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Over 42,000 religious geography and religion statistics citations (membership statistics for over 4,000 different religions, denominations, tribes, etc.) for every country in the world.

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back to India, Shaivism

India, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Shaivism India - - - - 1994 *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "SAIVISM: the WORSHIP of SIVA in HINDUISM... appears to have roots in the INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION before the ARYAN invasions. "
Shaktism India - - - - 1300 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 53. "Alongside Shaivism, especially in the provinces of Bengal, Assam, and Orissa, developed the worship of Shakti--'power' or 'energy' embodied in the female form. Shaktism, also called Tantrism, may extend back to the ancient worship of the Mother Goddess and was expouned in esoteric texts called Tantras. "
Shaktism India - - - - 1957 Welles, Sam. The World's Great Religions, New York: Time Incorporated (1957), pg. 24. "Besides the major Hindu sects of Vishnu and Shiva, there are many minor ones. The strongest, in numbers and influence, is... of Shakti whose followers worship 'God in the aspect of mother.'... divided into two main groups, the Dakshinamargis... and Vamamargis... Some of Hinduism's greatest saints and sages, Shankara, Ramakrishna and Vivekananda among them, have been devotees of Shakti, the Divine Mother. "
Shaktism India - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 313. "Shaktism, also called Tantrism; one of the major traditions of worship in modern Hinduism. The other two are Vaishnavism and Shaivism. Shaktas worship Shakti and revere her as the force that makes all life possible and maintains the universe. "
Shaktism India - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 54. "The center of Shaktism today is Kamarupa in the province of Assam. "
Shiite India 26,000,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year. Pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop.
Siddha Yoga India - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 319-320. "Swami Muktananda (b. 1908) teaches Siddha Yoga and travels between his Indian center in Ganeshpuri and his American center in Oakland. "
Sikhism India 3,238,803 1.02% - - 1921 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 368. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] Table: "The latest census gives the following enumeration of the adherents... " [1921 and 1931 figures.]
Sikhism India 4,355,771 1.24% - - 1931 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 368. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] Table: "The latest census gives the following enumeration of the adherents... " [1921 and 1931 figures.]
Sikhism India 4,335,771 - - - 1931 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 710. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] "The last [Indian] census (1931) gav the number of Sikhs at 4,335,771. "
Sikhism India 10,000,000 1.83% - - 1971 *LINK* web site: Invest India; web page: Religions of India (viewed 16 Jan. 1999) "The 1971 census produced the following statistics: 453 million Hindu; 61 million Muslim; 14 million Christian; 10 million Sikh; 3.8 million Buddhist; 2.6 million Jain; 2.2 million Parsis, Jews and others "
Sikhism India 12,000,000 2.00% - - 1978 Rice, Edward. Ten Religions of the East. New York: Four Winds Press (1978), pg. 78. "Despite their small numbers--a mere 2% of India's six hundred million--the Sikhs are a very visible presence in today's India... Today they are said to furnish half the officer ranks of the Indian army... "
Sikhism India 6,000,000 1.01% - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 359. "Sikhism, closely linked to Northwest India, has perhaps 6 million adherents [in India]. "
Sikhism India - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 692. "The Sikh gurdwaras in India have an annual income of over Rs 5 crores (625 million U.S. dollars), which is dispersed by the S.G.P.C. to maintain schools, colleges, hospitals, orphanages and also to run the gurdwara kitchens. "
Sikhism India 6,000,000 - - - 1983 Hopfe, Lews M. Religions of the World, Macmillan Publishing Co.: New York (1983) [3rd edition], pg. 210. "Sikhs have always been a minority among the other religions of India, and today they number only about six million. These people are found mainly in the Punjab region of northwest India, which has traditionally been their home. "
Sikhism India 16,000,000 2.00% - - 1991 Neusner, Jacob (ed). World Religions in America: An Introduction; Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press (1994); pg. 179. Table: "breakdown of major religions in India, according to the population totals of the 1991 census, is roughly as follows "
Sikhism India - 2.00% - - 1992 Goring, Rosemary (ed). Larousse Dictionary of Beliefs & Religions (Larousse: 1994) pg. 581-584. Table: "Population Distribution of Major Beliefs "; "Figures have been compiled from the most accurate recent available information and are in most cases correct to the nearest 1% "
Sikhism India 13,000,000 1.90% - - 1993 Breuilly, Elizabeth, et al. Religions of the World: The Illustrated Guide to Origins, Beliefs, Traditions & Festivals. Facts on File Inc.: New York, NY (1997). Pg. 148. "In 1993 India had approximately 13 million Sikhs--1.9 percent of the population. "
Sikhism India 12,800,000 - - - 1993 O'Brien, J. & M. Palmer. The State of Religion Atlas. Simon & Schuster: New York (1993). Pg 30-31. "There are 16 million Sikhs worldwide. Over 80 percent live in India, mainly in the Punjab. " (80% of 16 million)
Sikhism India - - 2,000
units
- 1993 O'Brien, J. & M. Palmer. The State of Religion Atlas. Simon & Schuster: New York (1993). Pg 30-31. "Over 2000 [gurdwaras] including 1000 in Punjab. " Map: Number of Sikh gurdwaras ( "a gurdwara is both a place of worship and community centre ")
Sikhism India 18,380,000 2.00% - - 1994 *LINK* Web site: "Council for World Mission "; web page: "India (CNI)/Church of North India (CNI) " (viewed 31 May 1999). "Country information: Population (1994 United Nations estimate): 919 million... Main religions: Hinduism (82%), Islam (11%), Christianity (2%), Sikhism (2%)? "
Sikhism India 19,000,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year. Pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop.
Sikhism India 12,000,000 2.00% - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 55, 58. "Today there are 12 million Sikhs in India, 1 million in the U.S. and Canada, 500,000 in Great Britain. "; Pg. 58: "Some Sikh extremists imagine Khalistan [the hoped for Sikh state] extending to include most of present-day India, although Sikhs make up only about 2 percent of the entire population. "
Sikhism India 12,800,000 - - - 1997 Breuilly, Elizabeth, et al. Religions of the World: The Illustrated Guide to Origins, Beliefs, Traditions & Festivals. Facts on File Inc.: New York, NY (1997). Pg. 10-11. "There are 16 million Sikhs worldwide. Over 80% of them live in India, mainly in the Punjab in northwestern India. There are sizable communities in the UK, USA and Canada; smaller ones in East Africa, Europe, Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia, New Zealand. "
Sikhism India 19,335,664 2.00% - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Hindu 80%, Muslim 14%, Christian 2.4%, Sikh 2%, Buddhist 0.7%, Jains 0.5%, other 0.4%; Total Population: 966,783,171.
Sikhism India 6,650,000 0.70% - - 1997 Russell, Malcom B. The Middle East and South Asia 1997 (The World Today Series). Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Stryker-Post Publications (1997), pg. 77. Estimates of % of population in principal religions, & est. 1997 total pop.; "Population: 950 million (estimated 1997)... Principal Religions: Hindu (84%), Islam (11%), Christian (2%), Sikh (0.7%), Buddhist (0.7%), other "
Sikhism India 18,800,000 2.00% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 287. "Location: India; Population: About 940 million; Religion: Hinduism (80%); Islam (14%); Christianity (2.4%); Sikhism (2%); Buddhism (0.7%); Jainism (0.5%)... "
Sikhism India 18,700,000 2.00% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 690. "Some 18.7 million people, or 2% of India's population, are Sikh. "
Sikhism India - 2.00% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "; total population: 904,800,000
Sikhism India 14,000,000 2.00% - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "United Church of Canada Inter-Faith Dialogue "; web page: "Sikhism " (viewed 19 Feb. 1999), written by Fritz B. Voll, "Updated: Tue Jun 9 23:39:38 1998. " "The world population of Sikhs is around 15 million. In India they number about 14 million (two percent of the total population). Most of these live in the Punjab province, which is divided between India and Pakistan. "
Sikhism India 19,000,000 2.00% - - 1999 *LINK* Stack, Peggy Fletcher (compiler). "World View: Sikhs Celebrate 300 Years of Brotherhood " in Salt Lake Tribune (April 17, 1999). Viewed online 17 April 1999. "Sikhs make up about 2 percent of India's 950 million people. In the United States, there are about 250,000 Sikhs. "
SIM International India - - 100
units
- 1999 *LINK* "Asia " in SIM NOW, Feb. 1999 (vol. #85); (viewed online 6 July 1999); SIM International web site. "The SIM-related church in India (CIGM) consists of 100 self-supporting, governing, and propagating churches, primarily in the Tamil and Telugu areas of southern India. "
Sri Vaisnava India - - - - 1100 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 715. "Sri Vaisnava. A South Indian theistic sect of worshippers of Vishnu and the goddess Sri or Laksmi (see Bhakti Hinduism); widely known for its leading teachger Ramanuja and as the first movement led by Brahmins to integrate fully a popular, largely non-Brahmanical devotional movement employing a vernacular langauge, i.e., the ecstatic bhakti of the Tamil hymns of the Alvars... Ramanuja (eleventh-twelfth centuries) provided the final essential element in the synthesis, a theistic system of Vedanta based strictly upon Vedic sources... "
Sri Vaisnava India - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 715. "Sri Vaisnava. A South Indian theistic sect... While all Sri Vaisnavas revere both their Vedic and their Tamil heritages, there has been a continuing tension between these two sides. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries this tension hardened into a sectarian division between the 'Southern (Tengali) and the 'Northern' (Vadagalai) schools, with the former emphasizing the Tamil heritage and making a larger place for non-Brahmin groups while the latter stresses the Sanskritic or Vedic and has in practice little involvement with non-Brahmins. "
Sudra India - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 719. "Sudra. A generic term for members of the lowest rank of the traditional fourfold Hindu social structure. Most of the agricultural and artisan castes (jati) are of Sudra status, and although ritually inferior to the Twice Born castes, Sudras seldom suffer from any social discrimination and often enjoy great political power. "
Suhrawardi India - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 448. "The main [Sufi] order of India and Pakistan is the Chisti, now prominent in South East Asia. Founded by Muin ad-din Hasan Chisti (c. 1142-1236), it focuses largely on the recitation of the dhikr. Although Shaykh Chisti was influenced by the writings of Dia ad-din Abu Njib al-Suhrawardi (1097-1168), whose Suhrawardi order is also influential in India, the Chisti order is distinct from it. "
Sunni India 79,000,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year. Pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop.
Svetambara Sthanakvasi India - - - - 1987 Bishop, Peter & Michael Darton (editors). The Encyclopedia of World Faiths: An Illustrated Survey of the World's Living Faiths. New York: Facts on File Publications (1987), pg. 212. "During the sixteenth century a further sect, the Sthanakavasis, developed in western India out of the Shvetambara order. Their chief feature is the rejection of image worship and temple services, which they claim is not sanctioned by the scriptures -- although this attitude may also be due to Islamic influence. Image worship is also repudiated by one of the subgroups of the Digambaras. "
Svetambara Sthanakvasi India - - - - 1999 *LINK* web site: Jainworld; web page: "History of various sects " (viewed 16 Jan. 1999) "The Svetambara Sthanakvasi are also spread in different business centers in India but they are found mainly in Gujarat, Punjab, Harayana and Rajasthan. "
Svetambara Sthanakvasi - monastic India 865 - - - 1984 Bishop, Peter & Michael Darton (editors). The Encyclopedia of World Faiths: An Illustrated Survey of the World's Living Faiths. New York: Facts on File Publications (1987), pg. 208. "According to a survey, in 1984 there were about 5,620 Jaina ascetics -- monks and nuns -- the majority belonging to the Scvetambara sect (1,200 monks and 3,400 nuns), followed by the Sthanakavasis (325 monks and 520 nuns), and then the Digambaras (65 monks, 60 'lay brothers' and 50 'lay sisters'). "
Svetambaras India - - - - 1000 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 370. "In the centuries after the Svetambara-Digambara division, the Svetambaras were predominant in th West and Northwest (modern-day Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Rajasthan), while the Digambaras dominated the movement in Central and Southern India. "
Svetambaras India - - - - 1978 Rice, Edward. Ten Religions of the East. New York: Four Winds Press (1978), pg. 16. "Since [A.D. 475] the Svetambaras, who are the larger [Jain] group, have been strongest in Gujarat and Rajasthan, in northewest India, while the Digambaras, now declining, are concentrated in the Deccan, a long mountainous plateau along the southwest coast, and in the old princely state of Mysore. "
Svetambaras India - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 728. "Svetambara (Skt.; lit. 'white-clad'). One of the two major monastic traditions in Jainism. The name refers to the requirement that monks and nuns renounce all possessions and wear only simple white cotton garments. "
Svetambaras India - - - - 1987 Bishop, Peter & Michael Darton (editors). The Encyclopedia of World Faiths: An Illustrated Survey of the World's Living Faiths. New York: Facts on File Publications (1987), pg. 211. "The Shvetambaras, who gained ascendancy in Rajasthan and Gujarat, eventually divided into as many as 84 subgroups or gacchas, but only a few of these survive today. "
Svetambaras India - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 94. "Jains in northern India generally belong to the Svetambara sect. "
Svetambaras - monastic India 4,600 - - - 1984 Bishop, Peter & Michael Darton (editors). The Encyclopedia of World Faiths: An Illustrated Survey of the World's Living Faiths. New York: Facts on File Publications (1987), pg. 208. "According to a survey, in 1984 there were about 5,620 Jaina ascetics -- monks and nuns -- the majority belonging to the Scvetambara sect (1,200 monks and 3,400 nuns), followed by the Sthanakavasis (325 monks and 520 nuns), and then the Digambaras (65 monks, 60 'lay brothers' and 50 'lay sisters'). "
Syrian Orthodox Church of Malabar India - - - - 1999 *LINK* Web site: "Syro-Malabar Catholic Mission "; web page: "Church History " (viewed 23 July 1999). [Orig. source: Mundadan, A. Mathias. The Syro-Malabar Church: An Overview. 715 N. Lapeer Rd., Lake Orion, MI 48362: St.Joseph Church.] "Today, there are 22 Syro-Malabar dioceses in India, twelve of them in Kerala and Ten of them outside the state. They are as follows: Province of Ernakulam: 1) Ernakulam-Angamly; 2) Kothamangalam; Province of Changanassery: 3) Changanassery; 4) Kottayam; 5) Palai; 6) Kanjirappally; Province of Thrissur: 7) Thrissur; 8) Palaghat; 9) Irinjalakuda; Province of Thalassery: 10) Thalassery; 11) Manathavady; 12) Thamarassery; Outside Kerala: 13) Chanda, MP; 14) Sagar, MP; 15) Satna, MP; 16) Ujjain, MP; 17) Bijnor, UP; 18) Jagdalpur, MP; 19) Rajkot, Gujarat; 20) Gorakpur, MP; 21) Kalyan, Maharashtra; 22) Thakkala, Tamil Nadu "
Tamils India 67,000,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 746. "Tamils... Population: 67 million in India; 3 million in Sri Lanka "; "Tamils are mostly Hindus, although there are some Tamil Muslims and Christians. " [NOTE: These statistics are of Tamils as a cultural/ethnic group, NOT a distinct religion.]
Taranapanthis India - - - - 1999 *LINK* web site: Jainworld; web page: "History of various sects " (viewed 16 Jan. 1999) "The Taranapanthis are few in number and they are mostly confined to Bundelkhand, Malwa area of Madhya Pradesh and Khandesh area of Maharashtra. "
Tayyibi Ismailis - Da'udi India - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 366. "...the Tayyibiyya... In India they remained mostly undisturbed, although there too a split occurred in the succession of leaders, which led to another permanent schism, the Da'udi and Salaymani factions. "
Tayyibi Ismailis - Salaymani India - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 366. "...the Tayyibiyya... In India they remained mostly undisturbed, although there too a split occurred in the succession of leaders, which led to another permanent schism, the Da'udi and Salaymani factions. "
Tengali India - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 715. "Sri Vaisnava. A South Indian theistic sect... sectarian division between the 'Southern (Tengali) and the 'Northern' (Vadagalai) schools, with the former emphasizing the Tamil heritage and making a larger place for non-Brahmin groups... "
Tengali India - - - - 1994 *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "TENGALAI: followers of RAMANUJA who emphasized his teachings about divine GRACE, known as the 'Cat-principle' and adhered to non-VEDIC SCRIPTURES known as the Prambandham or collected poems of the lvrs. The greatest SAINT of the SECT is Varavara Muni who is regarded as an AVATAR of Ramunuja. "
Tenrikyo India - - 2
units
- 1998 *LINK* official Tenrikyo web site; page: "A Statistical Review of Tenrikyo: 1 of 2 " (viewed 10 Dec. 1999) Table: "A Statistical Review of Tenrikyo 1998 ". Church-supplied data. 1 churches; 1 mission stations
Tenrikyo - graduated from Shuyoka India 0 - - - 1998 *LINK* official Tenrikyo web site; page: "A Statistical Review of Tenrikyo: 2 of 2 " (viewed 10 Dec. 1999) Table: "Statistics on followers who... graduated from Shuyoka... between Jan. and Dec. 1998. "; "Data by Research Section and Overseas Mission Department "
Tenrikyo - new Besseki Pledge India 8 - - - 1998 *LINK* official Tenrikyo web site; page: "A Statistical Review of Tenrikyo: 2 of 2 " (viewed 10 Dec. 1999) Table: "Statistics on followers who took the Besseki Pledge... between Jan. and Dec. 1998. "; "Data by Research Section and Overseas Mission Department "
Tenrikyo - received the Sazuke India 4 - - - 1998 *LINK* official Tenrikyo web site; page: "A Statistical Review of Tenrikyo: 2 of 2 " (viewed 10 Dec. 1999) Table: "Statistics on followers who... received the Sazuke... between Jan. and Dec. 1998. "; "Data by Research Section and Overseas Mission Department "
Terapantha Digambara India - - - - 1999 *LINK* web site: Jainworld; web page: "History of various sects " (viewed 16 Jan. 1999) "The Terapanthis are more numerous in Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. It is pertinent to note that even though the name Terapantha sub-sect appears both among the Digambara and the Svetambara sects. Still the two Terapanthis are entirely different from each other. While the Digambara Terapanthis believe in nudity and idol-worship, the Svetambara Terapanthis are quite opposed to both. "
Terapantha Svetambaras India - - - - 1999 *LINK* web site: Jainworld; web page: "History of various sects " (viewed 16 Jan. 1999) "The rise of Terapantha is the last big schism in the Svetambara sect and this Pantha is becoming popular. The Terapanthis are still limited in number and even though they are noticed in different cities in India, they are concentrated mainly in Bikaner, Jodhpur and Mewar areas of Rajasthan. "
Thugee India - - - - 1850 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 11). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1555. "Certainly the most ardent and extreme of Kali's worshippers were the members of the once widespread secret society called Thugs... terrorized the Indian highways for centuries... The practice of thuggee remained an accepted part of the dangers of travel in India into the 19th century. "
Thugee India - - - - 1850 Welles, Sam. The World's Great Religions, New York: Time Incorporated (1957), pg. 24. "The lower classes, in their fear of the dreadful Kali, have sometimes gone to morbid extremes to please her. From the 13th to the 19th Centuries, devotees known as thugi, from which the English word thug comes, went around the countryside strangling human victims in the belief that a human sacrifice would satisfy Kali's thirst for blood for a thousand years. Even with approval of the Brahmans, who discouraged blood sacrifices, the British authorities had great difficulty in suppressing the thugi, and some Kali votaries still kill animals in her name. "
Thugee India - - - - 1875 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 759. "Thug. A member of a secret hereditary cult devoted to human sacrifice, which flourished in Northern and Central India from ancient times until the late nineteenth century. The thugs were devotees of the goddess Bhavani, a form of Kali... "
Tibetan Buddhism India - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 12). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1589. "...the Dalai Lama; now in exile, he recently announced his intention of establishing a miniature Tibet in India for the preservation of his country's religion... "
Toda traditional religion India 842 - - - 1988 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 768-769. "Todas: Location: India (primarily Tamil Nadu state); Population: 1,042 (1988); Language: Toda; Religion: Centered on the sanctity of the buffalo "; "Christian missionary efforts among the Todas at the turn of the century have resulted in the emergence of a very small community of Toda Christians. It numbers perhaps 200 persons who follow the Anglican rites of the Church of South India. "
Todas India 1,000 - - - 1600 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 768. "Historical records show that the Todas have never been a numerous group. European accounts estimate a population of no more than 100 people at the beginning of the 17th century, and a total that had dropped to 475 by 1952. "
Todas India 475 - - - 1952 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 768. "Historical records show that the Todas have never been a numerous group. European accounts estimate a population of no more than 100 people at the beginning of the 17th century, and a total that had dropped to 475 by 1952. "
Todas India 1,042 - - - 1988 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 768. "Todas: Location: India (primarily Tamil Nadu state); Population: 1,042 (1988); Language: Toda; Religion: Centered on the sanctity of the buffalo "; "Christian missionary efforts among the Todas at the turn of the century have resulted in the emergence of a very small community of Toda Christians. It numbers perhaps 200 persons who follow the Anglican rites of the Church of South India. " [NOTE: The 1,042 statistic is of Todas as an ethnic/cultural group, not a count of those who are profess to be adherents of traditional Toda religion.]
Totapanthis India - - - - 1999 *LINK* web site: Jainworld; web page: "History of various sects " (viewed 16 Jan. 1999) "The Totapanthis are extremely few in number and are found in some pockets in Madhya Pradesh. "
Tripura Baptist Christian Union of India India 30,000 - 363
units
- 1998 *LINK* Baptist World Alliance web site; page: "BWA Statistics " (viewed 31 March 1999). "Figures are for BWA affiliated conventions/unions only (no independents included). "; Table with 3 columns: Country, "Churches ", & "Members "; "1997/1998 Totals "
Unitarian/Unitarian Universalist India 8,000 - - - 1998 Boeke, Richard. Book review of The Elements of Unitarianism (by George Chryssides, Element Books Lds., Shaftesbury, Dorset, United Kingdom, 1998); in Faith and Freedom (Vol. 51, Part 2, No. 147, Autumn & Winter, 1998), pg. 155. "summary of Unitarians around the world omits the 8,000 Unitarians in India. "
Unitarian/Unitarian Universalist India 9,000 - 32
units
- 1998 *LINK* directory on offical church web site In the Khasi Hills of Meghalayain the Northeast corner of India there are 32 congregations and a five fellowships with about 9,000 members.
Unitarian/Unitarian Universalist India 9,300 - 35
units
- 1998 *LINK* directory on offical church web site Two principle indigenous Unitarian groups: Khasi Unitarian Union has about 9000 members, 32 congregations; Unitarian Christian Church of Madras has 10 to 15 families; Also there are congregations in Hyderabad and Udaipur
unknown India - 2.00% - - 1992 Goring, Rosemary (ed). Larousse Dictionary of Beliefs & Religions (Larousse: 1994) pg. 581-584. Table: "Population Distribution of Major Beliefs "; "Figures have been compiled from the most accurate recent available information and are in most cases correct to the nearest 1% "; Listed as "Unspecified "
Vadagalai India - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 715. "Sri Vaisnava. A South Indian theistic sect... sectarian division between the 'Southern (Tengali) and the 'Northern' (Vadagalai) schools... [Vadagalai] stresses the Sanskritic or Vedic and has in practice little involvement with non-Brahmins. "
Vadagalai India - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 780. "Vadagalai (Tamil & Skt.; lit. 'northern or Sanskrit literature and culture'...). The 'Northern School,' a Sri Vaisnava subsect stressing its Sanskritic, Vedic, or Brahmanical heritage relatively more than its 'Southern' or Tamil elements... "


India, continued

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