Adherents.com Home Page

Adherents.com


43,941 adherent statistic citations: membership and geography data for 4,300+ religions, churches, tribes, etc.

Index

back to Canadian & Latin American Native Americans, USA

Canadian & Latin American Native Americans, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Canadian and American Reformed Churches Canada 13,182 - 44
units
- 1992 Bedell, Kenneth (ed.). Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches 1993. Abingdon Press: Nashville, Tenn (1993); pg. 244-247. Table 1: Canadian Current Statistics. (# of adherents is from table's "inclusive membership " column, not the sometimes smaller "full communicant or confirmed members " col.) Listed in table as "Canadian and American Reformed Churches. "
Canadian and American Reformed Churches Canada 14,407 - 46
units
- 1996 World Almanac and Book of Facts 1998; K-III Reference Corp.: Macwah, NJ (1997). [Orig. sources: 1997 Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches; World Almanac research]; pg. 653. Table: "Membership of Religious Groups in Canada "; Membership figs. based on reports from group officials. Figs. are inclusive: refer to all "members, " not simply full communicants.
Canadian and American Reformed Churches North America 14,500 - - - 1997 *LINK* web site: "Reformed.Net " (1998) Page created 1997 by Daniel Knight. Graphs: "Dutch Reformed Denominational Membership: North America and Netherlands "; "Data from denominational sources where possible. " [Note: figures here estimated from graphs]
Canadian Baptist Ministries Canada 130,000 - 1,150
units
- 1996 World Almanac and Book of Facts 1998; K-III Reference Corp.: Macwah, NJ (1997). [Orig. sources: 1997 Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches; World Almanac research]; pg. 653. Table: "Membership of Religious Groups in Canada "; Membership figs. based on reports from group officials. Figs. are inclusive: refer to all "members, " not simply full communicants. Listed as "Baptist Ministries, Canadian "
Canadian Baptist Ministries Canada 129,055 - 1,133
units
- 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999). [Orig. sources: 1999 Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches; World Almanac research]; pg. 694. Table: "Membership of Religious Groups in U.S. "; Based on reports from officials by each group. Figs. inclusive; refer to all "members ". Listed as Baptist Ministries, Canadian
Canadian Baptist Ministries Canada 122,638 - 1,150
units
- 1998 *LINK* Baptist World Alliance web site; page: "BWA Statistics " (viewed 31 March 1999). "Figures are for BWA affiliated conventions/unions only (no independents included). "; Table with 3 columns: Country, "Churches ", & "Members "; "1997/1998 Totals "
Canadian Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends Canada 1,556 - 52
units
- 1991 Bedell, Kenneth (ed.). Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches 1993. Abingdon Press: Nashville, Tenn (1993); pg. 244-247. Table 1: Canadian Current Statistics. (# of adherents is from table's "inclusive membership " column, not the sometimes smaller "full communicant or confirmed members " col.) Listed in table as "Canadian Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends. "
Candomble Brazil - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 15). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1981. "...the candombles of Bahia and Recife... The candombles are in themselves not an organized religious movement, but rather a collection of independent shrines presided over by a priest or priestess... The clientele is largely Negro, but in recent years the spectacular performances of some priestesses whilst possessed have begun to command the attendance of more sophisticated Brazilians, and perhaps also their belief. "
Candomble Brazil - - - - 1993 Brandon, George. Santeria from Africa to the New World: Dead Sell Memories. Bloomington and Indiana: Indiana University Press (1993); pg. 2. "...Yoruba-based religious forms that exist in the Caribbean, in Central & South America... Santeria is the Cuban variant of this tradition. Shango in Trinidad and on Grenada, Xango and Candomble in Brazil, and Kele on St. Lucia are other examples... "
Candomble Brazil - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 358. "But in the Caribbean and South America, where slave owners were mainly Catholic, the religion of the slaves retained much more of their African ancestral beliefs, concealed by or integrated with those of the slavemasters. The most widespread and influential of these religions--sometimes called diasporan in reference to the forced Diaspora of the Jews from their homeland--are Vodou in Haiti, Candomble in Brazil, and Santeria in Cuba. "
Candomble Brazil - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 360-361. "Candomble is the generic name for a number of African religious traditions established by slaves in 19th-century Brazil, specifically in the region of Bahia. (In the southeast it is called Macumba; Rio de Janeiro's sect is known as Umbanda.)... The center of Candomble is the city of Salvador da Bahia... Candomble has recently achieved the status of an official religion; priestesses and priests no longer need a police permit to perform ceremonies, and demands by the priesthood to remove images of the orixas from the annual Bahian Carnaval were upheld by the government. "
Candomble Brazil - - - - 1997 Heinrichs, Ann. Brazil ( "Enchantment of the World Second Series "). New York: Children's Press (1997); pg. 96-98. "Candomble is a religion that mixes African folk beliefs with Catholic symbols. It centers in Bahia state, where it originated among African slaves... Candomble ceremonies often take place at night, outdoors, and near a body of water... From the African community, candomble spread through all levels of Brazilian society. Christian churches have tried to discourage candomble, but without much success. "
Candomble Brazil - - - - 1998 *LINK* "AFRICAN RELIGION syncretism " (viewed 5 April 1999) "In Brasil there seems to be four distinct movements, Candomble of Bahia and the northeast, Spiritism of Rio and the more advanced urban centers; Umbanda in the urban centers not influenced by Bahia and Quimbanda a form of black magic that is practiced clandestinely everywhere. "
Candomble Brazil - - - - 1998 Davis, Rod. American Voudou: Journey Into A Hidden World. Denton, Texas: University of North Texas Press (1998); pg. 9. "In different areas, voudou has different rituals and doctrines, running a sectarian range roughly comparable to that from Judaism through Protestantism to Catholicism. In Haiti, the religion metamorphosed into vodun or vaudoux; in Cuba, santeria, in Brazil, candomble; in Trinidad, Shango Baptist; in Mexico, curanderismo; in Jamaica, obeah. In the American South, it became voodoo and, in the most extreme caricature, hoodoo... "
Candomble Brazil: Bahia - - 1,000
units
- 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 2 - Americas. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 14-15. "Afro-Brazilian sects are becoming increasingly popular with Blacks and Whites alike in Brazil. There are a variety of religious groupings that continue to follow traditional African religious practices. The first is Condomble, a religion practiced by slaves from the Yoruba tribe. Based largely in the state of Bahia, Condomble followers worship many different gods and goddesses of nature... It has been estimated that over 1,000 Condomble temples exist in the city of Salvador, Bahia. "
Candomble Uruguay - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 2 - Americas. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 431. "Many Afro-Uruguayans who live in the Barrio Sur (South Neighborhood) of Montevideo practice the Afro-Brazilian religion of Condomble. "
Canela Brazil - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 702. Chapter: "South American Tribal Religions "; map: "Tribal Locations "; central Brazil
Caney Indian Spiritual Circle USA - - - - 1991 Jade. To Know: A Guide to Women's Magic and Spirituality. Oak Park, IL: Delphi Press (1991); pg. 74. "Caney Indian Spiritual Circle, Spider, P.O. Box 6874, Pittsburgh, PA 15212. Earth-honoring; celebrates full moon, solstices, and equinoxes with traditional Central Amerian ceremonies; workshops; personal shamanic healing services; quarterly newsletter, Moon Breath... "
Cao Dai Australia 964 0.01% - - 1996 *LINK* Parliament of Australia web site; page: "Census 96: Religion " (viewed 18 Dec. 1999) Self-identification, from 1996 govt. census. [Listed in table as "Caodaism "]
Cao Dai California 2,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* official web site (1998); web page: "Activities of CAODAI " "Presently Cao Daists amount to about 6 million. In Viet Nam, the religion is completely paralyzed under the current government, the Sacerdotal Hierarchy being dissolved. Thus many adepts are scattered around the world and continue to propagate their religion. In California there are approx. 2,000 Cao Daists. "
Cao Dai USA 20,000 - - - 1997 *LINK* web page: "Cao Dai: Religion of Many Spirits " (1998) by Ryan A. MacMichael (Apr. 1997); [Orig. source: Canh, Tran Quang . Personal interview via email. 9 Apr. 1997] "Right now, though, there are about 100 Cao Daiist families in the Washington, D.C. area and many more on the west coast (due to immigration). There is no statistic with regards to the Vietnamese Cao Dai population in U.S., but Canh estimates it at between 15,000 & 20,000 "
Cao Dai USA - Vietnamese - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 2 - Americas. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 443. "...about 29-40% of Vietnamese Americans are Catholic... Most Vietnamese Americans, however, are Buddhist... Mahayana Buddhism. In 1991 there were 80 Vietnamese Buddhist temples in the US. Other religions are also represented among Vietnamese Americans, including Confucianism..., Taoism, Cao-Dai (a combination of Eastern belief systems)... "
Cao Dai Vietnam - - - - 1940 Williams, Lea E. Southeast Asia: A History; New York: Oxford University Press (1976); pg. 182. "Down to the Second World War, the hundreds of thousands of Cao Dai faithful were regarded with patronizing amusement by the French, but the organizational strength caused official uneasiness. "
Cao Dai Vietnam 2,000,000 - - - 1950 Pinney, Roy. Vanishing Tribes. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1968); pg. 15. "...Cao Dai... It became a powerful force in Vietnam, with two million members. "
Cao Dai Vietnam 2,000,000 - - - 1954 Dareff, Hal. The Story of Vietnam: A Background Book for Young People; New York: Parents' Magazine Press (1966); pg. 152. "In 1954 [Cao Dai] had more than two million members and an army of twenty thousand, a formidible force for Diem to contend with. "
Cao Dai Vietnam 2,000,000 - - - 1960 Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe. "Religion " in The Future Now: Predicting the 21st Century. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson (1998); pg. 63. "Cao Dai was founded in 1919... it attracted two million adherents in Vietnam under the French occupation and put armies of thousands into the field in the wards of the 1950s and 1960s. "
Cao Dai Vietnam 2,000,000 2.79% - - 1994 Bratvold, Gretchen (ed). Vietnam ...in Pictures (Visual Geography Series). Minneapolis, Minnesota: Lerner Publications Co. (1994); pg. 37, 45. Pg. 37: "...Vietnam's 71.8 million people... "; Pg. 45: "Two religious sects developed in southern Vietnam in the early 20th century... The Cao Dai religious sect, which combines several different Asian and European philosophies, also has about 2 million followers. "
Cao Dai Vietnam 1,000,000 - 1,000
units
- 1995 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: 10/27/95 issue of GLOBAL PRAYER DIGEST); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) The sect claims up to 1,000 temples in Vietnam, with over 1,000,000 followers, some of whom live in Hanoi, one of today's Gateway Cities.
Cao Dai Vietnam 2,860,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year; pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop.
Cao Dai Vietnam 1,000,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 808. "A small but important religion called Cao Dai is followed by more than one million people. Cao Daism began in 1919 in southern Vietnam. This religion combines elements of belief and practice from Buddhism, Christianity, and history. Its saints include Jesus Christ, the Buddha, Joan of Arc, and Charlie Chaplin. The importance of Cao Dai religion has been due in part to its standing army, which was involved in the Vietnam War. While Cao Dai religion may seem strange to non-believers, its adherents believe they are combining the best beliefs of all the world's religions. "
Cao Dai Vietnam 8,000,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* web site: Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance They currently have 7 to 8 million followers in Viet Nam and about 30,000 members elsewhere, primarily in Asia, Australia, Canada, Europe and the United States.
Cao Dai world 300,000 - - - 1934 Rice, Edward. Ten Religions of the East. New York: Four Winds Press (1978); pg. 132. "Le-van-Trung 'disincarnated' himself in 1934, at a time when the sect had only three hundred thousand members... "
Cao Dai world 2,000,000 - - 3
countries
1945 Rice, Edward. Ten Religions of the East. New York: Four Winds Press (1978); pg. 132. "At its peak in the 1940s, Cao Dai had over two million members not only in Vietnam but also in neighboring Indochinese lands of Laos and Cambodia. "
Cao Dai world 2,000,000 - - - 1982 Eerdman, William B., Eerdman's Handbook to the World's Religions. Lion Publishing (1982): Herts, England; pg. 243. "Cao Dai has continued to grow and its numbers are thought to be over 2 million. "
Cao Dai world 2,000,000 - - 4
countries
1992 Encyclopedia Britannica 1998 (Micropaedia, Vol. 2): "Cao Dai "; pg. 822. "...by the early 1990s Cao Dai was reported to have some two million adherents in Vietnam, Cambodia, France and the United States. "
Cao Dai world 6,000,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* official web site (1998); web page: "Activities of CAODAI " "Presently Cao Daists amount to about 6 million. In Viet Nam, the religion is completely paralyzed under the current government, the Sacerdotal Hierarchy being dissolved. Thus many adepts are scattered around the world and continue to propagate their religion. In California there are approx. 2,000 Cao Daists. "
Cao Dai world 8,030,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* web site: Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance Dao Cao Dai (Caodaism in English) is the third largest religion in Viet Nam (after Buddhism and Roman Catholicism).
Cao Dai world - - - - 1999 *LINK* web site: "Open Directory Project "; web page: Top: Society: Religion: Faiths_and_Beliefs (viewed 17 April 1999). "Cao Dai is an indigenous Vietnamese religion with a strong following in France and the United States. It is a religion of unity, combining teachings and beliefs of Taoism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Islam, Christianity, Spritism, and Geniism. "
Caraja Brazil - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 702. Chapter: "South American Tribal Religions "; map: "Tribal Locations "; central Brazil, near Brasilia
cargo cults Fiji - - - - 1885 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 3). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 409-410. "The cargo cults are generally thought to have started, sometime around the 1880s, in Fiji, and since then the pattern has remained roughly the same. "
cargo cults Oceania - - - - 1940 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 157. "cargo cults. Millenarian movements in New Guinea and Melanesia that began in the late nineteenth century and reached their peak in the 1930s and 40s. In reaction to the frequent arrival of overseas cargo from the Europeans, Americans, and Japanese, natives forsaw an end to this era of foreign domination by a cataclysm, followed by an era in which material wealth would come to them as cargo from their ancestors. "
cargo cults Oceania - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 3). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 409. "Among the strangest religious manifestations of this century are the so-called cargo cults, which have occurred in great numbers among the native peoples of Melanesia, a group of islands scattered in the Pacific... "
cargo cults Oceania - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 3). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 409-410. "The cargo cults are generally thought to have started, sometime around the 1880s, in Fiji, and since then the pattern has remained roughly the same. Out of nowwhere, as it were, a prophet appears and predicts imminent salvation, which may take the form of the islanders' ancestors returning on a ship; a ship that is also loaded with consumer goods like refrigerators, radio sets, desks, furniture... The prophet orders various kinds of ritual observances... When the day of doom arrives and nothing happens, the prophet may try to slip away, leaving the disillusioned people to return to as normal life as is possible, or he stays and tries to explain what happened, or did not happen. Cultists do not seem to notice that a new cult is very similar to the ones which previously failed. "
cargo cults Papua New Guinea 72,000 2.00% - - 1991 *LINK* web site: "Ethnologue Database " (viewed circa Dec. 1998) "Population: 3,600,000 (1991 Honolulu Star-Bulletin)... Religion: Christian 94%, traditional religion 3%, cargo cult 2%, Baha'i 1% "
cargo cults Solomon Islands - 3.00% - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "Ethnologue Database " (viewed circa Dec. 1998) "Religion: Christian 93%, traditional religion 4%, cargo cult 3% "
cargo cults Vanuatu 15,730 11.00% - - 1991 *LINK* web site: "Ethnologue Database " (viewed circa Dec. 1998) "Population: 143,000 (1991 Honolulu Star-Bulletin)... Religion: Christian 84%, cargo cult 11%, traditional religion 5% "
Carib Dominica 3,400 4.15% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 2 - Americas. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 157-158. "Location: Dominica; Population: 72,000-82,000 "; "The Carib population numbers approximately 3,400, most of whom live on a 3,700-acre reserve in the northeast called the Carib Territory. Bataka is the largest of its eight hamlets, and other settlements include Sinecou and Salybia "; Pg. 158: "The Caribs' religious practices combine features of Christianity--such as belief in Jesus, the saints, heaven, and hell--with the nature worship inherited from their ancestors. "
Caribbean Light and Truth Belize 147 - 10
units
- 1998 *LINK* Mennonite World Conference web site. Directory 1998. Web page: "Carribean, Central & South America: Mennonite & Brethren in Christ Churches " BELIZE... Caribbean Light and Truth... Members: 147; Congregations: 10
Carolina Evangelistic Association North Carolina 1,000 - - - 1991 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.) The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); Chapter: Pentecostal Family; section: White Trinitarian Holiness Pentecostals; pg. 231-232. "Membership: Not reported. Aprox. 1000 people regularly attend worship at Garr Auditorium. "
Carpatho-Russian Orthodox USA 100,000 - - - 1957 Spence, Hartzell. The Story of America's Religions; New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston (1960) [1st printing 1957]; pg. 117. "Orthodoxy in America today is divided into 23 dif. groups... The others range from 200,000 of serbian extraction, 130,000 Ukrainians, 100,000 Carpatho-Russians, 80,000 Syrians and 50,000 Rumanians, to a small group of Estonians and Latvians. "
Carpatho-Russian Orthodox USA 100,000 - - - 1963 Rosten, Leo (ed.). Religions in America; New York: Simon & Schuster (1963), 8th ed. [1st pub. in 1952. 8th ed. completely revised]; pg. 94. "Other Orthodox bodies include the Serbian (200,000), Ukrainian (130,000), Carpatho-Russian (100,000), Syrian (80,000), Rumanian (50,000), and smaller branches of national extractions including the Bularian, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian and others. "
Carpatho-Rusyns Australia & Canada 20,800 - - - 1999 *LINK* Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site; web page: "Rusyn People " (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). "The estimated number of Carpatho-Rusyns is 1.6 million worldwide... In Canada and in Australia there are about 1.3% of the total number of Rusyns. "
Carpatho-Rusyns Poland 64,000 - - - 1999 *LINK* Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site; web page: "Rusyn People " (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). "The estimated number of Carpatho-Rusyns is 1.6 million worldwide... Outside of the Carpathian homeland, Rusyns live as immigrants in neighbouring countries - 8% in Slovakia, 4% in Poland and 4% in Serbia, Croatia, Romania, Czech Republic and Hungary. "
Carpatho-Rusyns Slovakia 128,000 - - - 1999 *LINK* Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site; web page: "Rusyn People " (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). "The estimated number of Carpatho-Rusyns is 1.6 million worldwide... Outside of the Carpathian homeland, Rusyns live as immigrants in neighbouring countries - 8% in Slovakia, 4% in Poland and 4% in Serbia, Croatia, Romania, Czech Republic and Hungary. "
Carpatho-Rusyns Ukraine 720,000 - - - 1999 *LINK* Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site; web page: "Rusyn People " (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). "The estimated number of Carpatho-Rusyns is 1.6 million worldwide. Approximately 45% of the Rusyn People live in Ukraine. "
Carpatho-Rusyns USA 608,000 - - - 1999 *LINK* Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site; web page: "Rusyn People " (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). "The estimated number of Carpatho-Rusyns is 1.6 million worldwide... The largest community outside the homeland is in the United States where 38% of the Rusyn People live. In Canada and in Australia there are about 1.3% of the total number of Rusyns. "
Carpatho-Rusyns world 1,600,000 - - - 1999 *LINK* Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site; web page: "Rusyn People " (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). "The Carpatho-Rusyns in Europe live in historical Subcarpathian Rus'(Ruthenia), now Transcarpathian Region, Ukraine. The capital is Uzhorod. In Slovakia, they live in the northern part of the country known as the Presov Region. The estimated number of Carpatho-Rusyns is 1.6 million worldwide. Approximately 45% of the Rusyn People live in Ukraine. Outside of the Carpathian homeland, Rusyns live as immigrants in neighbouring countries - 8% in Slovakia, 4% in Poland and 4% in Serbia, Croatia, Romania, Czech Republic and Hungary. The largest community outside the homeland is in the United States where 38% of the Rusyn People live. In Canada and in Australia there are about 1.3% of the total number of Rusyns. "
Carpocratians world - - - - 150 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 385. "Carpocratians: Followers of 2nd-century Alexandrian Gnostic Carpocrates, who taught that ordinary humans can achieve a higher realization than Jesus himself, who was a mere man. They also practiced nude baptisms... "
Carthaginian Africa - North - - - - -814 B.C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 16). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 2184. "...Phoenician colonists took their... religion... to North Africa, and it formed the fundamental pattern of Carthaginian religion. Some differences... did develop at Carthage, [esp.] with regard to the status or character of certain gods. Thus, although Melkart, the patron god of Tyre, was accorded a special position in the daughter city... two other deities had greater prominence at Carthage. They were Baal Hammon and Tanit Pene Baal. The orign of the former is obscure... The goddess Tanit... had precedence over Baal Hammon... Tanit was undoubtedly the Carthaginian counterpart of the Phoenician fertility godddess Astarte... In Roman Carthage Tanit was identified with Juno Caelestis... The topheth of Tanit has provided grim evidence of the longevity of the [child sacrifice] rite at Carthage, in fact from the 8th century BC to the Roman destruction of the city in 146 BC... other Phoenician gods worshiped at Carthage were Eshmun of Sidon and Reshef. "
Carvaka India - - - - -500 B.C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 157-158. "Carvaka. The materialist school (Darsana) of Hindu religious philosophy; often also called the Lokayata darlana ('Lokayata' may mean '[the views] held by the common people'; its etymology is uncertain). The origin of the name Carvaka is unclear, and it may have been a nickname for the school. Historical evidence for an actual school called the Carvaka is extremely slim. No independent primary source belonging to such a school has been found. The evidence that does exist consists of accounts of the Carvakas in the writings of other schools... it is possible that Carvaka was a foil contrived by other schools to establish their own positions. "
Cashinawa Peru - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 702. Chapter: "South American Tribal Religions "; map: "Tribal Locations "
Catawba North America 300 - - - 1775 Legay, Gilbert. Atlas of Indians of North America. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's (1995); pg. 12. "Severely afflicted by wars and smallpox, the Catawba numbered only a few hundred in 1775. In exile, some merged and intermarried the Cherokee. "
Catawba South Carolina 300 - - - 1944 Legay, Gilbert. Atlas of Indians of North America. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's (1995); pg. 12. "In 1944, the tribe in South Carolina numbered 300 and the last full-blooded Catawba reportedly died in 1962. "
Cathars Europe - - - - 1100 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 4). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), Chapter author: Roland H. Bainton; pg. 473. "...small groups arose in the 11th and 12th centuries, resolved to carry out, among themselves, the changes that had proved impracticable in the Church as a whole. Southern France and northern Italy swarmed with sects. The Cathars had views similar to those of the ancient Gnostics... the Church launched the Inquisition... The Cathars were wiped out... "
Cathars Europe - - - - 1167 C.E. Walker, Williston. A History of the Christian Church (3rd ed., revised by Robert T. Handy; 1st ed. 1918). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons (1970); pg. 227. "The Manichaeism of the later Roman Empire... seems never absolutely to have died out in the West. It was stimulated by the accession of Paulicians & Bogomiles whom the persecuting policy of the Eastern Emperors drove from Bulgaria, and by the new intercourse with the East fostered by the Crusades. The result was a new Manichaeism. Its adherents were called Cathari, as the 'Pure,' or Albigenses, from Albi, one of their chief seats in southern France. With the ascetic and enthusiastic impulse which caused and accompanied the Crusades, the Cathari rose to great activity. Though to be found in many parts of Europe, their chief regions were southern France, northern Italy, & northern Spain... they multiplied with great rapidity. In 1167 they were able to hold a widely attended council in St. Felix de Caraman, near Toulouse... "


Cathars, continued

Search Adherents.com

Custom Search
comments powered by Disqus

Collection and organization of data © 23 April 2007 by Adherents.com.   Site created by custom apps written in C++.  
Research supported by East Haven University.
Books * Videos * Music * Posters

We are always striving to increase the accuracy and usefulness of our website. We are happy to hear from you. Please submit questions, suggestions, comments, corrections, etc. to: webmaster@adherents.com.