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Over 42,000 religious geography and religion statistics citations (membership statistics for over 4,000 different religions, denominations, tribes, etc.) for every country in the world.

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Indonesia, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
primal-indigenous Indonesia - 1.00% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "; listed in table as "animism "
Protestant Indonesia - 7.00% - - 1978 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: OPERATION WORLD, by P. J. Johnstone STL Publications, P. O. Box 48, Bromley, Kent, England. Published in 1978); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) Protestants 7%, majority on Timor, West Irian, Moluccas and in parts of Sumatra, Kalimantan and Sulawesi. Community 8,500,000. Denominations - 63. Linked with the National Christian Council - 42
Protestant Indonesia - 7.00% - - 1992 Goring, Rosemary (ed). Larousse Dictionary of Beliefs & Religions (Larousse: 1994) pg. 581-584. Table: "Population Distribution of Major Beliefs "; "Figures have been compiled from the most accurate recent available information and are in most cases correct to the nearest 1% "; Protestant "includes all non-Roman Catholic denominations "
Protestant Indonesia 11,741,040 6.00% - - 1992 *LINK* Library of Congress Country Studies 195,683,531 [total pop.] (1992). Most (87 percent) observe Islam; 6 percent Protestant, 3 percent Roman Catholic, 2 percent Hindu, 1 percent Buddhist, 1 percent other.
Protestant Indonesia 11,970,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year. Pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop.
Protestant Indonesia 12,586,448 6.00% - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Muslim 87%, Protestant 6%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other 1% (1985); Total Population: 209,774,138 (1997 est.).
Protestant Indonesia 11,700,000 6.00% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 297. "Location: Indonesia; Population: 195 million; Religion: Islam (87%); Protestantism (6%); Catholicism (3%); Hinduism (3%); Buddhism (1%) "
Protestant Indonesia - 9.50% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "
Protestant Christian Batak Church Indonesia 650,000 - - - 1956 Beck, Vector E. Why I Am a Lutheran. New York: Thomas Nelson & Sons (1956), pg. 115. "In Asia the Batak Church, principally on the island of Sumatra, with some 650,000 bronze Lutherans, is the biggest Lutheran Church outside the western world... "
Protestant Christian Batak Church Indonesia 1,559,478 - - - 1995 *LINK* Evangelical Lutheran Church in America web site; web page: "January 25, 1996 News Releases " (viewed 9 July 1999). Story: "More than 60 Million Lutherans Worldwide " [96-01-003-FI] List: "Lutheran Churches with more than 1/2 million members "
Protestant Christian Batak Church Indonesia - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 102. "The self-governing Toba church (Huria Kristen Batak Protestant or HKBP) is the largest Christian body in Indonesia (and one of the most powerful). The Simalungun and Karo Protestants have each established their own churches... To a considerable extent, however, Christian and Muslim Batak maintain beliefs and practices of the traditional religion alongside those of the newer creeds. "
Protestant Christian Batak Church Indonesia - - - - 1999 *LINK* AP. "Religion Briefs: Number of Lutherans rises to 63.1 million worldwide " in Deseret News (online, 29 Jan. 2000) "number of Lutherans... biggest numerical increase occurred in Asia, where there were 6.5 million Lutherans in 1999 compared with 4.8 million the previous year. Most of that growth occurred in Indonesia's Protestant Christian Batak Church. "
Revival Fellowship Indonesia - - 1
unit
- 1998 *LINK* official organization web site directory of assemblies (or contacts?). This is the number of listings in a particular country, but I'm not sure it can be taken as a count of congregations.
Sarekat Islam Indonesia 350,000 90.00% - - 1916 Williams, Lea E. Southeast Asia: A History; New York: Oxford University Press (1976), pg. 172. "Sarekat Islam came into being in 1912... the organization was able to address itself to some 90% of the people of the archipelago and, in fact, enlisted over 350,000 members in its first four years. "
Sarvastivada Buddhism Indonesia - - - - 650 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 53. "In the 7th century Sumatra and Java were already important study centers for Buddhism... The dominant current was Mahayana; in addition, however, there were also Hinayana communities, which probably belonged to the Sarvastida school... "
Sikhism Indonesia - - 2
units
- 1993 O'Brien, J. & M. Palmer. The State of Religion Atlas. Simon & Schuster: New York (1993). Pg 30-31. Map: Number of Sikh gurdwaras ( "a gurdwara is both a place of worship and community centre ")
Simalungun Indonesia 200,000 - - - 1990 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 101. "Batak: Location: Indonesia (North Sumatra); Population: 3 to 6 million "; "According to the 1990 census, speakers of the... [three] Batak languages... numbered over 3.1 million... Assuming the percentages given in the 1930 colonial census are still accurate, one can break the total down as follows: 1.65 million Toba, living around Lake Toba, on Samosir Island, & in the highlands to the south; 500,000 Karo to the northwest of the lake; 200,000 Simalungun, east of the lake; 100,000 Dairi, west of the lake; & 650,000 Angkola a&nd Mandailing between the Toba & the Minangkabau. " [NOTE: These are tribal/cultural (NOT religious) stats.]
Sinode Jemaat Kristen Indonesia Indonesia 3,500 - 52
units
- 1998 *LINK* Mennonite World Conference web site. Directory 1998. Web page: "Asia/Pacific: Mennonite & Brethren in Christ Churches " INDONESIA... Sinode Jemaat Kristen Indonesia (JKI)... Members: 3,500+/-; Congregations: 52
Subud Indonesia - - - - 1921 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 719. "Subud. Movement started in Indonesia after World War I by Muhammad Subuh (b. 1901)... "
Tenrikyo - graduated from Shuyoka Indonesia 2 - - - 1998 *LINK* official Tenrikyo web site; page: "A Statistical Review of Tenrikyo: 2 of 2 " (viewed 10 Dec. 1999) Table: "Statistics on followers who... graduated from Shuyoka... between Jan. and Dec. 1998. "; "Data by Research Section and Overseas Mission Department "
Tenrikyo - new Besseki Pledge Indonesia 17 - - - 1998 *LINK* official Tenrikyo web site; page: "A Statistical Review of Tenrikyo: 2 of 2 " (viewed 10 Dec. 1999) Table: "Statistics on followers who took the Besseki Pledge... between Jan. and Dec. 1998. "; "Data by Research Section and Overseas Mission Department "
Tenrikyo - received the Sazuke Indonesia 17 - - - 1998 *LINK* official Tenrikyo web site; page: "A Statistical Review of Tenrikyo: 2 of 2 " (viewed 10 Dec. 1999) Table: "Statistics on followers who... received the Sazuke... between Jan. and Dec. 1998. "; "Data by Research Section and Overseas Mission Department "
Toba Indonesia 1,650,000 - - - 1990 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 101. "Batak: Location: Indonesia (North Sumatra); Population: 3 to 6 million "; "According to the 1990 census, speakers of the... [three] Batak languages... numbered over 3.1 million... Assuming the percentages given in the 1930 colonial census are still accurate, one can break the total down as follows: 1.65 million Toba, living around Lake Toba, on Samosir Island, & in the highlands to the south; 500,000 Karo to the northwest of the lake; 200,000 Simalungun, east of the lake; 100,000 Dairi, west of the lake; & 650,000 Angkola a&nd Mandailing between the Toba & the Minangkabau. " [NOTE: These are tribal/cultural (NOT religious) stats.]
Toradjas Indonesia - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 710. "The cosmology of the Toradjas of Sulawesi in Indonesia has been elaborated on a basic dualistic structure: the world of men is contrasted with both an upper world and a lower world and with an abode in the southwest where the forefathers live and an abode in the northeast where the deified ancestors (known by the Sanskrit-derived word deata) live. "
Union of Indonesian Baptist Churches Indonesia 38,745 - 170
units
- 1998 *LINK* Baptist World Alliance web site; page: "BWA Statistics " (viewed 31 March 1999). "Figures are for BWA affiliated conventions/unions only (no independents included). "; Table with 3 columns: Country, "Churches ", & "Members "; "1997/1998 Totals "
miscellaneous regional info Indonesia - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 11. "Acehnese: Location: Indonesia (Sumatra); Population: About 3 million; Language: Acehnese; Religion: Islam "; "the Acehnese are regarded as among the most devout Muslims in the archipelago and their culture as the most inseparable from Islam... zealous in their observance of... Hajj... zakat... and puasa.... " [NOTE: This is a tribal/ethnic affiliation, NOT a distinct religion.]
Christianity Indonesia - Ambonese 408,000 51.00% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 31, 33. "Ambonese: Location: Indonesia; Population: 800,000; Religion: Christianity; Islam "; "The Ambonese divide almost evenly into Christians (51%) and Muslims (49%)... Indigenous beliefs focusing on ancestral spirits remain strong, though they coexist more harmoniously with Islam than with Protestantism... "
Islam Indonesia - Ambonese 392,000 49.00% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 31, 33. "Ambonese: Location: Indonesia; Population: 800,000; Religion: Christianity; Islam "; "The Ambonese divide almost evenly into Christians (51%) and Muslims (49%)... Indigenous beliefs focusing on ancestral spirits remain strong, though they coexist more harmoniously with Islam than with Protestantism... "
Islam Indonesia - Angkola and Mandailing - - - - 1990 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 101-102. "The Toba [est. 1990 pop. of 1.65 million] have been predominantly Protestant Christian for over a century, while the Angkola and Mandailing [est. 1990 pop. of 650,000] have been Muslim for several decades longer. "
Catholic Indonesia - Batak 450,000 10.00% - - 1990 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 101-102. "Batak: Location: Indonesia (North Sumatra); Population: 3 to 6 million "; Pg. 102: "...about 10% of all Batak are Catholics, missionary work having begun only after independence. "
Christianity Indonesia - Batak 1,000,000 - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 181. "The Batak churches in northern Sumatra total over a million members; some have undergone deep spiritual revival and doubled their membership in two or three years. "
Dutch Reformed Indonesia - Batak - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 180. "...Presbyterian churches of Korea, and the great Dutch Reformed tribal churches in the Batak fastness of Indonesia were overwhelmingly the strongest religious communities and influences of their respective areas. "
Christianity Indonesia - Irian Barat - 65.00% - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 181. "Contemporary people's movements among small, tough, remote tribes have brought results such as the conversion of more than 65 percent of the population of the Irian Barat area. "
Christianity Indonesia - Karo 155,000 31.00% - - 1990 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 101-102. "Assuming the percentages given in the 1930 colonial census are still accurate, one can break the total down as follows: 1.65 million Toba, living around Lake Toba, on Samosir Island, & in the highlands to the south; 500,000 Karo to the northwest of the lake "; "Some 12% of Karo profess Islam, while 31% are Christian (converts were few until the 1965 suppression of communism compelled every Indonesian to declare adherence to a universal religion). "
Islam Indonesia - Karo 60,000 12.00% - - 1990 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 101-102. "Assuming the percentages given in the 1930 colonial census are still accurate, one can break the total down as follows: 1.65 million Toba, living around Lake Toba, on Samosir Island, & in the highlands to the south; 500,000 Karo to the northwest of the lake "; "Some 12% of Karo profess Islam... "
Pelebegu Indonesia - Karo 285,000 57.00% - - 1990 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 101-102. "Assuming the percentages given in the 1930 colonial census are still accurate, one can break the total down as follows: 1.65 million Toba, living around Lake Toba, on Samosir Island, & in the highlands to the south; 500,000 Karo to the northwest of the lake "; "Pebegu, the indigenous animist religion, is strongest among the Karo, claiming 57% as adherents (though many of these describe themselves as 'secular', i.e, with a rather uncertain grasp of their religion. "
Protestant Indonesia - Karo - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 102. "The self-governing Toba church (Huria Kristen Batak Protestant or HKBP) is the largest Christian body in Indonesia (and one of the most powerful). The Simalungun and Karo Protestants have each established their own churches... To a considerable extent, however, Christian and Muslim Batak maintain beliefs and practices of the traditional religion alongside those of the newer creeds. "
Protestant Indonesia - Toba - - - - 1990 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 101-102. "The Toba [est. 1990 pop. of 1.65 million] have been predominantly Protestant Christian for over a century, while the Angkola and Mandailing [est. 1990 pop. of 650,000] have been Muslim for several decades longer. "
Aluk To Dolo Indonesia - Toraja 79,200 24.00% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 661-662. "Sa'dan Toraja: Location: Indonesia; Population: 330,000 "; "Since Indonesian independence, Christianity has grown rapidly among the Toraja, claiming 64% as Protestants and 12% as Catholics. The remaining population practices Aluk To Dolo, 'the Way of the Ancestors.' Before the 20th century, the Toraja had no separate word for 'religion,' aluk meaning the totality of the correct ways of behaving and working, including those which outsiders would consider 'secular.' The Indonesian state tolerates Aluk To Dolo as a 'variant of Hinduism, one of the recognized five religions under Pancasila. "
Catholic Indonesia - Toraja 39,600 12.00% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 661-662. "Sa'dan Toraja: Location: Indonesia; Population: 330,000 "; "Since Indonesian independence, Christianity has grown rapidly among the Toraja, claiming 64% as Protestants ans 12% as Catholics. "
Christianity Indonesia - Toraja 250,800 76.00% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 661-662. "Sa'dan Toraja: Location: Indonesia; Population: 330,000 "; "Since Indonesian independence, Christianity has grown rapidly among the Toraja, claiming 64% as Protestants ans 12% as Catholics. "
Protestant Indonesia - Toraja 211,200 64.00% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 661-662. "Sa'dan Toraja: Location: Indonesia; Population: 330,000 "; "Since Indonesian independence, Christianity has grown rapidly among the Toraja, claiming 64% as Protestants ans 12% as Catholics. "
Balinese Hinduism Indonesia: Bali - - - - 1966 Welty, Paul Thomas. The Asians: Their Heritage and Their Destiny (Revised Edition). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. (1966), pg. 296. This fusion of Hinduism, Mahayana Buddhism, and animism endured until Islam became the dominant religion of Indonesia around the beginning of the sixteenth century. The fusion still endures in Bali, but its structure and content is Balinese, not Indian. "
Balinese Hinduism Indonesia: Bali - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 323. "Although Balinese religion shares some of the history of Javanese religion, it is sharply differentiated by a lack of Islamic elements. On Bali a distinctive Indonesian type of Hinduism has developed. Balinese call their religion agama Hindu-Bali, meaning Hindu-Balinese religion; they also call it agama tirtha, meaning 'religion of the water,' thus indicating the central importance of consecrated water prepared by Brahmin priests (pedanda) for all major rituals. "
Balinese Hinduism Indonesia: Bali - 95.00% - - 1993 Hintz, Martin. Indonesia (series: Enchantment of the World). Chicago: Childrens Press (1993), pg. 30-31. "Hinduism was introduced into Java by travelers from India in ancient times... When the early Javanese princes accepted Hinduism, they did not give up all of their early animistic beliefs--they simply combined the new ideas with them... Several centuries ago a great many Hindus left Java for Bali rather than convert to Islam. Hinduism has survived in Bali eer since, and today 95% of the Balinese are Hindus... Balinese Hinduism has strong elements of Buddhism, animism, and ancestor worship, and it permeates all aspects of everyday life... Over the centuries a religion unique to Bali has evolved, but it has deep roots in Hindu traditions. "
Hinduism Indonesia: Bali - 95.00% - - 1993 Hintz, Martin. Indonesia (series: Enchantment of the World). Chicago: Childrens Press (1993), pg. 111. "Hindus and Buddhists are concentrated on the island of Bali; 95% of the Balinese are Hindus. "
Hinduism Indonesia: Bali 2,000,000 - - - 1996 Halverson, Dean C. (ed.) The Compact Guide to World Religions; Colorado Springs, Colorado: International Students Inc. (1996). [Publisher is an Evangelical missionary organization.] Pg. 87. "More than two million Hindus live on the Indonesian island of Bali, although the country of Indonesia as a whole is predominantly Muslim. "
Parisada Indonesia: Bali - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 324. "The inspiration which Indian thought has brought to Bali apears, however, unlikely to lead to a reconstruction of the tradition in Indian Hindu terms. Rather, the reformist Parisada movement in Bali appears to be creating, in part with reagard to contemporary Indian thought, a more nationalized religion, but one which is still distinctively Indonesian. "
Bungan Malan Indonesia: Borneo - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 3). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 316. "Unfortunately, early missions in the are were of the extremist sort. They tended to be fundamentalist, teetotal, and preaching hellfire and brimstone. But there is now a reaction against this new austerity which has led to a new-Christian cult called Bungan Malan. This combines old and new ideas and lays emphasis on the interpretation of dreams. It is already the largest single sect inside Borneo. "
Dayak Indonesia: Borneo - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 711. "Ma'anyan Dayak:
Although the term 'soul' is often used to translate such concepts as k'la of the Sgaw Karen of Burma, the amirue of the Ma'anyan Dayak of Borneo... "
primal-indigenous Indonesia: Borneo 2,500,000 50.00% - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 3). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 312. "Borneo, famous for its headhunters, is the third largest island in the world and has a population of around five million. Although headhunting has now died out, the practice is still deeply relevant to the religion and mythology of the people. Over half the population live inland, up the great rivers and maong the rugged mountains. These lively, able and artistic people live in long-houses, each a self-contained community of up to 500 under a single, palm-thatched roof. All are, or have been until recently, pagan animists but divided into some 20 linguistic and cultural groups with many variations on a common theme of belief. "
Punan-Penan Indonesia: Borneo - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 709. "While their numbers are small, the religions of such groups as... the Punan-Penan of Borneo... reflect, at least in part, an adaptation to a hunting-and-gathering mode of existence. "
animism Indonesia: Borneo - Iban - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 3). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 312. "Nowhere in the world is animism so developed, elaborated and intellectualized as among the Iban people of Sarawak and the related tribes of Borneo... "
Christianity Indonesia: Borneo - Iban - 20.00% - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 181. "Brunei, a Malay nation as early as the year 600, is surrouned by Borneo Iban tribesmen, 20 percent of whom were Christian by the early 1980s. "
primal-indigenous Indonesia: East Sumba - 39.00% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 711. "Adherents of the traditional belief system, however, still number a relatively high 39% in East Sumba and a similar percentage in West Sumba. "
Protestant Indonesia: East Sumba - 51.00% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 711. "In recent decades, Protestantism has come to claim 51% of the population in East Sumba and 34% in West Sumba... "
Catholic Indonesia: Flores 1,190,000 85.00% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 478-479. "Manggarai: Location: Indonesia (island of Flores); Population: 400,000; Language: Manggarai; Bahasa Indonesia; Religion: Roman Catholic majority; traditional animism "; "The mountainous island of Flores... Inhabiting the western third of the island, the Manggarai are the largest single ethnic group, numbering 400,000 out of the total Flores population of 1.4 million. "; "The island of Flores as a whole is 85% Catholic, an anomaly in the world's largest Muslim country. "
Manggarai Indonesia: Flores 400,000 28.57% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 478-479. "Manggarai: Location: Indonesia (island of Flores); Population: 400,000; Language: Manggarai; Bahasa Indonesia; Religion: Roman Catholic majority; traditional animism "; "The mountainous island of Flores... Inhabiting the western third of the island, the Manggarai are the largest single ethnic group, numbering 400,000 out of the total Flores population of 1.4 million. "; "The island of Flores as a whole is 85% Catholic, an anomaly in the world's largest Muslim country. " [NOTE: This statistic is of Manggarai as an ethnic group, not a count of how many practice traditional Manggarai religion.]
Hinduism Indonesia: Java - - - - 1150 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 321. "The eleventh and twelfth centuries saw the climax of Indianized civilizations with Angkor in Cambodia, Champa in southern Vietnam, Pagan in Burma, and Majapahit in Java. "
Islam Indonesia: Java - 88.00% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 342. "As much as 12% of the population of the island of Java (including Chinese and other migrants from other islands) adhere to religions other than Islam. "
other Indonesia: Java - 12.00% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 342. "As much as 12% of the population of the island of Java (including Chinese and other migrants from other islands) adhere to religions other than Islam. "
Tenggerese Indonesia: Java - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 342. "On the slopes of the east Javanese volacano Bromo live the Tenggerese, an archaic Javanese subgroup, who practice a folk religion derived from Majapahit Hinduism and highlighting the honoring of Joko Seger, Bromo's guardian spirit. "
Catholic Indonesia: Kalimantan Tengah - 1.94% - - 1980 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 581. "According to the 1980 census... of the population of Kalimantan Tengah... 14.27% of the provincial population was Protestant and 1.94% was Catholic... "
Christianity Indonesia: Kalimantan Tengah - 16.21% - - 1980 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 581. "According to the 1980 census... of the population of Kalimantan Tengah... 14.27% of the provincial population was Protestant and 1.94% was Catholic... "
Islam Indonesia: Kalimantan Tengah - 66.08% - - 1980 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 581. "According to the 1980 census, 17.71% of the population of Kalimantan Tengah... adhered to traditional animism, predominating in the more upriver vilalges. Some 14.27% of the provincial population was Protestant and 1.94% was Catholic... The rest of the provincial population is Muslim. "
primal-indigenous Indonesia: Kalimantan Tengah - 17.71% - - 1980 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 581. "According to the 1980 census, 17.71% of the population of Kalimantan Tengah (and a much larger percentage of the specifically Ngaju portion thereof) adhered to traditional animism, predominating in the more upriver vilalges. "
Protestant Indonesia: Kalimantan Tengah - 14.27% - - 1980 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 581. "According to the 1980 census... of the population of Kalimantan Tengah... 14.27% of the provincial population was Protestant and 1.94% was Catholic... "
Boda Indonesia: Lombok - - - - 1965 *LINK* Cederroth, Sven. "From Ancestor Worship to Monotheism: Politics of Religion in Lombok " in Temenos 32 (1996), 7-36. (Viewed online, Temenos web site, 30 Jan. 1999). "In northern Lombok, the area where, heedless of all warnings, I decided to do my fieldwork, almost the entire indigenous Sasak population had been adherents of wetu telu in 1965. However, among the indigenous population there were also some Boda settlements, entirely non-islamized Sasak. "
Boda Indonesia: Lombok 5,500 - - - 1968 *LINK* Cederroth, Sven. "From Ancestor Worship to Monotheism: Politics of Religion in Lombok " in Temenos 32 (1996), 7-36. (Viewed online, Temenos web site, 30 Jan. 1999). "Similar events took place among the Bentek Boda themselves. The Boda of northwestern Lombok, some 5,500 in all, had managed to pass comparatively unscathed through the turbulent years when the above events took place. "
Boda Indonesia: Lombok - - - - 1996 *LINK* Cederroth, Sven. "From Ancestor Worship to Monotheism: Politics of Religion in Lombok " in Temenos 32 (1996), 7-36. (Viewed online, Temenos web site, 30 Jan. 1999). "The island of Lombok is the home of the Sasak people, most of whom are now orthodox Muslims and as such adherents of the waktu lima sect. However, even today some of the Sasak are still counted as adherents of the wetu telu. There are also some smaller groups of entirely non-Islamized pagan Sasak, known as Boda, as well as a Hindu Balinese minority. "
Waktu Lima Indonesia: Lombok - - - - 1925 *LINK* Cederroth, Sven. "From Ancestor Worship to Monotheism: Politics of Religion in Lombok " in Temenos 32 (1996), 7-36. (Viewed online, Temenos web site, 30 Jan. 1999). "In the early decades of the 20th century, waktu lima had spread to most villages in Central Lombok, while the south and the north were still overwhelmingly wetu telu. "
Waktu Lima Indonesia: Lombok - - - - 1996 *LINK* Cederroth, Sven. "From Ancestor Worship to Monotheism: Politics of Religion in Lombok " in Temenos 32 (1996), 7-36. (Viewed online, Temenos web site, 30 Jan. 1999). "The island of Lombok is the home of the Sasak people, most of whom are now orthodox Muslims and as such adherents of the waktu lima sect. "
Waktu Lima Indonesia: Lombok - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 672-673. "Most Sasak adhere to Islam, introduced from Java... There is a cleavage between syncretists who combine Islamic and pre-Islamic beliefs and practices, and purists wh conform more strictly to Islamic orthodoxy. The former are referred to as Wetu Telu ('Three Time') Muslims, and the latter as Wetu Lima ('Five Time') Muslims... Due to persecution during the upheavals of 1965-66, exact figure for the Wetu Telu population are elusive; they may number as much as 30% of Lombok's inhabitants and are concentrated in the mountainous northern part of the island... Wetu Lima Muslims, the minority, follow Islamic orthodoxy, such as the five daily prayers... The organization Nahdatul Wahtan has been active since independence in combating Wetu Telu. "
Wetu Telu Indonesia: Lombok - - - - 1925 *LINK* Cederroth, Sven. "From Ancestor Worship to Monotheism: Politics of Religion in Lombok " in Temenos 32 (1996), 7-36. (Viewed online, Temenos web site, 30 Jan. 1999). "In the early decades of the 20th century, waktu lima had spread to most villages in Central Lombok, while the south and the north were still overwhelmingly wetu telu. "
Wetu Telu Indonesia: Lombok - - - - 1965 *LINK* Cederroth, Sven. "From Ancestor Worship to Monotheism: Politics of Religion in Lombok " in Temenos 32 (1996), 7-36. (Viewed online, Temenos web site, 30 Jan. 1999). "Despite all predictions, wetu telu continued to flourish, mainly in the peripheral parts of the island, in the north and the south, but also in some places in Central Lombok. In the mid-1960s the religion was still well and alive, when suddenly the events of 1967-68... "


Indonesia: Lombok, continued

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