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Over 42,000 religious geography and religion statistics citations (membership statistics for over 4,000 different religions, denominations, tribes, etc.) for every country in the world.

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Jamaica, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Baptist World Alliance Jamaica 45,150 1.78% 303
units
- 1998 *LINK* Baptist World Alliance web site; page: "BWA Statistics " (viewed 31 March 1999). "Figures are for BWA affiliated conventions/unions only (no independents included). "; Table with 3 columns: Country, "Churches ", & "Members "; "1997/1998 Totals "; [BWA stats. in individual countries are sum of figures for member bodies of BWA in the countries.]; [County population figures for 1998 from United Nations data available here.]
Brethren Jamaica 10,000 - - - 1979 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: OPERATION WORLD -1979); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) Protestants 75%. Community 903,000. Denominations 70. Largest groups: Anglicans 350,000 adherents; Baptists (3) 160,000; all Pentecostals (6+) 150,000; Methodists 55,000; Brethren 10,000
Catholic Jamaica - 7.00% - - 1979 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: OPERATION WORLD -1979); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) Total Population: 2,100,000. Roman Catholics 7%.
Catholic Jamaica 184,320 8.00% - - 1987 *LINK* Library of Congress Country Studies Est. 2304000 total pop. About 75 percent of Jamaica's population was Protestant, and 8 percent was Roman Catholic; various Muslim, Jewish, and spiritualist groups were also present. Rastafarians constituted roughly 5 percent of the population.
Catholic Jamaica - 5.00% - - 1992 Goring, Rosemary (ed). Larousse Dictionary of Beliefs & Religions (Larousse: 1994) pg. 581-584. Table: "Population Distribution of Major Beliefs "; "Figures have been compiled from the most accurate recent available information and are in most cases correct to the nearest 1% "
Catholic Jamaica 107,000 4.20% 78
units
- 1995 1998 Catholic Almanac: Our Sunday Visitor: USA (1997), pg. 333-367. Figures are as of Dec. 31, 1995. Number used for "congregations " is from number of Catholic parishes.
Catholic Jamaica 120,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year. Pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop.
Catholic Jamaica 130,779 5.00% - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Protestant 55.9% (Church of God 18.4%, Baptist 10%, Anglican 7.1%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6.9%, Pentecostal 5.2%, Methodist 3.1%, United Church 2.7%, other 2.5%), Roman Catholic 5%, other 39.1% (1982); Total population: 2,615,582 (1997).
Catholic Jamaica - 11.50% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "
Christianity Jamaica 2,000,000 80.00% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 2 - Americas. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 259-260. "Location: Jamaica; Population: 2.5 million "; Pg. 260: "Religion is an important part of life for Jamaicans. More than 80% are Christian. Jamaicans' major religions include Anglicanism, Protestantism, and Roman Catholicism. "
Church of God Jamaica 481,267 18.40% - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Protestant 55.9% (Church of God 18.4%, Baptist 10%, Anglican 7.1%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6.9%, Pentecostal 5.2%, Methodist 3.1%, United Church 2.7%, other 2.5%), Roman Catholic 5%, other 39.1% (1982); Total population: 2,615,582 (1997).
Church of God in Christ, Mennonite Jamaica 7 - - - 1998 *LINK* Mennonite World Conference web site. Directory 1998. Web page: "Carribean, Central & South America: Mennonite & Brethren in Christ Churches " JAMAICA: Church of God in Christ, Mennonite; Members: 7
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Jamaica 3,300 0.10% 15
units
- 1995 Deseret News 1997-98 Church Almanac. Deseret News: Salt Lake City, UT (1996), pg. 188-408. "Year-end 1995: Est. population [of country]; Members, [number shown in '# of adherents' column to left] "
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Jamaica 3,500 - 15
units
- 1995 *LINK* LDS-GEMS In 1995 there were 3,500 members in two districts (Kingston and Mandeville) in fifteen branches.
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Jamaica 3,700 0.10% 13
units
- 1997 Deseret News 1999-2000 Church Almanac. Deseret News: Salt Lake City, UT (1998), pg. 267-410. Information from a variety of sources. Figures for year-end 1997.
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Jamaica - - 19
units
- 1998 *LINK* LDS-GEMS There are currently nineteen branches in Jamaica.
Church of the Nazarene Jamaica 2,154 0.08% 28
units
- 1998 *LINK* official organization web site: Nazarene World Mission Society Church Statistics: Churches; 6 Jan 1998; total population: 2,706,000
Ethiopian Orthodox Church in the United States of America Jamaica 10,000 - 10
units
- 1984 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991), pg. 139-140. Section: Non-Chalcedonian Orthodoxy. "Membership: In 1984, the Church reported 34 parishes and misions, 5,000 members, and 15 clergy. There are approximately 10,000 members in 7 parishes and 3 missions in Jamaica. "
Evangelical Jamaica - 20.00% - - 1979 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: OPERATION WORLD -1979); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) Protestants 75%. Community 903,000. Denominations 70. Largest groups: Anglicans, Baptists, Pentecostals, Methodists, Brethren. Evangelicals 20%. A majority of the Protestants are nominal but the Evangelicals are strong.
Islam Jamaica 4,200 0.20% - - 2000 K. F. Bin Mohd Noor. "Muslims Statistics... for Year 2000 " [orig. src: Barrett. World Christian Encyclopedia, 1982] Table
Jamaica Baptist Union Jamaica 45,150 - 303
units
- 1998 *LINK* Baptist World Alliance web site; page: "BWA Statistics " (viewed 31 March 1999). "Figures are for BWA affiliated conventions/unions only (no independents included). "; Table with 3 columns: Country, "Churches ", & "Members "; "1997/1998 Totals "
Jamaica Mennonite Church Jamaica 550 - 12
units
- 1998 *LINK* Mennonite World Conference web site. Directory 1998. Web page: "Carribean, Central & South America: Mennonite & Brethren in Christ Churches " JAMAICA... Jamaica Mennonite Church; Members: 550; Congregations: 12
Jehovah's Witnesses Jamaica 7,176 0.31% 166
units
- 1983 Botting, Heather & Gary Botting. The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. Toronto: University of Toronto Press (1984), pg. 53-59. Table: "1983 Service Year Report of JWs Worldwide "; Adherent count here is from "1983 Peak Publishers " column
Jehovah's Witnesses Jamaica 10,614 0.42% 183
units
- 1997 *LINK* official organization web site Adherent/member count is for "1997 Peak Witnesses "; Memorial attendance (annual sacrament meeting) for same year: 32,903.
Jehovah's Witnesses Jamaica 11,003 0.44% 183
units
- 1998 *LINK* Jehovah's Witnesses official web site; section: "Statistics "; web page: "Worldwide Report " (viewed 16 April 1999). Table: "1998 Report of Jehovah's Witnesses Worldwide "; This adherent/member count is for "1998 Peak Witnesses "
Jehovah's Witnesses Jamaica - 0.50% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "
Jehovah's Witnesses - Memorial attendance Jamaica 19,256 - 166
units
- 1983 Botting, Heather & Gary Botting. The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. Toronto: University of Toronto Press (1984), pg. 53-59. Table: "1983 Service Year Report of JWs Worldwide "; Data from columns: "No. of congs. " and "Memorial attendance "
Jehovah's Witnesses - Memorial attendance Jamaica 32,903 1.32% 183
units
- 1997 *LINK* official organization web site From 1997 Statistics "Memorial attendance " column. Count of all who attend this once-a-year meeting, whether or not a "publisher " in full standing. Most would be considered adherents.
Jehovah's Witnesses - Memorial attendance Jamaica 28,063 1.12% - - 1998 *LINK* Jehovah's Witnesses official web site; section: "Statistics "; web page: "Worldwide Report " (viewed 16 April 1999). Table: "1998 Report of Jehovah's Witnesses Worldwide "; "Memorial attendance " column indicates attendance at yearly communion meeting.
Judaism Jamaica 300 - - - 1998 *LINK* Jewish Communities of the World web site (1998) Table: World Jewry. "collected our data from from demographic and other academic studies, community reports, and up-dates in the general media... consulted with experts to verify findings before reaching our assessments and estimates. "
King of Kings Mission Jamaica 800 - - - 1943 Chevannes, Barry. Rastafari: Roots and Ideology. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press (1994), pg. 141-142. "...in the early 1940s... Being secretary, Biini saw the mission through an intensive period of growth, in which, he said, membership grew from a mere 100 to about 250 in a matter of 8 months, and over the next few years to some 800... division and conflict in the organization between the young men in leading positions, and among the membership led to the breakup of the King of Kings Mission... By mid-1940s a group of them elected Morris... "
Mennonite World Conference Jamaica 557 - - - 1997 *LINK* Mennonite World Conference web site; page: "Mennonite and Brethren in Christ World Membership Totals " (viewed 8 Aug. 1999). Table: "Mennonite and Brethren in Christ World Membership Totals "; "based on the most recent data available... from 1996 or 1997... statistics indicate baptized members "; Dif. religious bodies: 2.
Methodist Jamaica 55,000 - - - 1979 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: OPERATION WORLD -1979); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) Protestants 75%. Community 903,000. Denominations 70. Largest groups: Anglicans 350,000 adherents; Baptists (3) 160,000; all Pentecostals (6+) 150,000; Methodists 55,000; Brethren 10,000
Methodist Jamaica - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 478. "[Methodist] Churches having more than 20,000 members are found in... New Zealand; Germany, Ireland; Jamaica, Mexico, and Brazil. "
Methodist Jamaica 81,083 3.10% - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Protestant 55.9% (Church of God 18.4%, Baptist 10%, Anglican 7.1%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6.9%, Pentecostal 5.2%, Methodist 3.1%, United Church 2.7%, other 2.5%), Roman Catholic 5%, other 39.1% (1982); Total population: 2,615,582 (1997).
Mt. Zion Sanctuary Jamaica - - 12
units
- 1988 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991), pg. 251. Chapter: Pentecostal Family; section: White Trinitarian Pentecostals. Church reporting.
Nonreligious Jamaica - 18.00% - - 1992 Goring, Rosemary (ed). Larousse Dictionary of Beliefs & Religions (Larousse: 1994) pg. 581-584. Table: "Population Distribution of Major Beliefs "; "Figures have been compiled from the most accurate recent available information and are in most cases correct to the nearest 1% "
Obeah Jamaica - - - - 1998 Davis, Rod. American Voudou: Journey Into A Hidden World. Denton, Texas: University of North Texas Press (1998), pg. 9. "In different areas, voudou has different rituals and doctrines, running a sectarian range roughly comparable to that from Judaism through Protestantism to Catholicism. In Haiti, the religion metamorphosed into vodun or vaudoux; in Cuba, santeria, in Brazil, candomble; in Trinidad, Shango Baptist; in Mexico, curanderismo; in Jamaica, obeah. In the American South, it became voodoo and, in the most extreme caricature, hoodoo... "
other Jamaica 980,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year. Pg. 781-783. Table; "other " = NOT Roman Catholic, Anglican or Protestant
Pentecostal Jamaica 150,000 - - - 1979 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: OPERATION WORLD -1979); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) Protestants 75%. Community 903,000. Denominations 70. Largest groups: Anglicans 350,000 adherents; Baptists (3) 160,000; all Pentecostals (6+) 150,000; Methodists 55,000; Brethren 10,000
Pentecostal Jamaica 136,010 5.20% - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Protestant 55.9% (Church of God 18.4%, Baptist 10%, Anglican 7.1%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6.9%, Pentecostal 5.2%, Methodist 3.1%, United Church 2.7%, other 2.5%), Roman Catholic 5%, other 39.1% (1982); Total population: 2,615,582 (1997).
Protestant Jamaica - 75.00% - - 1979 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: OPERATION WORLD -1979); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) Protestants 75%. Community 903,000. Denominations 70. Largest groups: Anglicans, Baptists, Pentecostals, Methodists, Brethren. Evangelicals 20%. A majority of the Protestants are nominal but the Evangelicals are strong.
Protestant Jamaica 1,728,000 75.00% - - 1987 *LINK* Library of Congress Country Studies Est. 2304000 total pop. About 75 percent of Jamaica's population was Protestant, and 8 percent was Roman Catholic; various Muslim, Jewish, and spiritualist groups were also present. Rastafarians constituted roughly 5 percent of the population.
Protestant Jamaica - 56.00% - - 1992 Goring, Rosemary (ed). Larousse Dictionary of Beliefs & Religions (Larousse: 1994) pg. 581-584. Table: "Population Distribution of Major Beliefs "; "Figures have been compiled from the most accurate recent available information and are in most cases correct to the nearest 1% "; Protestant "includes all non-Roman Catholic denominations "
Protestant Jamaica 1,230,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year. Pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop.
Protestant Jamaica 1,462,110 55.90% - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Protestant 55.9% (Church of God 18.4%, Baptist 10%, Anglican 7.1%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6.9%, Pentecostal 5.2%, Methodist 3.1%, United Church 2.7%, other 2.5%), Roman Catholic 5%, other 39.1% (1982); Total population: 2,615,582 (1997).
Protestant Jamaica - 70.00% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "
Protestant Reformed Churches in America Jamaica - - 7
units
- 1988 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991), pg. 160. "Protestestant Reformed Churches in America... There is a mission in Jamaica with seven congregations. "
Rastafarian Jamaica - - - - 1930 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 600-601. "Rastafari movement... originated in Jamaica in 1930, as a religious response to the coronation of Crown Prince Ras Tafari, as Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia... "
Rastafarian Jamaica - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 13). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1832. "...the Ras Tafari movement of Jamaica. Like some other movements in less-developed societies, the Ras Tafarians are not a distinct sect with a coherent organization, but a collection of groups of greater or lesser degrees of permanence, centred around a number of spasmodically emerging leaders, who proclaim a broad similar set of beliefs. "
Rastafarian Jamaica 115,200 5.00% - - 1987 *LINK* Library of Congress Country Studies Est. 2304000 total pop. About 75 percent of Jamaica's population was Protestant, and 8 percent was Roman Catholic; various Muslim, Jewish, and spiritualist groups were also present. Rastafarians constituted roughly 5 percent of the population.
Rastafarian Jamaica 70,000 - - - 1987 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: 4/6/87 issue of GLOBAL PRAYER DIGEST); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) Approximately 70,000 followers live in the slums of Jamaica, while another 180,000 have scattered across the Caribbean islands, then into the black ghettoes of the U.S. and Britain, making converts as they settle.
Rastafarian Jamaica - 5.00% - - 1992 Goring, Rosemary (ed). Larousse Dictionary of Beliefs & Religions (Larousse: 1994) pg. 581-584. Table: "Population Distribution of Major Beliefs "; "Figures have been compiled from the most accurate recent available information and are in most cases correct to the nearest 1% "
Rastafarian Jamaica - - - - 1994 *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "RASTAFARIAN: JAMAICAN religious SECT which believes in the DIVINITY of Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie... "
Rastafarian Jamaica 100,000 4.00% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 2 - Americas. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 259-260. "Location: Jamaica; Population: 2.5 million "; Pg. 260: "Nearly 100,000 call themselves Rastafarians. Rastafarians are members of a Jamaican messianic movement dating back to the 1930s. Jamaican Marcus Garvey founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association... Today Garvey is a national hero. "
Rastafarian or sympathizers Jamaica - 60.00% - - 1988 *LINK* web site: New Religious Movements (University of Virginia); web page: "Rastafarianism " (viewed 24 April 1999). Prepared by Rebecca Haessig, Spring 1996; Last updated: 03/15/99. "Size of the Group: six out of ten Jamaicans are believed to be Rastafarians or Rastafarian sympathizers. "
Seventh-day Adventist Jamaica - 6.67% - - 1993 *LINK* web site: "Adventist Images "; web page: "Membership Density " (viewed 25 June 1999); "Copyright 1996 - Pacific Union Conference of Seventh Day Adventists " "Adventist Believers - High and Low Density "; Table: "Ratio of church membership to country population "; Ratio: 1:15
Seventh-day Adventist Jamaica 180,475 6.90% - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Protestant 55.9% (Church of God 18.4%, Baptist 10%, Anglican 7.1%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6.9%, Pentecostal 5.2%, Methodist 3.1%, United Church 2.7%, other 2.5%), Roman Catholic 5%, other 39.1% (1982); Total population: 2,615,582 (1997).
Spiritism Jamaica - 9.50% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "
United Church in Jamaica and the Cayman Islands Jamaica 70,621 2.70% - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Protestant 55.9% (Church of God 18.4%, Baptist 10%, Anglican 7.1%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6.9%, Pentecostal 5.2%, Methodist 3.1%, United Church 2.7%, other 2.5%), Roman Catholic 5%, other 39.1% (1982); Total population: 2,615,582 (1997).
Unity Church Jamaica - - 6
units
- 1998 *LINK* official organization web site (viewed 1998) Counted the churches in their directory.
Universal Foundation for Better Living Jamaica - - 1
unit
- 1998 *LINK* official organization web site directory
affiliated Japan 15,600,000 13.60% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984], pg. 379. 1979 survey "asked people about their membership... With regard to religious orgs., only 13.6 were members. This percentage, applied to the 1978 population, suggests that only 15.6 mil. people counted themselves as adherents of religious organizations. "
affiliated Japan 219,838,672 176.00% 183,873
units
- 1995 *LINK* web site: "Basic Facts Christianity in Japan at a Glance " (viewed 1998). 1996, 1997, 1998 Paul Tsuchido Shew. Source: 1995 Shukyo Nenkan (Religious Yearbook), Ministry of Education, Agency for Cultural Affairs, pp.30-31. Table: "Statistics on Religious Organizations in Japan as of December 31, 1995 " [ "Affiliated " here is the total counted by religious organizations. Represents multiple counting by Buddhist & Shinto organizations.]
Agon-shu Japan - - - - 1991 *LINK* Wilson, Andrew (ed). "The World Religions and their Scriptures " in World Scripture. International Religious Foundation, 1991. (viewed 9 July 1999) "Another new religion with Buddhist roots is Agon-shu, which uses the Dhammapada and other Theravada sutras as scripture combined with esoteric Shingon Buddhist practices. "
Ainu Japan 23,797 - - - 1807 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 26. "An 1807 survey reported the Hokkaido and Sakhalin Ainu population as 23,797. Mixed marriages between Ainu and mainland Japanese became more common over the last century. In 1986 the total number of people in Hokkaido identifying themselves as Ainu was 24,381. "
Ainu Japan - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 17. "Ainu religion: The Ainu people, are the aboriginal inhabitants of Japan who were, from about the seventh century A.D., gradually driven northward by the Japanese. By the Meiji era (late nineteenth century) they were found only in the northernmost of the main islands of the Japanese archipelago, Hokkaido. Since that time the tendency has been for them to be assimilated by the dominant Japanese culture. "
Ainu Japan 24,381 - - - 1986 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 26. "Mixed marriages between Ainu and mainland Japanese became more common over the last century. In 1986 the total number of people in Hokkaido identifying themselves as Ainu was 24,381. " [Ainus had a distinctive religion. But these statistics are measures of ethnic/cultural affiliation, not how many practice Ainu religion.]
Ainu Japan - - - - 1992 Peddicord, Kathleen (ed). The World's Best: The Ultimate Book for the International Traveler. Baltimore, MD: Agora, Inc. (1992), pg. 295. "Hokkaido is also known as the home of the Ainu, a fast-disappearing people originally from Honshu who have been forced north into the mountains. The Ainu are Caucasians, who, unlike other Japanese, have light skin and hairy bodies. The men often have thick beards, and the women have blue tattoos around their mouths. The best place to see their huts and their rituals of worship--the Ainu practice a form of nature worship influenced by Shintoism--is a small colony in Asahikawa, Hokkaido's 2nd-largest city. You also can visit a display village in Shiraoi, near Noboribetsu Spa on the south coast. "
Ainu Japan - - - - 1996 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996), pg. 1. "Ainu: Or emishi, (y)ezo). Indigenous inhabitants of Japan who were gradually pushed back to the northern island of Hokkaido by Japanese expansionist wars. Hokkaido was fully colonised by the Japanese only in the 20th century. Ainu culture is different from Japanese, but there have been many cross-influences in the long course of Japanese-Ainu relations... The best-known Ainu festival is the iyomante or kuma matsuri (bear sacrifice festival). "
Ainu Japan - - - - 1997 Leibo, Steven A. East, Southeast Asia, and the Western Pacific 1997 (The World Today Series). Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Stryker-Post Publications (1997), pg. 47. "Ethnic Background:... There is a very small community of Ainu on Hokkaido Island who are physically very different from the Japanese, possibly descended from the earliest inhabitants of the islands. "
Ainu Japan 25,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 26. "Ainu: Location: Japan (Hokkaido); Population: 25,000; Religion: Traditional pantheistic beliefs "; "As with indigenous people in the U.S. and many other nations, the Ainu have largely assimilated. And like many other such groups, there have been signs of cultural revival recently. " [Ainus had a distinctive religion. But these statistics are measures of ethnic/cultural affiliation, not how many practice Ainu religion.]
Amidism Japan - - - - 1282 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 538. "Nichiren Buddhism has been criticized as... intolerant... Nichiren condemned other sects in the stinging phrase: Nembutsu mugen, Zen tenma, Shingon bokoku, Ritsu kokuzoku (the Nembutsu--Amida Buddhism--is hell; Zen is a devil; Shingon is the nation's ruin; and Ritsu is treason).' "
Amidism Japan - - - - 1300 C.E. Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998), pg. 285. "Back in the Kamakura Period, when religion was a much more vital social force than it is today, the Amidaists directly contended for converts with the followers of the obstinate reformer Nichiren... "
Amidism Japan - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 8. "Amidism: generic term under which are comprehended all schools of Chinese and Japanese Buddhism that have made Amitabha the central point of their teaching. Included are the Pure Land school, Jodo-shin-shu, and Jodo-shu. "


Japan, continued

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