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Over 42,000 religious geography and religion statistics citations (membership statistics for over 4,000 different religions, denominations, tribes, etc.) for every country in the world.

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Japan, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Catholic Japan 447,000 0.35% 854
units
- 1995 1998 Catholic Almanac: Our Sunday Visitor: USA (1997), pg. 333-367. Figures are as of Dec. 31, 1995. Number used for "congregations " is from number of Catholic parishes.
Catholic Japan 447,639 0.36% 226
units
- 1995 *LINK* web site: "Basic Facts Christianity in Japan at a Glance " (1998). 1996, 1997, 1998 Paul Tsuchido Shew. Source: 1995 Shukyo Nenkan (Religious Yearbook), Ministry of Education, Agency for Cultural Affairs, pp.30-31. Table: "Statistics on Religious Organizations in Japan as of December 31, 1995 "; "Total population of Japan 125,034,000 "
Choge Buddhism Japan 7,950 - 7
units
- 1988 *LINK* Takafumi,Iida. "Folk Religion Among the Koreans in Japan The Shamanism of the 'Korean Temples' " in Japanese Journal of Religious Studies June-September 1988 15/2-3. (Viewed on JJRS web site, 30 Jan. 1999) "As for Buddhism, there are seven temples in Japan (two in Osaka, four in Tokyo, one in Kyoto) with 7,950 members (4,300 in Osaka, 2,150 in Tokyo, and 1,500 in Kyoto) belonging to the Choge sect, the main Buddhist organization in Korea... Some of the [other] 'Korean temples' which will be discussed below claim to belong to the Choge sect, but since the headquarters in Seoul does not recognize them as branch temples, they should rather be considered as particular examples of syncretistic folk religions. "
Christianity Japan 250,000 - - - 1560 C.E. Dolan, Jr., Edward F. & Shan Finney. The New Japan; New York: Franklin Watts (1983), pg. 61. "In the 1500s, a Portuguese priest, St. Francis Xavier, brought Catholicism [1549] to Japan for the first time. Nearly 250,000 Japanese quickly adopted the relgion. "
Christianity Japan - 10.00% - - 1600 Halverson, Dean C. (ed.) The Compact Guide to World Religions; Colorado Springs, Colorado: International Students Inc. (1996). [Publisher is an Evangelical missionary organization.] Pg. 206. "Christian teachings did make significant inroads during the Christian century (1549-1649). St. Francis Xavier first introduced Roman Catholicism [then]... According to estimates, perhaps 10% of the population as Christian during that era. "
Christianity Japan 500,000 - - - 1600 Reischauer, Edwin O. The Japanese Today: Change and Continuity; Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press (1988), pg. 212 (also pg. 406). "First introduced in 1549, it spread more rapidly in Japan during the next several decades than in any other Asian country, and Christians came to number close to half a million... " [year 1600 specifically mentioned, pg. 406]
Christianity Japan 300,000 - - - 1600 Williams, Lea E. Southeast Asia: A History; New York: Oxford University Press (1976), pg. 59. "...Portuguese missionaries won their greatest victory in Japan, where up to 300,000 peple accepted baptism in the 2nd half of the 16th century... in the following century, the shoguns destroyed the Japanese Christians... "
Christianity Japan 200,000 - - - 1603 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 386. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] "Bishop Cerqueira, who was in charge of the Jesuit mission to Japan at the time, states that the number of Christians under pastoral care in 1603 was 200,000. "
Christianity Japan 750,000 - - - 1605 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 386. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] "Pages, one of the modern Roman Catholic historians, estimates the number of Christian followers in 1605 ast 750,000. This is probably an exaggeration. "
Christianity Japan 750,000 - - - 1606 Oxtoby, Willard G. The Meaning of Other Faiths. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press (1983), pg. 64. "The most significant Christian missionary efforts after the opening of European contact were undertaken by the Jesuits. Saint Francis Xavier... went on to Japan in 1549. By 1606 there were 750,000 Christians in Japan, but persecution soon reduced the figures. Within 80 years of Xavier's arrival Christianity had nearly disappeared from Japan, as the Tokugawa regime sought to seal off the country from foreign influences. "
Christianity Japan - 2.00% - - 1614 *LINK* Nosco, Peter. "Secrecy and the transmission of tradition: Issues in the study of the 'underground' Christians " in Japanese Journal of Religious Studies (March 1993, 20/1), pg. 3. (viewed on JJRS web site 30 Jan. 1999) "Perhaps as much as 2% of the Japanese population had embraced the Christian faith by 1614, the year the religion was proscribed by the Tokugawa government. "
Christianity Japan 300,000 - - - 1614 *LINK* Nosco, Peter. "Secrecy and the transmission of tradition: Issues in the study of the 'underground' Christians " in Japanese Journal of Religious Studies (March 1993, 20/1), pg. 5. (viewed on JJRS web site 30 Jan. 1999) "The figures for numbers of clergy follow GONOI (1983, pp. 157?8). The figure of 300,000 believers is accepted as a maximum both by LAURES (1954, p. 177), who follows the estimate of Bishop Luis de Cerqueira, and by BOXER (1951, p. 321), who follows the estimate of Valentin Carvalho. KATAOKA (1974, p. 17) believes that there were as many as 450,000?00,000 Christians in Japan at the time. GONOI (1990, p. 12) concludes that the total number of Japanese converts to Christianity, without subtracting for deaths or apostasy, reached 760,000. "
Christianity Japan 600,000 - - - 1614 *LINK* Nosco, Peter. "Secrecy and the transmission of tradition: Issues in the study of the 'underground' Christians " in Japanese Journal of Religious Studies (March 1993, 20/1), pg. 5. (viewed on JJRS web site 30 Jan. 1999) "The figures for numbers of clergy follow GONOI (1983, pp. 157?8). The figure of 300,000 believers is accepted as a maximum both by LAURES (1954, p. 177), who follows the estimate of Bishop Luis de Cerqueira, and by BOXER (1951, p. 321), who follows the estimate of Valentin Carvalho. KATAOKA (1974, p. 17) believes that there were as many as 450,000?00,000 Christians in Japan at the time. GONOI (1990, p. 12) concludes that the total number of Japanese converts to Christianity, without subtracting for deaths or apostasy, reached 760,000. "
Christianity Japan 300,000 - - - 1615 *LINK* web site: "Basic Facts Christianity in Japan at a Glance " (1998). 1996, 1997, 1998 Paul Tsuchido Shew "1600-15 Approximately 300,000 Christians in Japan. "
Christianity Japan 420,000 - - - 1952 *LINK* web site: "Basic Facts Christianity in Japan at a Glance " (1998). 1996, 1997, 1998 Paul Tsuchido Shew "1947-52 "Christian Boom " high rate of growth for Christian churches. 420,000 Christians in Japan by 1952. "
Christianity Japan 485,399 0.56% - - 1953 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 368. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] Table: #s of adherents to major religious traditions "Numbers of people claimed by religious organizations as of 31 Dec. in a given year " [Note: figures consistently exceed pop. of Japan by up to 75% due to overlapping claims of Shinto & Buddhist org.]
Christianity Japan 652,518 0.71% - - 1958 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 368. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] Table: #s of adherents to major religious traditions "Numbers of people claimed by religious organizations as of 31 Dec. in a given year " [Note: figures consistently exceed pop. of Japan by up to 75% due to overlapping claims of Shinto & Buddhist org.]
Christianity Japan 711,636 0.74% - - 1963 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 368. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] Table: #s of adherents to major religious traditions "Numbers of people claimed by religious organizations as of 31 Dec. in a given year " [Note: figures consistently exceed pop. of Japan by up to 75% due to overlapping claims of Shinto & Buddhist org.]
Christianity Japan 831,335 0.82% - - 1968 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 368. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] Table: #s of adherents to major religious traditions "Numbers of people claimed by religious organizations as of 31 Dec. in a given year " [Note: figures consistently exceed pop. of Japan by up to 75% due to overlapping claims of Shinto & Buddhist org.]
Christianity Japan 700,000 - - - 1969 Storry, Richard; Japan; New York: David White, Inc. (1969), pg. 107. "There are just short of 700,000 Christians of various denominations, from Roman Catholic to sects such as the Seventh Day Adventists. The figure is less than 1% of the Japanese population. "
Christianity Japan 879,477 0.81% - - 1973 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 368. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] Table: #s of adherents to major religious traditions "Numbers of people claimed by religious organizations as of 31 Dec. in a given year " [Note: figures consistently exceed pop. of Japan by up to 75% due to overlapping claims of Shinto & Buddhist org.]
Christianity Japan 950,491 0.83% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 368. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] Table: #s of adherents to major religious traditions "Numbers of people claimed by religious organizations as of 31 Dec. in a given year " [Note: figures consistently exceed pop. of Japan by up to 75% due to overlapping claims of Shinto & Buddhist org.]
Christianity Japan 870,000 - - - 1979 Pitts, Forrest R. Japan; Grand Rapids, Michigan: Fideler Company (1979), pg. 75. "During the reign of Emperor Meiji this ban was lifted, and Christianity began to grow. Even so, there are still only about 870,000 Japanese Christians. "
Christianity Japan - 1.00% - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 180-181. "In Japan... Christianity remained largely an intellectualized, urban concern of scarcely more than one percent of the population, with half of the one percent holding aloof from any church connection... stagnation of Japanese Christianity as compared with the growth of vigorous new Buddhist movements in Japan. "
Christianity Japan 1,000,000 - - - 1983 Dolan, Jr., Edward F. & Shan Finney. The New Japan; New York: Franklin Watts (1983), pg. 62. "Although the 1947 Peace Constitution granted religious freedom, the number of Christians in Japan today stands at less than one million... Japan today has more than 8,000 Christian churches... "
Christianity Japan 1,688,000 1.39% 8,616
units
- 1985 *LINK* [Orig. source: The International Society for Educational Information, Inc., Tokyo (1998)] "Figures on religious orgs... in 1985 as reported by religious orgs. to the Agency for Cultural Affairs are as follows: Shinto Buddhism Christianity miscellaneous: Shrines, Temples & Churches: 90,832 84,613 8,616 42,027; Priests, Clergy & Ministers 102,000 269,000 22,000 253,000; Members: 115,602,000 92,065,000 1,688,000 14,444,000 "; "The total membership of all religious organizations exceeds the total population of the nation (121 million). The number of adherents to either Shinto or Buddhism alone comes close to the national population. This results from the fact that the same person is often counted as a member by the Shinto shrine of his neighbor hood and again by the Buddhist temple with which his ancestors became affiliated. (Christian church member ship, in principle, excludes affiliation with other religious groups.) "
Christianity Japan - 2.00% - - 1988 Reischauer, Edwin O. The Japanese Today: Change and Continuity; Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press (1988), pg. 212. "Even today its adherents number less than 2% of the population--divided fairly evenly between Catholics and Protestants. "
Christianity Japan 1,000,000 - - - 1990 *LINK* web site: "Basic Facts Christianity in Japan at a Glance " (1998). 1996, 1997, 1998 Paul Tsuchido Shew "1990 Approximately 1,000,000 members of Christians churches (Roman Catholic, Protestant and Orthodox). "
Christianity Japan 1,234,570 1.00% - - 1990 *LINK* web site: "SEND in Japan " (SEND International, an Evangelical missionary org.); (Dec. 1998) "Population - 123,457,000 (1990)... Religion - Shinto, Buddhist, Secular, Christian; Evangelical - .32%... Ministry: Like Western Europe, Japan is wealthy & sophisticated and people feel little need for God. Only one person in 100 is a Christian. "
Christianity Japan - 1.70% - - 1992 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: 7/30/92 issue of GLOBAL PRAYER DIGEST); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) Of its 123 million individuals, only about 1.7% are Christians. An estimated 98% embrace the more traditional Japanese religions of Shintoism, various forms of Buddhism, Confucian ancestor worship and shamanism.
Christianity Japan - 2.00% - - 1992 *LINK* web site: "A Brief Survey of Religion in Modern Japan " (1998). By Paul A. Shew, December 1, 1992. (Waseda University, Tokyo) "In independent surveys where people are asked to state their own religion, there are the approximate results: Shinto 2-3%; Buddhism 20%; Christianity 1-2%; a new religion 10%; no religion 65% "
Christianity Japan 1,745,968 1.40% - - 1993 *LINK* Library of Congress Country Studies 124,711,551 [total pop.] (1993). Shinto 95.8 percent, Buddhist 76.3 percent (most observe both Shinto and Buddhist rites), and 12 percent other religions, including 1.4 percent Christian.
Christianity Japan 1,500,000 - - - 1994 *LINK* Japan Information Network website; "Religion and Customs " page. (Viewed 6 Oct. 1999) "Christianity is also active; there were about 1.5 million Christians in Japan as of the end of 1994. "
Christianity Japan - 1.50% - - 1995 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: Feb. `95 issue of GLOBAL PRAYER DIGEST); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) TOTAL POPULATION IN 1995: 126,319,000. Shinto: 80 percent -- (Overlaps with Buddhist); Buddhist: 58 percent; New Religions: (mostly Buddhist or Shinto offshoots) 24 percent; Muslim: 0.2 percent; Christian: 1.5 percent.
Christianity Japan 1,519,396 1.20% 3,972
units
- 1995 *LINK* web site: "Basic Facts Christianity in Japan at a Glance " (1998). 1996, 1997, 1998 Paul Tsuchido Shew. Source: 1995 Shukyo Nenkan (Religious Yearbook), Ministry of Education, Agency for Cultural Affairs, pp.30-31. Table: "Statistics on Religious Organizations in Japan as of December 31, 1995 "
Christianity Japan - 2.00% - - 1996 "The Church in Japan, Korea, and Far-East Russia " in Ensign (Nov. 1996), pg. 110. "Christians in Japan still represent only about 2 percent of the total population, but The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the third largest Christian denomination in Japan. We have more than 100,000 Japanese members... "
Christianity Japan 1,550,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year. Pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop.
Christianity Japan 1,500,000 1.25% - - 1996 Halverson, Dean C. (ed.) The Compact Guide to World Religions; Colorado Springs, Colorado: International Students Inc. (1996). [Publisher is an Evangelical missionary organization.] Pg. 206. "Only about 1.5 million of the 120 million Japanese declare themselves Christians. But 112 million adhere to Shinto. Many Japanese see themselves as followers of several religions, for 93 million are also Buddhists! "
Christianity Japan 880,130 0.70% - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) observe both Shinto and Buddhist 84%, other 16% (including Christian 0.7%); Total population: 125,732,794.
Christianity Japan 1,250,000 1.00% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 330-331. "Japan's population is about 125 million. "; Pg. 321: "Only 1% of Japanese are Christians, but Christian teachings, especially its social ethics, have influenced Japanese thinking. "
Christianity Japan - 1.20% - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "Basic Facts Christianity in Japan at a Glance " (1998). 1996, 1997, 1998 Paul Tsuchido Shew Table: "Statistical Variences of Religion Affiliation in Japan: Official Membership Statistics vs. Independent Survey Results ": Official organization reporting, Christian 1.2%; survey of religious preference: 1-3%
Christianity Japan - 3.00% - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "Basic Facts Christianity in Japan at a Glance " (1998). 1996, 1997, 1998 Paul Tsuchido Shew Table: "Statistical Variences of Religion Affiliation in Japan: Official Membership Statistics vs. Independent Survey Results ": Official organization reporting, Christian 1.2%; survey of religious preference: 1-3%
Christianity - affiliated Japan - 0.50% - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 180-181. "In Japan... Christianity remained largely an intellectualized, urban concern of scarcely more than one percent of the population, with half of the one percent holding aloof from any church connection... "
Christianity - clergy Japan 22,000 0.02% - - 1985 *LINK* [Orig. source: The International Society for Educational Information, Inc., Tokyo (1998)] "Figures... 1985 as reported by religious orgs. to the Agency for Cultural Affairs are as follows: Shinto Buddhism Christianity miscellaneous: Priests, Clergy & Ministers 102,000 269,000 22,000 253,000... total pop...121 mil. "
Christianity - no denomination supplied Japan 544,349 0.44% 1,149
units
- 1995 *LINK* web site: "Basic Facts Christianity in Japan at a Glance " (1998). 1996, 1997, 1998 Paul Tsuchido Shew. Source: 1995 Shukyo Nenkan (Religious Yearbook), Ministry of Education, Agency for Cultural Affairs, pp.30-31. Table: "Statistics on Religious Organizations in Japan as of December 31, 1995 "; "Total population of Japan 125,034,000 "; Table lists 1,149 churches, with 544,349 adherents, in "Christian - Undifferentiated " category. [ "Undifferentiated " is one of 3 categories of Christians; other 2: Catholic & Protestant]
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Japan 57,093 - - - 1980 Stark, Rodney. "The Rise of a New World Faith " in Latter-day Saint Social Life: Social Research on the LDS Church and its Members, edited by James T. Duke. Religious Studies Center, BYU: Provo, UT (1998), pg. 17. "Table: 1.3: Two Years of Mormon Growth, 1978-80 "; Two columns: "Percentage rate of membership growth 1978-80 " and "Number of members in 1980 "; Growth 1978-80: 79%
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Japan 106,000 0.08% 293
units
- 1995 Deseret News 1997-98 Church Almanac. Deseret News: Salt Lake City, UT (1996), pg. 188-408. "Year-end 1995: Est. population [of country]; Members, [number shown in '# of adherents' column to left] "
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Japan 100,000 - - - 1996 "The Church in Japan, Korea, and Far-East Russia " in Ensign (Nov. 1996), pg. 110. "Christians in Japan still represent only about 2 percent of the total population, but The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the third largest Christian denomination in Japan. We have more than 100,000 Japanese members... "
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Japan 108,000 0.09% 295
units
- 1997 Deseret News 1999-2000 Church Almanac. Deseret News: Salt Lake City, UT (1998), pg. 267-410. Information from a variety of sources. Figures for year-end 1997.
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints - temples Japan - - 1
unit
- 1996 Deseret News 1997-98 Church Almanac. Deseret News: Salt Lake City, UT (1996), pg. 435-436. Table: "Temples of the Church "; Tokyo
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints - temples Japan - - 1
unit
- 1998 *LINK* web site: "LDSWorld "; web page: "Gems Temple Status Page " (viewed 17 July 1999); compiled by Dave Kenison. Updated regularly. Original sources: Deseret News Church Almanac, & announcements thru Church News & other media.; Table: "LOCATIONS & DEDICATIONS OF TEMPLES " (incl. dedication dates)
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints - temples Japan - - 1
unit
- 1999 *LINK* web site: "Kim Siever's Temple Site "; web page: "Asia " (viewed 18 April 1999). Table with columns: Name [of temple], Year: Operating temples: "Tokyo Japan 1980; Manilla Phillipines 1984; Taipei Taiwan 1984; Seoul Korea 1985; Kowloon Hong Kong 1996 "
Church of the Living Word Japan - - 1
unit
- 1975 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991), pg. 283. "mid-1970s there were... 14 congregations in Brazil, Canada, Germany, Ghana, Guam, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, the Philippine Islands, and South Africa. "
Church of the Nazarene Japan 5,938 - 80
units
- 1998 *LINK* official organization web site: Nazarene World Mission Society Church Statistics: Churches; 5 Jan 1998; total population: 126,319,000
Confucianism Japan - - - - 1983 Dolan, Jr., Edward F. & Shan Finney. The New Japan; New York: Franklin Watts (1983), pg. 54-55. "so deeply ingrained in the people & so much of a part of their... traditions, it is said that Confucianism has probably exerted a more powerful influence on Japan than any of the nation's religions... Yushima Seido... is one of the few Confucian shrines still standing in Japan. "
Confucianism Japan - - - - 1988 Reischauer, Edwin O. The Japanese Today: Change and Continuity; Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press (1988), pg. 204. "Confucianism probablyhas more influence on them than does any other of the traditional religions or philosophies... Almost no one considers himself a Confucianist today, but in a sense almost all Japanese are. "
Confucianism Japan - - - - 1993 Hoobler, Thomas & Dorothy Hoobler. Confucianism (series: "World Religions "). New York: Facts on File (1993), pg. 7. "...Confucianism has an influence far greater than the number of its active followers would indicate... Because Chinese civilization spread to Vietnam, Korea, and Japan, elements of Confucianism can also be found in the cultures of those countries. Although few Japanese would call themselves Confucianists, the values of Confucianism still exist in modern Japan. "
Confucianism Japan - - - - 1996 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 17. "Confucianism, though it has no institutional presense in Japan, has played a major role in the evolution of Japanese religion and in particular the character of modern Shinto. While Confucian philosophy, especially of the shushi variety, became the state orthodoxy of Tokugawa Japan a nationwide Buddhist parash system (tera-uke) was simultaneously established to eradicate Christianity... Most of the ethical content of modern Shinto founded on the emperor system... can be traced to the Confucian ideology of the Tokugawa period... "
Confucianism Japan - - - - 1999 *LINK* Japan Information Network website; "Religion and Customs " page. (Viewed 6 Oct. 1999) "The Japanese regard Confucianism as a code of moral precepts rather than a religion. Introduced into Japan at the beginning of the sixth century, Confucianism had a great impact on Japanese thought and behavior, but its influence has declined since World War II. "
Cumberland Presbyterian Church Japan - - 13
units
- 1998 *LINK* official organization web page: 1998 Yearbook of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church counted from directory: "Location Index of Churches "
denominations Japan - - - - 1998 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 284. "There are today an estimated 56 main divisions, and 170 subdivisions, in Japanese Buddhism. "
Ennokyo Japan 306,975 0.27% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 373. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " Classified as "other " new religion (neither Shinto nor Buddhist); origin year: 1919.
Evangelical Japan 395,062 0.32% - - 1990 *LINK* web site: "SEND in Japan " (SEND International, an Evangelical missionary org.); (Dec. 1998) "Population - 123,457,000 (1990)... Religion - Shinto, Buddhist, Secular, Christian; Evangelical - .32%... Ministry: Like Western Europe, Japan is wealthy & sophisticated and people feel little need for God. Only one person in 100 is a Christian. "
Fuji-ko Japan - - - - 1515 C.E. Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 27. "Fuji-ko: A sect, popular during the Tokugawa period, devoted to the climbing of Mt. Fuji. It was founded in the early sixteenth century by Hasegawa, Takematsu (known as Kakugyo). It was one of more than 800 Fuji sects. See e.g. Fuso-kyo, Jikko-kyo. "
Fuso-kyo Japan - - - - 1882 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 32. "Fuso-kyo: One of the 13 groups of sect Shinto (Kyoba Shinto). Fuso is a name for Japan. The original inspiration of Fuso-kyo is said to be Hasegawa, Kakugyo... but the person usually regarded as its founder lived 300 years later. Shishino, Nakaba (1844-1884) began to attract followers devoted to climbing Mt. Fuji in 1875 and his group was recognized as an independent sect in 1882. "
Fuso-kyo Japan - - - - 1921 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 112-113. "Kyoha Shinto: 'Sect Shinto'... In 1921... the official association of Shinto sects had 13 groups... Omoto-kyo which is sometimes listed as one of the 13 came under the auspices of Fuso-kyo... "
Fuso-kyo Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 136. "Sect Shinto consists of a wide range of sects with very different philosophies and practices. 13 are officially recognized... Some sects focus on worship of mountains... Members of Jikko Kyo and Fuso Kyo worship Mount Fuji...; Mitake Kyo centers around the worship of Mount Ontake... "
Gedatsukai Japan 216,528 0.19% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 373. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " Classified as Buddhist new religion (year of origin: 1929).
Gedatsukai Japan - - 300
units
- 1984 Earhart, H. Byron. Religions of Japan: Many Traditions Within One Sacred Way. San Francisco, CA: Harper & Row (1984), pg. 117. "Gedatsu-kai... Okano died in 1948, but the movement he founded continued to grow, expanding to more than three hundred local branches with several hundred thousand members in Japan. "
Greek Orthodox Japan 41,000 - - - 1940 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 387. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] "For the same period [close of 1940] the Roman Catholic Church reported 119,000 adherents, and the Greek Orthodox Church an additional 41,000. "
Hito no Michi Japan - - - - 1931 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 572. "The second precursor movement [of PL Kyodan] was founded by a disciple of Kanada, an Obaku Zen priest, Miki Chojiro (1871-1938), who with his teenage son, Akisada (b. 1900), came to Kanada in 1916... After Kanada's death in 1919 [his] movement faded, but in 1924 Miki Tokuharu [Chojiro]... organized a movement called Jindo-Tokumitsu-kyo (the human way as taught by Tokumitsu). In 1931 the name was changed to Hito no Michi (lit. 'the way of man'). This movement flourished during the early 1930s, but by 1936 it had become the object of persecution by the government... In 1937 the government ordered the dissolution of the movement... 1945... Miki Tokuchika [Akisada]... began to reconsruct the movement with a remnant of its former members [into] PL Kyodan... "
Honganji Japan - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 163. "Jodo-shin-shu: Jap., lit. 'True School of the Pure Land' [distinct from Jodo-shu ('School of the Pure Land')]. The short form is Shin-shu (Shin school). A school of Japanese buddhism that was founded by Shinran (1173-1262) but first organized as a school by Rennyo (1414-99)... The Jodo-shin-shu has no monastic aspect; it is purely a lay community... Today the Jodo-shin-shu is the most important school of Buddhism in Japan and consists of 2 factions: Otani & Honganji. The main temples... are in Kyoto. This division took place in the 17th century... Both factions maintain large universities. "
Honganji Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 125. Chapter: Buddhism. "Jodo Shin is the leading school of Buddhism in Japan today, with no religious ruls whatever that distinguish its members from ordinary folk. Its two main subschools are Otani and Honganji. "
Honmichi Japan 480,072 0.42% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 373. [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.] "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " Classified as Shinto new religion (year of origin: 1913).
Honmichi Japan 900,000 - - - 1996 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 55. "Honmichi: 'Original Way'. A group related to but smaller than Tenrikyo, it also claims descent from Nakayama,Miki and split from Tenrikyo in 1925. Its leader Onishi, Aijiro received a separate revalation from the kami on the basis of which he openly criticised the emperor system and predicted a devastating war if Japan did not turn to his teachings. Honmichi was disbanded and Onishi imprisoned. The movement regrouped after the war. Its membership is currently put at about 900,000. "


Japan, continued

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