784 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 524. "The six Nara Buddhist schools. Six scholarly disciplines were pursuied by a small number of monks at designated home temples in Nara. They were extensions of Chinese scholarship... Kusha... Jojitsu (Chin.: Ch'eng-shih; Skt.: Satyasiddhi) school. A Hinayana tradition of the Sautrantika branch joining the [Kusha] 'realist' analysis of phenomena to the Mahayana doctrine of a pervasive emptiness (Sunyata)... Sanron... Hosso... Kegon... Ritsu... "
Judaism Japan 2,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* Jewish Communities of the World web site (1998) Table: World Jewry. "collected our data from from demographic and other academic studies, community reports, and up-dates in the general media... consulted with experts to verify findings before reaching our assessments and estimates. "
Kakure Kirishitan Japan 150,000 - - - 1614 *LINK* Nosco, Peter. "Secrecy and the transmission of tradition: Issues in the study of the 'underground' Christians " in Japanese Journal of Religious Studies (March 1993, 20/1), pg. 3. (viewed on JJRS web site 30 Jan. 1999) "DURING THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY as many as 150,000 for the most part poorly catechized and ill prepared Japanese Christians went 'underground' in response to persecution by the Tokugawa state. The story of these people and their successors—the so-called kakure Kirishitan (hidden Christians) "
Kakure Kirishitan Japan - - - - 1850 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 83. "Kakure kirishitan: 'Hidden Christians' who survived the early Tokugawa persecutions, compulsory Buddhist registration and forced renunciation of Christianity during the two-century sakoku ('closed country') period to re-emerge as distinctive religious communities in the mid-nineteenth century. In some cases the kakure kirishitan adopted Shinto tendencies, partly as camouflage and partly to perpetuate indigenous ancestor-veneration... "
Kegon Japan - - - - 742 C.E. *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "KEGON SCHOOL: a branch of BUDDHISM introduced into Japan by the Korean monk JINJO (died 742) which had a significant influence on the rise of ZEN through its identification of NIRVNA and SASRA. "
Kegon Japan - - - - 784 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 524. "The six Nara Buddhist schools. Six scholarly disciplines were pursuied by a small number of monks at designated home temples in Nara. They were extensions of Chinese scholarship... Kusha... Jojitsu... Sanron... Hosso... Kegon (Chin.: Hua-yen) school. Based on the Hua-yen of Avatamsaka Sutra (Wreath or Garland Sutra) and centered on Vairocana as the cosmic Buddha that encompasses all beings--an extravagant grand vision involving the total penetration of the one and the many, the part and the whole, the noumenal and the phenomenal... Ritsu... "
Kobe Nishinomiya Jinja Japan - - 3,000
units
- 1996 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 98. "Kobe Nishinomiya jinja: A famous shrine in Nishinomiya (Kobe) dedicatd to 'Nishinomiya Ebisu', the kami of fishermen and merchants. It has about 3,000 branch temples (bunsha) throughout Japan. "
Kodo Kyodan Japan 417,636 0.36% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 373. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " Classified as Buddhist new religion (year of origin: 1935).
Kokuchukai Japan 22,706 0.02% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 373. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " Classified as Shinto new religion (year of origin: 1914).
Konkokyo Japan - - - - 1921 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 112-113. "Kyoha Shinto: 'Sect Shinto'... In 1921... the official association of Shinto sects had 13 groups... included revelatory 'new' religious movements... such as Tenrikyo, Kurozumi-kyo and Konko-kyo... "
Konkokyo Japan 500,000 - - - 1969 Hutchinson, John A. Paths of Faith; New York: McGraw-Hill (1969), pg. 293. "Konko kyo was founded by Kawati Bunjiro (1814-1883)... A recent census figure lists some 500,000 members. "
Konkokyo Japan 480,072 0.42% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 373. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " Classified as Shinto new religion (year of origin: 1859).
Konkokyo Japan - - - - 1994 *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "KONKO KYO: a SHINTO sect founded by Kawade Bunjiro (1814-1883) in 1881 which seeks to revitalize Shint for contemporary society. The name means 'Golden Lustered Teaching.' It emphasized One GOD and good health as a result of fellowship with God and the repudiation of superstition associated with ritual practice and magical charms. "
Konkokyo Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 136-137. "Sect Shinto consists of a wide range of sects with very different philosophies and practices. 13 are officially recognized... Konko Kyo, whose founder claimed divine revelation, worships... Tenchi Kane no Kami ('The God Who Gives Unity to Heaven and Earth'). "
Korean Christian Church in Japan Japan 4,803 - 58
units
- 1985 *LINK* Takafumi,Iida. "Folk Religion Among the Koreans in Japan The Shamanism of the 'Korean Temples' " in Japanese Journal of Religious Studies June-September 1988 15/2-3. (Viewed on JJRS web site, 30 Jan. 1999) "First, with regard to Christianity, there is no widespread growth like that on the Korean mainland. The main Protestant organization is the Zainichi Daikan Kirisuto Ky'kai S'kai (Korean Christian Church in Japan), with 58 churches claiming 4,803 members throughout Japan... (Zainichi Daikan Kirisuto Ky'kai S'kai 1985, pp. 175-176). "
Kurozumikyo Japan - - - - 1921 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 112-113. "Kyoha Shinto: 'Sect Shinto'... In 1921... the official association of Shinto sects had 13 groups... included revelatory 'new' religious movements... such as Tenrikyo, Kurozumi-kyo and Konko-kyo... "
Kurozumikyo Japan 750,000 - - - 1969 Hutchinson, John A. Paths of Faith; New York: McGraw-Hill (1969), pg. 293. "During the Meiji period the Kurozumi sect grew greatly, but it now has a mere 750,000 members, and its best days have apparently passed. "
Kurozumikyo Japan 218,240 0.19% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 373. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " Classified as Shinto new religion (year of origin: 1814). Listed as "Kurozumi-kyo ".
Kurozumikyo Japan - - - - 1996 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 111. "Kurozumi-kyo: A religious movement founded in the early nineteenth century by Kurozumi, Munetada (1780-1850). The group had a precarious existence as a new religion, but Kurozumi's successors supported early Meiji attempts to create a state religion, the 'great teaching' (taikyo) and the movement was granted official status in 1876 as 'Shinto kurozumi-ha'... Though an independnet religion with distinctive teachings more akin to those of the new religions than jija shinto, Kurozumi-kyo preserves a 'Shinto' identity... "
Kurozumikyo Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 136-137. "Sect Shinto consists of a wide range of sects with very different philosophies and practices. 13 are officially recognized... Kurozumi Kyo is based on the self-healing experiences of Kurozumi Munetada (1780-1850)... "
Kusha Japan - - - - 658 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 122. Chapter: Buddhism. "By the Nara period (710-94), six schools had been brought over from China: Sanron and Jojitsu (both established in 624), Hosso (654), Kusha (658), Kegon (736), and Ritsu (754); Jojitsu, Kusha, and Ritsu were Hinayana, the other three Mahayana. Of the six, only Hosso, Kegon, and Ritsu have survived in modern Japan, and these have only historical significance and slight membership. "
Kusha Japan - - - - 784 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 524. "The six Nara Buddhist schools. Six scholarly disciplines were pursuied by a small number of monks at designated home temples in Nara. They were extensions of Chinese scholarship... Kusha (Chin.: Chu-she; Skt.: Abhidharmakosa) school. A Hinayana tradition of the Sarvastivada branch committed to a 'realist' analysis of phenomena into their component elements (dharmas)... Jojitsu... Sanron... Hosso... Kegon... Ritsu... "
Mahayana Buddhism Japan 100,000,000 - - - 1993 Rausch, David A. & Carl Hermann Voss. World Religions: Our Quest for Meaning; Trinity Press International: Valley Forge, PA (1993), pg. 110. "Approximately 100 million Japanese claim to belong to one of the many Mahayana Buddhist sects. "
Mahikari Japan - - - - 1991 *LINK* Wilson, Andrew (ed). "The World Religions and their Scriptures " in World Scripture. International Religious Foundation, 1991. (viewed 9 July 1999) "The founder of Mahikari, Yoshikazu Okada (1901-1974), was a member of Sekai Kyusei Kyo before receiving his own revelations in 1959 which have been collected into a scripture called Goseigen. The two sects Mahikari [i.e. Sekai Mahikari Bunmei Kyodan] and Sukyo Mahikari both practice a nearly identical form of healing called okiyome, in which God's Light (jorei) is focused through a pendant worn by the practitioner called the omitama. "
Maruyama-kyo Japan 3,251 0.00% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 373. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " Classified as Shinto new religion (year of origin: 1873).
Mennonite World Conference Japan 3,450 - - - 1997 *LINK* Mennonite World Conference web site; page: "Mennonite and Brethren in Christ World Membership Totals " (viewed 8 Aug. 1999). Table: "Mennonite and Brethren in Christ World Membership Totals "; "based on the most recent data available... from 1996 or 1997... statistics indicate baptized members "; Dif. religious bodies: 5.
Methodist Japan - - - - 1941 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 478. "Unions with other denominations have resulted in the statistical disappearance of some churches as solely Methodist, even though characteristic emphasis in theology, worship, and mission continue within united churches... Methodists in Japan and the Philippines joined larger unions in 1941. "
Misogikyo Japan - - - - 1921 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 112-113. "Kyoha Shinto: 'Sect Shinto'... In 1921... the official association of Shinto sects had 13 groups... list also included Izumo oyashiro-kyo, Jikko-kyo, Misogi-kyo, Shinshu-kyo, Shinto shuseiha and Shinri-rikyo. "


Japan, continued

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