Adherents.com - Religion by Location


Over 42,000 religious geography and religion statistics citations (membership statistics for over 4,000 different religions, denominations, tribes, etc.) for every country in the world.

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India, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Jainism India 4,000,000 0.50% - - 1991 Neusner, Jacob (ed). World Religions in America: An Introduction; Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press (1994); pg. 179. Table: "breakdown of major religions in India, according to the population totals of the 1991 census, is roughly as follows "
Jainism India - 1.00% - - 1992 Goring, Rosemary (ed). Larousse Dictionary of Beliefs & Religions (Larousse: 1994) pg. 581-584. Table: "Population Distribution of Major Beliefs "; "Figures have been compiled from the most accurate recent available information and are in most cases correct to the nearest 1% "
Jainism India 5,000,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year. Pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop.
Jainism India 2,000,000 - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 51. "The roughly 2 million Jains in India today share a disproportionate amount of the country's wealth. "
Jainism India 7,840,000 - - - 1997 Breuilly, Elizabeth, et al. Religions of the World: The Illustrated Guide to Origins, Beliefs, Traditions & Festivals. Facts on File Inc.: New York, NY (1997). Pg. 10-11. "More than 98% of the 8 million Jains in the world today live in India. The two largest Jain communities outside India are in the UK and USA.
Jainism India 4,833,916 0.50% - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Hindu 80%, Muslim 14%, Christian 2.4%, Sikh 2%, Buddhist 0.7%, Jains 0.5%, other 0.4%; Total Population: 966,783,171.
Jainism India 4,700,000 0.50% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 287. "Location: India; Population: About 940 million; Religion: Hinduism (80%); Islam (14%); Christianity (2.4%); Sikhism (2%); Buddhism (0.7%); Jainism (0.5%)... "
Jainism India 4,500,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 325. "There are approximately 4.5 million Jains in India today. They have a strong presence in Gujarat and Rajasthan and are also found in the northern region of Madhya Pradesh around Ujjain. Another rarea of high population concentration is the region of Mysore (the modern Karnataka State) that has historically been a Jain stronghold. The city of Bombay has a large Jain community, and Jains are found throughout much of the rest of Maharashtra State. "
Jainism India 10,000,000 - - - 1998 McCourt, Frank. "God in America " in Life (Dec. 1998), pg. 67. "There are 10 million Jains in India and 100,000 in the U.S. "
Jainism India - 0.50% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "; total population: 904,800,000
Jainism - monastic India 5,620 - - - 1984 Bishop, Peter & Michael Darton (editors). The Encyclopedia of World Faiths: An Illustrated Survey of the World's Living Faiths. New York: Facts on File Publications (1987), pg. 208. "According to a survey, in 1984 there were about 5,620 Jaina ascetics -- monks and nuns -- the majority belonging to the Scvetambara sect (1,200 monks and nuns), followed by the Sthanakavasis (325 monks and 520 nuns), and then the Digambaras (65 monks, 60 'lay brothers' and 50 'lay sisters'). "
Jainism - monastic India 5,620 - - - 1984 Bishop, Peter & Michael Darton (editors). The Encyclopedia of World Faiths: An Illustrated Survey of the World's Living Faiths. New York: Facts on File Publications (1987), pg. 208. "According to a survey, in 1984 there were about 5,620 Jaina ascetics -- monks and nuns -- the majority belonging to the Shvetambara sect (1,200 monks and nuns), followed by the Sthanakavasis (325 monks and 520 nuns), and then the Digambaras (65 monks, 60 'lay brothers' and 50 'lay sisters'). "
Jehovah's Witnesses India 5,842 0.00% 254
units
- 1983 Botting, Heather & Gary Botting. The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. Toronto: University of Toronto Press (1984), pg. 53-59. Table: "1983 Service Year Report of JWs Worldwide "; Adherent count here is from "1983 Peak Publishers " column
Jehovah's Witnesses India 17,534 0.00% 485
units
- 1997 *LINK* official organization web site Adherent/member count is for "1997 Peak Witnesses "; Memorial attendance (annual sacrament meeting) for same year: 44,634.
Jehovah's Witnesses India 20,390 0.00% 486
units
- 1998 *LINK* Jehovah's Witnesses official web site; section: "Statistics "; web page: "Worldwide Report " (viewed 16 April 1999). Table: "1998 Report of Jehovah's Witnesses Worldwide "; This adherent/member count is for "1998 Peak Witnesses "
Jehovah's Witnesses - Memorial attendance India 16,834 - 254
units
- 1983 Botting, Heather & Gary Botting. The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. Toronto: University of Toronto Press (1984), pg. 53-59. Table: "1983 Service Year Report of JWs Worldwide "; Data from columns: "No. of congs. " and "Memorial attendance "
Jehovah's Witnesses - Memorial attendance India 44,634 0.00% 485
units
- 1997 *LINK* official organization web site From 1997 Statistics "Memorial attendance " column. Count of all who attend this once-a-year meeting, whether or not a "publisher " in full standing. Most would be considered adherents.
Jehovah's Witnesses - Memorial attendance India 44,324 0.00% - - 1998 *LINK* Jehovah's Witnesses official web site; section: "Statistics "; web page: "Worldwide Report " (viewed 16 April 1999). Table: "1998 Report of Jehovah's Witnesses Worldwide "; "Memorial attendance " column indicates attendance at yearly communion meeting.
Jews of Cochin India - - - - 1200 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 15). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 2081. "In the early centuries of the second millennium AD, the Cochin Jews were wealthy and occupied a high position in the local raja's kingdom. It is evident from the 13th century tombstones that they had an imperfect knowledge of Hebrew and the Bible. "
Jews of Cochin India 2,500 - - - 1945 Ross, Dan. Acts of Faith: A Journey to the Fringes of Jewish Identity. New York: St. Martin's Press (1982), pg. 194. "The Jews of India are a varied lot, divided into distinct communities... When India's Jewish population was at its greatest (during the mid-1940s), Bene Israel made up two-thirds of its approximately thirty thousand Jews. The others fell into equally well-defined categories: --The Jews of Cochin, on India's southwest coast... Cochin never lost contact with the rest of the Jewish world, as did the Bene Israel, so their identity was never challenged. More than 90% of Cochin's 2,500 Jews have moved to Israel. "
Jews of Cochin India 2,500 - - - 1948 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 347. "In 1948, there were about 2,500 members of the Jewish community of Cochin. They lived mainly in coastal towns such as Ernakulam, Mallah, Mattancheri, and Parur. Jews in the city of Cochin lived in an area called 'Jew Town.' By the early 1990s, the population had fallen to 22 people. "
Jews of Cochin India 1,200 - - - 1950 Gilbert, Martin (ed.) The Illustrated Atlas of Jewish Civilization: 4,000 Years of Jewish History. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. (1990), pg. 73. "1662 Cochin Jews massacred by the Portuguese. From 1663 to 1795 they were protected by the Dutch, from 1795 by the British. In 1950 there were 1,200 Cochin Jews divided into 'black', 'brown' and 'white' castes, with segregated synagogues. "
Jews of Cochin India 100 - - - 1954 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 346. "Jews of Cochin: Location: India (state of Kerala); Population: 22; Religion: Malayalam; Hebrew for religious purposes; Religion: Judaism "; "In 1953-54, some 2,400 Cochin Jews--almost the entire population--left India, leaving only about 100 Jews behind. The ancient Jewish community of Cochin has all but disappeared today. "
Jews of Cochin India - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 15). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 2081. "...there is some uncertainty over the origin and date of arrival of both the Cochin Jews, who live on the south-west or Malabar coast of India, and the Bene Israel... The Cochin Jews claim that their ancestors came to India after the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 AD, but although Israelites may even have reached India in pre-Christian times, the only certainty is that Jews had settled on the Malabar coast before the end of the first millennium AD. "
Jews of Cochin India - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 15). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 2081. "The Cochin Jews are divided into three castes: the White Jews, the Black Jews and the Meshuararim. "
Jews of Cochin India 250 - - - 1982 Ross, Dan. Acts of Faith: A Journey to the Fringes of Jewish Identity. New York: St. Martin's Press (1982), pg. 194. "The Jews of India are a varied lot, divided into distinct communities... When India's Jewish population was at its greatest (during the mid-1940s), Bene Israel made up two-thirds of its approximately thirty thousand Jews. The others fell into equally well-defined categories: --The Jews of Cochin, on India's southwest coast... Cochin never lost contact with the rest of the Jewish world, as did the Bene Israel, so their identity was never challenged. More than 90% of Cochin's 2,500 Jews have moved to Israel. "
Jews of Cochin India - - 1
unit
- 1982 Ross, Dan. Acts of Faith: A Journey to the Fringes of Jewish Identity. New York: St. Martin's Press (1982), pg. 206. "Nine synagogues still function in Bombay, although the two Baghdadi ones have to pay Bene Israel to help form a daily minyan. In Poona, too, two synagogues remain open: one Bene Israel and the other Baghdadi. Bene Israel synagogues survive in Ahmedabad and Delhi, a Baghdadi synagogue in Calcutta, and the oldest of all Indian synagogues in Cochin... "
Jews of Cochin India 22 - - - 1992 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 347. "In 1948, there were about 2,500 members of the Jewish community of Cochin. They lived mainly in coastal towns such as Ernakulam, Mallah, Mattancheri, and Parur. Jews in the city of Cochin lived in an area called 'Jew Town.' By the early 1990s, the population had fallen to 22 people. "; "The religious beliefs of the Jews of Cochin conform in every way with the norms of the Jewish faith as set out in the Halakha or Jewish Legal Code. They accept the concept of one true deity, Yahweh, whose will is revealed in the Torah, & who exists in a special relationship with his 'chosen people'... However, the Cochin Jews adopted certain features of local society that make them as much Indian as Jewish. At least one of these traits, the acceptance of a caste structure, violates & even defies the standards of the Halakha. "
Jews of Cochin - Black Jews India - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 15). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 2081. "The Cochin Jews are divided into three castes: the White Jews, the Black Jews and the Meshuararim. The Black Jews, whose skin is dark in colour, are the descendants of the original Jewish settlers who converted a number of their native slaves and servants and then, over a period of time, intermarried with them... in the 17th and 18th centuries Dutch Jews probably intermarried with the wealthiest families of the established Jewish community, but they came to form the White Jewish caste and completely distinguished themselves from the Black Jews... "
Jews of Cochin - Meshuararim India - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 15). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 2081. "The Cochin Jews are divided into three castes: the White Jews, the Black Jews and the Meshuararim... The third caste, the Meshuararim, is made up of the slave and servant converts of white Jews. "
Jews of Cochin - White Jews India - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 15). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 2081. "The Cochin Jews are divided into three castes: the White Jews, the Black Jews and the Meshuararim... in the 17th and 18th centuries Dutch Jews probably intermarried with the wealthiest families of the established [Indian] Jewish community, but they came to form the White Jewish caste and completely distinguished themselves from the Black Jews who they claimed were not of 'pure' Jewish descent. The skin colour of the White Jews ranges from white to medium brown. "
Judaism India 21,778 0.01% - - 1921 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 368. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] Table: "The latest census gives the following enumeration of the adherents... " [1921 and 1931 figures.] Judaism percentage: .007% rounds to two digits to .01%.
Judaism India 24,141 0.01% - - 1931 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 368. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] Table: "The latest census gives the following enumeration of the adherents... " [1921 and 1931 figures.]
Judaism India 30,000 - - - 1945 Ross, Dan. Acts of Faith: A Journey to the Fringes of Jewish Identity. New York: St. Martin's Press (1982), pg. 194. "The Jews of India are a varied lot, divided into distinct communities. The Bene Israel are only one of these, though by far the largest. When India's Jewish population was at its greatest (during the mid-1940s), Bene Israel made up two-thirds of its approximately thirty thousand Jews. "
Judaism India - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 15). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 2081. "The Jews in India may be divided into four groups: the Bene Israel (Sons of Israel), the Cochin Jews, the Baghdadi Jews, and a few hundred Jewish emigrants from Europe. "
Judaism India - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 15). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 2081. "Today the Indian Jews are comparatively orthodox, but during their isolation from other Jewish communities, their Judaism declined, they adopted many Hindu customs, and they were assimilated into the caste system. The Indian Jews became separate castes and they were also divided into a number of sub-castes. "
Judaism India 5,000 - - - 1982 Ross, Dan. Acts of Faith: A Journey to the Fringes of Jewish Identity. New York: St. Martin's Press (1982), pg. 205. "Jewish life still thrives in India, though on a vastly reduced scale. Fewer than 5,000 Jews are now thought to remain, most of them Bene Israel. Empty synagogues stand with unused Torah scrolls where Jewish communities once prospered. "
Judaism India 10,000 - - - 1997 *LINK* web site: "Unreached Peoples Prayer Profiles " (1998); article: "The Jews of Asia ", Copyright 1997 Bethany World Prayer Center "About 10,000 Jews live in India, mainly in Bombay and the surrounding areas. They are known as Bene Israel ( "the Children of Israel "). They speak an Indo-Aryan language called Marathi. "
Judaism India 6,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* Jewish Communities of the World web site (1998) Table: World Jewry. "collected our data from from demographic and other academic studies, community reports, and up-dates in the general media... consulted with experts to verify findings before reaching our assessments and estimates. "
Judaism - European India 1,300 - - - 1945 Ross, Dan. Acts of Faith: A Journey to the Fringes of Jewish Identity. New York: St. Martin's Press (1982), pg. 194. "The Jews of India are a varied lot, divided into distinct communities... When India's Jewish population was at its greatest (during the mid-1940s), Bene Israel made up two-thirds of its approx. 30,000 Jews. The others fell into equally well-defined categories:... --About 1,300 European Jews, most of whom fled to India (mostly Bombay) in the 1930s and 40s. Few ever considered India their home, and nearly all left immediately after the war. "
Kabir Panth India - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 159-160. "Chamars: Alternate Names: Untouchables; Scheduled Caste; Location: Northern India (mainly Uttar Pradesh state) "; "Chamars form one of the major occupational castes of India... In general, Chamars are Hindus... Given their low status in traditional Hindu society, it is not surprising that Chamars have been attracted to religions that downplay or reject notions of untouchability... Many are followers of devotional (bhakti) Hindu sects such as Kabir Panth. One such group is the Satnami Chamar of Madhya Pradesh. "
Kabir Panth India - - - - 1998 *LINK* Kalidas, S. "VARANASI: Rhythms of Change " in India Today (June 22, 1998), viewed online 11 April 1999. "The Kabir math.. is also the centre of the Kabir Panth, whose members are followers of Kabir's secular, pacifist and mystical vision. The current head of the math is not around but an inmate, Gopal Das Shastri, shows us around. In post-liberalisation, post-nuclear, consumerist India, the Kabir Panth in its place of origin seems sincere and dedicated, but devoid of a sense of purpose. "
Kali worship India - - - - 1800 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 11). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1555. "In the shrine of Danteshwari... in Bastar, Central India, human heads were regularly presented at [Kali's] altar. "
Kali worship India - - - - 1870 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 11). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1554. "Until a century ago, travelers in lonely parts of India ran the risk of being ritually strangled in honour of Kali... "
Kali worship India - - - - 1957 Welles, Sam. The World's Great Religions, New York: Time Incorporated (1957), pg. 24. "The lower classes, in their fear of the dreadful Kali, have sometimes gone to morbid extremes to please her. From the 13th to the 19th Centuries, devotees known as thugi, from which the English word thug comes, went around the countryside strangling human victims in the belief that a human sacrifice would satisfy Kali's thirst for blood for a thousand years. Even with approval of the Brahmans, who discouraged blood sacrifices, the British authorities had great difficulty in suppressing the thugi, and some Kali votaries still kill animals in her name. "
Kali worship India - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 11). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1555. "Most other gods of India today are satisfied with simple offerings of flowers, coconuts, rice and fruit, but Kali remains the chief goddess to whom blood sacrifices continue to be made, though owing to the restrictions imposed by enlightened legislation the victim is now usually a goat. "
Kalki movement India 5,000,000 - - - 1997 *LINK* "Briefly... " in Hinduism Today International (June 1997) "Has God arrived? So believe five million people in India alone... " the report continues. The Kalki Yagnas Trust, headquartered near Chennai, says there are now Kalki centers worldwide.
Kanjipantha India - - - - 1999 *LINK* web site: Jainworld; web page: "History of various sects " (viewed 16 Jan. 1999) "In connection with the account of the major and minor sub-sects prevailing among the Digambara sect, it is worth while to note that in recent years in the Digambara sect a new major sub-sect known as 'Kanji-pantha', consisting of the followers of Kanji Swami is being formed and is getting popular especially among the educated sections...in practical view point, are not approved by the Digambaras in general... However, the influence of Kanjipantha is steadily increasing and Sonagarh town in Gujarat and Jaipur in Rajasthan have become the centers of varied religious activities of the Kanajipanthis. "
Kapalikas India - - - - 1200 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 401. "Kapalika. The Kapalikas were a sect of Saivism found throughout India but especially in the South between the eighth and thirteenth centuries. Widely criticized by other Saivites for their controversial practices, the Kapalikas worshiped Shiva in his aspect as Bhairava... "
Karbi Anglong Baptist Convention India 16,835 - 197
units
- 1998 *LINK* Baptist World Alliance web site; page: "BWA Statistics " (viewed 31 March 1999). "Figures are for BWA affiliated conventions/unions only (no independents included). "; Table with 3 columns: Country, "Churches ", & "Members "; "1997/1998 Totals "
Karnataka Baptist Convention India 13,000 - 105
units
- 1998 *LINK* Baptist World Alliance web site; page: "BWA Statistics " (viewed 31 March 1999). "Figures are for BWA affiliated conventions/unions only (no independents included). "; Table with 3 columns: Country, "Churches ", & "Members "; "1997/1998 Totals "
Kashmiri Shaivism India - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), pg. 53. "The most important Shaivite [Hindu] subsect, Shaiva-Siddhanta, founded in the 13th century... Kashmiri Shaivism is another large subsect. "
Khasi India 628,104 - - - 1981 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 391-392. "Khasi; Location: India (Meghalaya state); Population: 628,104 (1981); Language: Khasi; Religion: Christianity; native animist beliefs " [NOTE: This statistic is for Khasi as a tribal/ethnic group, NOT the total practicing Khasi religion.]
Khasi religion India 207,274 - - - 1981 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 391-392. "Khasi; Location: India (Meghalaya state); Population: 628,104 (1981) "; "Khasi religion may be described as animistic, focusing on the propitation of spirits--both good and evil... Although many aspects of traditional Khasi religion survive, the majority of Khasi have adopted Christianity. Missionary work began in the region during the late 19th century and has been so successful that today over 67% of Khasi profess to be Christian. "
Konds India 1,000,000 - - - 1981 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 408-409. "Konds: Alternate Name: Khond; Kondh; Kandha; Ku (self-reference); Location: India (Orissa region); Population: 1 million (1981); Religion: Animism; small number of Christians "; "Christian missionary activity among the Konds is reflected in the roughly 3% of the population who claim the Christian faith. "
Krishna worship India - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 781. "Of the fourteen avatars recognized by most texts and traditions, Rama and Krishna are the two major deities of Vaisnavism, usually but not always exclusive of one another... The Krishna sect... There are many schools of Krishna-centered Vaisnavism across the subcontinent, all of them characterized by poetry and song as expressions of religious devotion... Most... such as that of the Alvars (sixth-tenth centuries) of the Tamil-speaking country an that of Caitanya in Bengal, are devoted to Krishna the youth... They all have much in common, however, and insight into them can be gained by looking at a single one, the Caitanya movement of Bengal. "
Ksatriya India - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 418. "Ksatriya. A generic term for members of the second highest division of Hindu society. Though in ritual status inferior to Brahmins, Ksatriyas were traditionally rulers and warriors. Even those Ksatriyas who today engage in agriculture pride themselves on their warrior tradition. Though twice born, Ksatriyas differ from Brahmins and Vaisyas by their habit of consuming meat and alcoholic drinks. "
Lepchas India 24,000 - - - 1987 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 438. "Lepchas are the original inhabitants of Sikkim, formerly an independent kingdom situated in the Himalayas... Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian union in 1975... In 1987 their population was estimated at 65,000, distributed between Nepal (1,272), Sikkim (24,000), and Bhutan (24,200). "
Lingayats India - - - - 1150 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986), pg. 202-203. "The Lingayat sect flourished in South India in the twelfth century but thereafter declined in importance...'
Lingayats India - - - - 1970 Wilson, Bryan. "Traditional Religion Divides Society " in Enduring Issues in Sociology (Lynn Barteck & Karen Mullin, editors). San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press (1995), pg. 215-216. [Originally source: Religious Sects: A Sociological Study. New York: McGraw-Hill (1970).] "In Hinduism, which is diffuse, uncentralised and pluralist, sectarianism exists only in a much more limited sense than in Christendom... Yet the term sect is widely if loosely used for such groups as the Lingayat movement among the Brahmins, even though these were merely movements cultivating particular styles of devotion. "
Lingayats India - - - - 1994 *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "LINGYATS: a HINDU SECT within aivism originating with the teachings of Basava (12th century) which concentrated on the LINGAM as the one true symbol of divinity. "
Lingayats India - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998), pg. 445. "Lingayats are distributed throughout Karnataka, with their greatest concentrations in the northern regions. Census returns in 1981 indicated that 10.31% of the state's population were Lingayats... Lingayat communities are also found in the adjacent areas of the neighboring states of Maharashtra, Goa, Andra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. "
Lingayats India - - - - 1999 *LINK* "Basaweswara and Veerashaivam " homepage (viewed 9 July 1999). "The Veerashaivas, often called Lingayats, are distinguished by the Sivalinga and rudraksa on their person and they smear their bodies with ashes. They are strict vegetarians and abstain from drink. The Veerashaiva doctrine has four schools, but the differences are of a minor kind. All believe in the efficacy of a Guru or preceptor. All assert the reality of the Universe and unity with Siva, the only ultimate reality. The Veerashaiva doctrine is prevalent in Mysore [Karnataka], in the southern regions of Maharashtra and in some parts of Andhra Pradesh. "
Lutheran India 1,267,787 - - - 1995 *LINK* Evangelical Lutheran Church in America web site; web page: "January 25, 1996 News Releases " (viewed 9 July 1999). Story: "More than 60 Million Lutherans Worldwide " [96-01-003-FI] List: "Countries with more than 1/2 million Lutherans "
Lutheran India - - - - 1999 *LINK* Stack, Peggy Fletcher ( "compiler "). "World View... ", subhead: "First Women Ordained " in Salt Lake Tribune (March 20, 1999), viewed online 21 March 1999. [Orig. source: Ecumenical News Intl.] "Last month India's biggest Lutheran church, the 800,000-member Andhra Evangelical Lutheran Church (AELC), ordained its first women. Eighteen women were ordained as pastors in the service at St. Matthew's Church in the city of Guntur in the southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The AELC is the fourth of India's Lutheran churches to ordain women The first were ordained in 1991. "
Manichaeism India - - - - 260 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 13). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), pg. 1721. "Mani considered Buddha, Zoroaster and Jesus as his predecessors. He visited northwestern India and during his missionary trips in the Persian Empire, favoured by King Shapur I, he must have become thoroughly familiar with the Iranian religion. "
Manipur Baptist Convention India 134,594 - 1,294
units
- 1998 *LINK* Baptist World Alliance web site; page: "BWA Statistics " (viewed 31 March 1999). "Figures are for BWA affiliated conventions/unions only (no independents included). "; Table with 3 columns: Country, "Churches ", & "Members "; "1997/1998 Totals "
Mar Thoma Church India - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 460. "Mar Thoma Church. A church combining Reformation elements with its heritage from the Syrian Orthodox Church from which it separated in the nineteenth century. This church claims continuity with the first century church supposedly founded in India by the apostle Thomas. While remaining basically Syrian Orthodox, the vernacular texts (English or Maylayam) and rites have undergone periodic revision and accomodation to Protestant models... "
Mashhadi Jews India - - - - 1868 Ross, Dan. Acts of Faith: A Journey to the Fringes of Jewish Identity. New York: St. Martin's Press (1982), pg. 77. "In Bombay and Calcutta, refugees reinforced the small Mashhadi colony founded by Ibrahim Nathan. They were closely associated with India's prosperous Arab Jews, called 'Baghdadis'. These Baghdadis ran commercial empires stretching from London to China. Ibrahim Nathan's oldest son, in fact, had to miss his father's funeral in 1868 because he was working for a Baghdadi firm in Shanghai. "
Meher Baba India 100,000 - - - 1972 *LINK* web site: New Religious Movements (University of Virginia) (1998) [Orig. source: Anthony, Dick and Thomas Robbins. June 1972. "Getting Straight With Meher Baba, " Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 11 No. 2.] The size of Meher Baba's following is estimated at near one hundred thousand in India. In the U.S., the size is substantially less and broken down by individual community centers with varying membership.
Mellusians India 15,000 - - - 1945 Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976), pg. 136. [1st pub. in 1945 by Philosophical Library. 1976 reprint is unrevised.] "Chaldean (Persian) Rite:... Variants of this rite are followed by the Nestorians in Mesopotamia and Persia with 80,000 members and by the Mellusians in India with 15,000. "
Mennonite Church in India India 3,700 - 19
units
- 1998 *LINK* Mennonite World Conference web site. Directory 1998. Web page: "Asia/Pacific: Mennonite & Brethren in Christ Churches " INDIA... Mennonite Church in India... Members: 3,700; Congregations: 19
Mennonite World Conference India 87,466 - - - 1997 *LINK* Mennonite World Conference web site; page: "Mennonite and Brethren in Christ World Membership Totals " (viewed 8 Aug. 1999). Table: "Mennonite and Brethren in Christ World Membership Totals "; "based on the most recent data available... from 1996 or 1997... statistics indicate baptized members "; Dif. religious bodies: 8.
Methodist India - - - - 1971 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 478. "Unions with other denominations have resulted in the statistical disappearance of some churches as solely Methodist, even though characteristic emphasis in theology, worship, and mission continue within united churches. Thus, in 1925, the United Church of Canada joined together Methodist, Presbyterian, and Congregational churches. These three in addition to Anglicans formed the Church of South India, 1947, and the Church of North India and of Pakistan, 1971... However, large numbers of Methodists in North India remain outside the unions. "
Methodist India - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 478. "[Methodist] Churches having more than 20,000 members are found in... India, Malaysia-Sinagpore, Korea, the Philippines... "


India, continued

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