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Religious Affiliation of U.S. Congress

Related pages:
- Religious Affiliation of U.S Presidents
- Religious Affiliation of U.S. Vice-Presidents
- Religious Affiliation of U.S. Governors
- Religious Affiliation of U.S. Supreme Court
- Religious Affiliation of Canadian Prime Ministers
Pages in this section:
109th U.S. Congress (2005-2006)
108th U.S. Congress (2003-2004)
107th U.S. Congress (2001-2002)
106th U.S. Congress (1999-2000)
105th U.S. Congress (1997-1998)
104th U.S. Congress (1995-1996)
103rd U.S. Congress (1993-1994)
First U.S. Congress (1789-1791)
Signers of the Declaration of Indepence and the U.S. Constitution

109th U.S. Congress (2005-2006)

Religious Affiliation Sen. Rep. Total % of
% of
U.S. pop.
Catholic 24 130 154 28.8% 24.5%
Baptist 7 68 75 14.1% 16.3%
Methodist 11 50 61 11.4% 6.8%
Presbyterian 15 37 52 9.7% 2.7%
Episcopalian 10 32 42 7.9% 1.7%
Jewish 11 26 37 6.9% 1.3%
Lutheran 3 18 21 3.9% 4.6%
Latter-day Saints 5 11 16 3.0% 1.9%
United Church of Christ/Congregationalist 6 4 10 1.9% 0.7%
Stone-Campbell 1 6 7 1.3% 1.8%
Christian Scientist 0 5 5 0.9% 0.09%
Eastern Orthodox/Greek Orthodox 2 2 4 0.7% 0.31%
Assemblies of God 0 4 4 0.7% 0.53%
Unitarian 1 2 3 0.6% 0.30%
Christian Reformed 0 2 2 0.4% 0.04%
Seventh-day Adventist 0 2 2 0.4% 0.35%
African Methodist Episcopal (AME) 0 2 2 0.4% 0.58%
Evangelical Free or Evangelical (not further specified) 1 1 2 0.4% 0.5%
Quaker 0 1 1 0.2% 0.10%
Community of Christ (RLDS) 0 1 1 0.2% 0.05%
Foursquare Gospel 1 0 1 0.2% 0.10%
Nazarene 0 1 1 0.2% 0.26%
United Brethren in Christ 0 1 1 0.2% 0.01%
Scientologist 0 1 1 0.2% .019%
Community Church 0 1 1 0.2% N.A.
McLean Bible Church 1 0 1 0.2% 0.005%
"Protestant" (not further specified) 1 20 21 3.9% 2.2%
"Christian" (not further specified) 0 5 5 0.9% 6.8%
unspecified 0 4 4 0.7% 13.2%
TOTAL 100 435 535 100.0%

Stone-Campbell/Restoration Movement churches:
Alternatively, the Stone-Campbell groups could be listed separately, as below:

Religious Affiliation Sen. Rep. Total % of
% of
U.S. pop.
Church of Christ 1 1 2 0.4% 1.20%
Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) 0 2 2 0.4% 0.24%
Christian Churches and Churches of Christ (CC/CC) 0 2 2 0.4% 0.3%

For the most part, official biographical listings for senators and representatives clearly identify which group they are a part of. However, some senators and representatives who attend Stone-Campbell/Restoration Movement churches go to megachurches or other highly independent congregations which are difficult to clearly associate with one of the factions. As with all denominational familes (including Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians, Lutherans and Quakers), the separate Stone-Campbell factions are not identical. The "Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)" is considered more liberal or progresive. The "Church of Christ" (or "Churches of Christ") is considered conservative or fundamentalist. The "Christian Churches and Churches of Christ" (or "Christian Church/Churches of Christ", abbreviated "CC/CC") is considered the middle or moderate group.

109th U.S. Congress, 2005: Senators

Chuck Grassley (Iowa-R) Baptist
Mitch McConnell (Kentucky-R) Baptist
Thad Cochran (Mississippi-R) Baptist
Trent Lott (Mississippi-R) Baptist
Tom Coburn (Oklahoma-R) Baptist
Robert Byrd (West Virginia-D) Baptist
Lindsey Graham (South Carolina-R) Southern Baptist
Lisa Murkowski (Alaska-R) Catholic
Ken Salazar (Colorado-D) Catholic
Christopher Dodd (Connecticut-D) Catholic
Joseph Biden (Delaware-D) Catholic
Mel Martinez (Florida-R) Catholic
Sam Brownback (Kansas-R) Catholic
Tom Harkin (Iowa-D) Catholic
Richard Durbin (Illinois-D) Catholic
Jim Bunning (Kentucky-R) Catholic
Mary Landrieu (Louisiana-D) Catholic
David Vitter (Louisiana-R) Catholic
Edward Kennedy (Mass-D) Catholic
John Kerry (Mass-D) Catholic
Barbara Mikulski (Maryland-D) Catholic
Susan Collins (Maine-R) Catholic
John Sununu (New Hampshire-R) Catholic
Pete Domenici (New Mexico-R) Catholic
Mike DeWine (Ohio-R) Catholic
George Voinovich (Ohio-R) Catholic
Rick Santorum (Penn-R) Catholic
Jack Reed (Rhode Island-D) Catholic
Patrick Leahy (Vermont-D) Catholic
Maria Cantwell (Washington-D) Catholic
Patty Murray (Washington-D) Catholic
John Cornyn (Texas-R) Church of Christ (Stone-Campbell)
Ted Stevens (Alaska-R) Episcopalian
Blanche Lincoln (Arkansas-D) Episcopalian
John McCain (Arizona-R) Episcopalian
Saxby Chambliss (Georgia-R) Episcopalian
Evan Bayh (Indiana-D) Episcopalian
Chuck Hagel (Nebraska-R) Episcopalian
Bill Nelson (Florida-D) Episcopalian
Lincoln Chafee (Rhode Island-R) Episcopalian
Kay Hutchison (Texas-R) Episcopalian
John Warner (Virginia-R) Episcopalian
Mark Pryor (Arkansas-D) Evangelical
Paul Sarbanes (Maryland-D) Greek Orthodox
Olympia Snowe (Maine-R) Greek Orthodox
John Ensign (Nevada-R) International Church of the Foursquare Gospel
Joseph Lieberman (Connecticut-D) Orthodox Judaism
Barbara Boxer (Calif-D) Jewish
Dianne Feinstein (Calif-D) Jewish
Carl Levin (Michigan-D) Jewish
Norm Coleman (Minnesota-R) Jewish
Frank Lautenberg (New Jersey-D) Jewish
Charles Schumer (New York-D) Jewish
Ron Wyden (Oregon-D) Jewish
Arlen Specter (Penn-R) Jewish
Russell Feingold (Wisconsin-D) Jewish
Herb Kohl (Wisconsin-D) Jewish
Michael Crapo (Idaho-R) Latter-day Saint
Harry Reid (Nevada-D) Latter-day Saint
Gordon Smith (Oregon-R) Latter-day Saint
Robert Bennett (Utah-R) Latter-day Saint
Orrin Hatch (Utah-R) Latter-day Saint
Conrad Burns (Montana-R) Lutheran
Byron Dorgan (North Dakota-D) Lutheran
Tim Johnson (South Dakota-D) Lutheran
John Thune (South Dakota-R) McLean Bible Church
Jeff Sessions (Alabama-R) Methodist
Johnny Isakson (Georgia-R) Methodist
Daniel Inouye (Hawaii-D) Methodist
Larry Craig (Idaho-R) Methodist
Richard Lugar (Indiana-R) Methodist
Ben Nelson (Nebraska-D) Methodist
Pat Roberts (Kansas-R) Methodist
Jeff Bingaman (New Mexico-D) Methodist
Hillary Clinton (New York-D) Methodist
Craig Thomas (Wyoming-R) Methodist
Debbie Stabenow (Michigan-D) United Methodist
Richard Shelby (Alabama-R) Presbyterian
Jon Kyl (Arizona-R) Presbyterian
Thomas Carper (Delaware-D) Presbyterian
Mark Dayton (Minnesota-D) Presbyterian
Christopher Bond (Missouri-R) Presbyterian
Richard Burr (North Carolina-R) Presbyterian
Elizabeth Dole (North Carolina-R) Presbyterian
James Inhofe (Oklahoma-R) Presbyterian
Jim DeMint (South Carolina-R) Presbyterian
Lamar Alexander (Tenn-R) Presbyterian
Bill Frist (Tenn-R) Presbyterian
George Allen (Virginia-R) Presbyterian
John Rockefeller (West Virginia-D) Presbyterian
Michael Enzi (Wyoming-R) Presbyterian
James Talent (Missouri-R) Presbyterian (PCA)
Kent Conrad (North Dakota-D) Unitarian-Universalist
Barack Obama (Illinois-D) United Church of Christ
Jon Corzine (New Jersey-D) United Church of Christ
Max Baucus (Montana-D) United Church of Christ
Daniel Akaka (Hawaii-D) Congregationalist
Judd Gregg (New Hampshire-R) Congregationalist
James Jeffords (Vermont - Indep.) Congregationalist
Wayne Allard (Colorado-R) "Protestant"

109th U.S. Congress, 2005: Representatives

Alcee Hastings, D African Methodist Episcopal (AME)
James Clyburn, D African Methodist Episcopal (AME)
Marilyn Musgrave, R Assemblies of God
Timothy Johnson, R Assemblies of God
Todd Tiahrt, R Assemblies of God
Jo Ann Davis, R Assemblies of God
Terry Everett, R Baptist
Mike Rogers, R Baptist
Spencer Bachus, R Baptist
Trent Franks, R Baptist
J.D. Hayworth, R Baptist
John Boozman, R Baptist
Barbara Lee, D Baptist
Bill Thomas, R Baptist
Juanita Millender-McDonald, D Baptist
Dana Rohrabacher, R Baptist
Duncan Hunter, R Baptist
Corrine Brown, D Baptist
Kendrick Meek, D Baptist
Sanford Bishop, D Baptist
John Lewis, D Baptist
Lynn Westmoreland, R Baptist
Nathan Deal, R Baptist
John Barrow, D Baptist
David Scott, D Baptist
Jesse Jackson, Jr., D Baptist
Danny Davis, D Baptist
Donald Manzullo, R Baptist
Julia Carson, D Baptist
John Hostettler, R Baptist

From: James L. Evans, "Spirituality of members of Congress", published 16 December 2006 in The Decatur Daily (; viewed 2 June 2007):

We may enjoy some level of separation of church and state in this country, but there hardly exists anywhere a separation of faith from public office. There is spiritual vitality in virtually every branch of government. From President Bush's heartwarming Methodism, all the way to the disciplined Catholicism of Justices Alito, Scalia, Kennedy, Thomas and Roberts, faith and government are linked arm in arm.

This is nowhere more evident than with the incoming Congress. According to a story distributed by Newhouse News Service, this Congress will be one of the most religiously diverse bodies we have ever had. For instance, for the first time in our history, Congress will include among its ranks a Muslim. Keith Ellison, a newly elected representative from Minnesota, converted from Catholicism to Islam when he was 19 years old. As you would imagine, his religion was a source of contention throughout his campaign.

The new Congress will also feature two Buddhists - Hank Johnson from Georgia and Mazie Hirono from Hawaii.

For the first time in our history, Jews will outnumber Episcopalians - not that either of them can boast overwhelming numbers. Overall among the Jews, there are 30 representatives and 13 senators. Compare Episcopalians, who have 27 House seats and 10 senators.

With Mitt Romney, governor of Massachusetts, considering a run for the presidency, it is interesting to note that 10 representatives and five senators share his Mormon faith [as members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints]. In fact, Harry Reid of Nevada, the new Democratic majority leader in the Senate, is a Mormon [Latter-day Saint].

The largest religious group represented in the new Congress is Roman Catholic. Catholics will have 129 representatives and 25 senators. The next largest group is Baptists with 59 representatives and seven senators. Coming in third are Methodists with 48 representatives and 13 senators. It also is interesting to note who is not represented in the new Congress. No one from the Church of God is in the House, but there is one senator from that group. There no Congregationalists in the House, but there is one senator from that group as well. The opposite is true for Quakers - one in the House, but none in the Senate.

Interestingly, there are six House members who describe themselves as unaffiliated. Of course, given the evangelistic proclivities of Baptists and Methodists, that could change in the course of their term.

The big question is what does all this mean? Well, for one thing, our new religiously diverse Congress seems to be "awash in a sea of faith." This expression comes from the title of Yale historian Jon Butler's award winning history of early American religion. True now as then, Christianity may dominate the religious landscape, but it is not alone in representing faith journeys in America.

Our religiously diverse Congress also serves to remind us of the power of religious freedom. This freedom is established in the First Amendment of our Constitution. Because Congress must never show partiality to any one faith, nor hinder anyone's free exercise of faith, spirituality has blossomed in the rich soil of American freedom.

James L. Evans, a syndicated columnist, also serves as pastor of Auburn First Baptist Church. He can be reached through his Web site,

Related Links

  • Sen. Trent Lott - Mississippi Baptist was leader of Senate Republicans
  • Sen. Joe Lieberman - Popular Orthodox Jew was first of his faith to run for V.P. on major party ticket
  • Sen. Harry Reid - Senate Minority Leader, nation's highest-ranking Democrat, and highest ranking Latter-day Saint congressman
  • Sen. Dianne Feinstein - outspoken Jewish Feminist from California
  • Sen. Orrin Hatch - songwriter and influential Republican leader


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Webpage created circa May 1999. Last modified 2 June 2007.