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43,941 adherent statistic citations: membership and geography data for 4,300+ religions, churches, tribes, etc.

Index

back to Buddhism - monastic, Tibet

Buddhism - monastic, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Buddhism - Southeast Asian Kansas: Wichita - - 6
units
- 1999 *LINK* Lewis, Brian. "Rise of Buddhism " in Wichita Eagle, 16 Oct. 1999 (v. online). "In addition to six Southeast Asian Buddhist temples in Wichita that are thriving... "
Buddhism - Vietnamese temples USA - - 80
units
- 1991 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 2 - Americas. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 443. "...about 29-40% of Vietnamese Americans are Catholic... Most Vietnamese Americans, however, are Buddhist of the 'Northern School,' also known as Mahayana Buddhism. In 1991 there were 80 Vietnamese Buddhist temples in the US. "
Buddhism - Vietnamese temples Utah: Salt Lake City - - 1
unit
- 1999 *LINK* "Bulletin Board " in Salt Lake Tribune, June 26, 1999 (viewed 26 June 1999) "BUDDHIST: The Vietnamese Buddhist Tam Bao Temple will hold its annual Vegetarian Festival today, 9 a.m. to 8 p.m., at the temple, 469 N. 700 West, Salt Lake City. The festival is free of charge and will feature games, ethnic activities and prize drawings. "
Buddhist Churches of America Hawaii 100,000 - - - 1990 Palmer, Spencer J. & Roger R. Keller. Religions of the World: A Latter-day Saint View, Brigham Young University: Provo, Utah (1990); pg. 99. The BCA [Jodo Shinshu] consists of 61 churches & 40 branches located throughout U.S. w/ 80 ministers... There are currently over 100,000 Buddhists of Shinshu faith in continental U.S. and a like number in Hawaii.
Buddhist Churches of America North America 25,000 - 101
units
- 1990 Mead, Frank S. (revised by Samuel S. Hill), Handbook of Denominations in the United States (9th Ed.), Abingdon Press: Nashville, Tenn. (1990); pg. 69. "The first buddhist temple in the U.S. was consecrated in San Francisco in 1898. The Buddhist Mission of North America began at that time and was incorporated in 1944 as Buddhist Churches of America, the administrative organization for Jodo Shinshu Buddhism in the continental U.S. There are 75 ministers, 61 temples, 40 branches, and about 250,000 members. "
Buddhist Churches of America USA 19,441 - 67
units
- 1989 Bedell, Kenneth (ed.). Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches 1993. Abingdon Press: Nashville, Tenn (1993); pg. 248-255. Table 2: US Current Stats. (# of adherents from table's "inclusive membership " column, not sometimes smaller "full communicant " col.) Listed in table as "Buddhist Churches of America. "
Buddhist Churches of America USA 200,000 - - - 1990 Palmer, Spencer J. & Roger R. Keller. Religions of the World: A Latter-day Saint View, Brigham Young University: Provo, Utah (1990); pg. 99. The BCA [Jodo Shinshu] consists of 61 churches & 40 branches located throughout U.S. w/ 80 ministers... There are currently over 100,000 Buddhists of Shinshu faith in continental U.S. and a like number in Hawaii.
Buddhist Churches of America USA - - 100
units
- 1993 Mead, Frank S. (revised by Samuel S. Hill), Handbook of Denominations in the United States (10th Ed.), Abingdon Press: Nashville, Tenn. (1995). "60 churches or temples and 40 branches on the mainland and in Hawaii. "
Buddhist Churches of America USA 780,000 - - - 1996 World Almanac and Book of Facts 1998; K-III Reference Corp.: Macwah, NJ (1997). [Orig. sources: 1997 Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches; World Almanac research]; pg. 651. Table: "Membership of Religious Groups in U.S. "; Membership figs. generally based on reports from officials by each group. Figs. are inclusive: refer to all "members, " not simply full communicants.
Buddhist Churches of America USA 15,750 - 60
units
- 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999). [Orig. sources: 1999 Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches; World Almanac research]; pg. 692. Table: "Membership of Religious Groups in U.S. "; Based on reports from officials by each group. Figs. inclusive; refer to all "members ". Listed as Buddhist Churches of America
Buddhist Churches of America USA 780,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* web site: Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance (viewed circa Nov. 1998); "last updated October 1998 " Table: "'Other Than Christian' Organizations "; "Some of the following data were estimated from North American figures: "
Buddhist Churches of America USA 16,597 - - - 1999 *LINK* Spartos, Carlos. "Practical Piety: A Guide for the Perplexed " in Village Voice (New York), Jan. 27-Feb. 2, 1999; (viewed online, 29 Jan. 1999) "Membership: U.S.: 16,597 (active members in the BCA). World: According to the BCA, Jodo Shinshu is the largest Buddhist sect in Japan, Europe, and South America. "
Buddhist Churches of America world - - 100
units
- 1993 Mead, Frank S. (revised by Samuel S. Hill), Handbook of Denominations in the United States (10th Ed.), Abingdon Press: Nashville, Tenn. (1995). "60 churches or temples and 40 branches on the mainland and in Hawaii. "
Buddhist Churches of Canada Canada - - 18
units
- 1984 *LINK* Mullins, Mark. "The Life-Cycle of Ethnic Churches In Sociological Perspective " in Japanese Journal of Religious Studies Decenber 1987 14/4. (Viewed on JJRS web site, 30 Jan. 1999) "The ideal-typical pattern of ethnic church development elaborated above is based upon case-studies conducted by the author (1980, 1984) of the Japanese Conference of the United Church of Canada.., with 11 congregations, and the Buddhist Churches of Canada (hereafter the BCC), with 18 congregations. "
Buddhist Society of Victoria Australia - - - - 1998 *LINK* Ireland, Rowan. Web site: La Trobe University, Bundoora, Australia; web page: "New Religious Associations in Australia ", written January 1998. (Viewed 4 July 1999). "So far, 65 religious groups and associations have completed a questionnaire and are listed below... The Buddhist Society of Victoria was founded in 1953. Its aims can be summarised as the propagation and further establishment of the Buddha Dhamma (the teachings of the Buddha), that is Sila (mortality), Smadhi (meditation) and Panna (wisdom), with special emphasis on the Theravada tradition. It also seeks to establish suitable facilities for and to support the invited Sangha (Buddhist Monk(s) and Nun(s)) so they may act as spiritual guides and minister for the well being of the Buddhist community in particular and general community as a whole and to foster the establishment of a Buddhist lay community to support the Sangha. "
Buddhist-Confuciast Malaysia: Sarawak - 24.00% - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Sarawak - tribal religion 35%, Buddhist and Confucianist 24%, Muslim 20%, Christian 16%, other 5%
Buddhist-Confuciast-Taoist Taiwan 20,180,792 93.00% - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Total population: 21,699,776. Religions: Mixture of Buddhist, Confucian, and Taoist 93%, Christian 4.5%, other 2.5%.
Buddhist-Hindu Nepal - 97.00% - - 1979 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: OPERATION WORLD -1979 edition); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) Hindus and Buddhists 97% -- a strange fusion of the two in this land. Muslims 2% along southern border region. Christians -- a few hundred Nepalis and a further 150 Santali believers.
Buddhist-Shinto Japan - 60.00% - - 1992 Wolff, Michael. Where We Stand: Can America Make it in the Global Race for Wealth, Health, and Happiness? Bantam Books: New York (1992); pg. 206-207. Chart
Buddhist-Shinto Japan - - - - 1998 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998); pg. 281. "Until recently, nearly every home was equipped with a kamidana god shelf with Shinto symbols, or else a butsudan Buddhist household altar containing memorials for the family's ancestors, before which offerings of flowers, food, drink or incense are made daily. Many had both. Likewise, people passing by any of the thousands of Shinto shrines or Buddhist temples throughout the country still tend to drop in for a bref devotion before going on their busy way again. It is hard to attribute all this to simple custom; the Japanese definitely seem to have a sense of religious piety and spiritual yearning, although it is far different from that in the West. The main differene seems to be that the line between the sacred and the profane is much less clearly drawn in Japan. In many ways, community life nad religion are one and the same. Similarly, the distinction between good and bad, or sinful, and righteous, is less clear in Japanese society. "
Buddhist-Taoist China - - - - 100 C.E. Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998); pg. 43. "The ordinary people were not particularly attracted by the abstract concepts and metaphysical reflections of Daoism. Even at the beginning of the Han period (206 BC - AD 220), there were signs of both a popular and religious Daoism. "
Buddhist-Taoist China - - - - 1960 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998); pg. 42. "Guanyin, the goddess of mercy, originated in Mahayana... Buddhism. Among the many gods in popular Chinese religion, there were also earth deities of streams and rivers were considered to be particularly dangerous unpredictable. Apart from Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism, there was also a working-class religion known as Daoist Buddhism. "
Buddhist-Taoist Hong Kong 4,650,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year; pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop.
Buddhist-Taoist Singapore 1,642,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year; pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop.
Buddhist-Taoist Taiwan - - - - 1987 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: International Intercessors, May, 1987); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) The predominant religion is a combination of Buddhism and Taoism.
Builders of the Adytum Australia - - - - 1998 *LINK* Ireland, Rowan. Web site: La Trobe University, Bundoora, Australia; web page: "New Religious Associations in Australia ", written January 1998. (Viewed 4 July 1999). "So far, 65 religious groups and associations have completed a questionnaire and are listed below... Builders of the Adytum: The initial B.O.T.A. stands for Builders of the Adytum, which is a fraternal religious association founded by Paul Foster Case and based on the mystical teachings and practices of the Holy Qabalah and the Sacred Tarot. "
Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox Church, Diocese of North and South America world - - 21
units
- 1975 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 118. "Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox Church (Diocese of North and South America)... Oregon, OH [H.Q.]... In March 1963, protesting leaders representing 18 churches and missions met in Detroit, Michigan and reconstituted themselves as the Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox Church (Diocese of the United States of America and Canada) and elected Archimandrite Kyrill Yonchev as their bishop... Membership: In the mid-1970s, the Church reported 21 parishes and missions. "
Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox Church, Diocese of North and South America and Australia world 86,000 - 13
units
- 1972 Melton, J. Gordon. The Encyclopedia of American Religions, vol. 1. McGrath Publishing Co.: Wilmington, NC (1978); pg. 67. Listed as "Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox Church, Diocese of North and South America and Australia "
Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox Church, Diocese of North and South America and Australia world 105,000 - 18
units
- 1975 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 117-118. "Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox Church, Diocese of North and South America and Australia... New York, NY [H.Q.]... Membership: In the mid-1970s (latest report available) the Church had 18 parishes and an estimated membership of 105,000. "
Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox Church, Diocese of North and South America and Australia world 86,000 - 13
units
- 1990 Mead, Frank S. (revised by Samuel S. Hill), Handbook of Denominations in the United States (9th Ed.), Abingdon Press: Nashville, Tenn. (1990); pg. 183. "Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox Church... Membership is reported at 86,000 in 13 churches, under the leadership of the Metropolitan Archbishop of North and South America and Australia. There are two American dioceses, in New York City and in Akron, Ohio. "
Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox Church, Diocese of North and South America and Australia world 86,000 - 13
units
- 1993 Mead, Frank S. (revised by Samuel S. Hill), Handbook of Denominations in the United States (10th Ed.), Abingdon Press: Nashville, Tenn. (1995). Listed as "Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox Diocese of U.S.A., Canada and Australia "
Bulgarian Orthodox Bulgaria 7,640,735 85.00% - - 1990 *LINK* Library of Congress Country Studies 1990 estimate 8,989,172 [total pop.]. In 1991 Bulgarian Orthodox (85 percent), Muslim (13 percent), Jewish (.8 percent), Roman Catholic (.5 percent). Significant increase in public worship and observance of religious holidays beginning 1990.
Bulgarian Orthodox Bulgaria 3,000,000 33.83% - - 1992 Shoemaker, M. Wesley. Russia, Eurasian States, and Eastern Europe 1997 (The World Today Series). Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Stryker-Post Publications (1997); pg. 245. "The Bulgarian Orthodox Church, which was accorded a special position even under the old regime, has begun to speak out and take a more active role. Its membership is estimated at three million. "
Bulgarian Orthodox Bulgaria 7,047,340 85.00% - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Bulgarian Orthodox 85%, Muslim 13%, Jewish 0.8%, Roman Catholic 0.5%, Uniate Catholic 0.2%, Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian, and other 0.5%; Total population: 8,290,988.
Bulgarian Orthodox USA 10,000 - 9
units
- 1991 Bedell, Kenneth (ed.). Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches 1993. Abingdon Press: Nashville, Tenn (1993); pg. 248-255. Table 2: US Current Stats. (# of adherents from table's "inclusive membership " column, not sometimes smaller "full communicant " col.) Listed in table as "Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox Church " [Table doesn't identify which one.]
Bulgarian Orthodox world 6,000,000 - - - 1973 Zehavi, A.M. (editor) Handbook of the World's Religions. New York: Franklin Watts (1973); pg. 14. "The Orthodox Church embraces the four ancient patriarchates of Constantinople (100,000), Alexandria (200,000), Antioch (300,000), and Jerusalem (35,000); the churches of... Bulgaria (6,000,000)... "
Bulgarian Orthodox world 6,000,000 - - - 1984 Walls, Andrew. "Christianity " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st published in 1984]; pg. 99. "Figure 2.6: Eastern Christianity today: the Orthodox Church " [autocephalous churches in communion with Constantinople]
Bulgarian Orthodox world 7,950,000 - - - 1996 *LINK* Doogue, Edmund (Ecumenical News International). "German Churches Contribute Much More to WCC than Others " in Presbyterian News Service, 27 Sept. 1996 (viewed online 11 March 1999). "Those of the WCC's biggest member churches that in 1995 did not pay their membership contribution, or paid only a fraction of what they were supposed to, include... the Bulgarian Orthodox Church (7.95 million)... "
Bulgarian Orthodox world 6,000,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* OPPOSING VIEW (anti-) web page: "Orthodox " (viewed 26 Feb. 1999) "Autocephalus Churches: Russia (88 mill.), Romania (17 mill.), Greece (8 mill.), Servia (7 mill.), Bulgaria (6 Mill.), Georgia (1 mill.), Poland (0.6 mill.), Cyprus (0.5 mill.), Czechoislovakia (0.2 mill.), Albania, Sinai (0.1 mill.).... "
Bund Deutscher Unitarier - Religionsgemeinschaft Europaischen Geistes Germany 300 - - - 1997 *LINK* web site: "Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und Informationsdienst e.V. " [REMID: Religious Studies Media and Information Service, Marburg, Germany]; web page: "Informationen und Standpunkte " (viewed 2 Aug. 1999). Table: "Religious communities in Germany: Numbers of members " [data published July, 1999]; Listed as "Bund Deutscher Unitarier - Religionsgemeinschaft Europaischen Geistes " in table. Source: REMID.
Bund Taufgesinnter Gemeinden e.V. Germany 5,220 - 20
units
- 1998 *LINK* Mennonite World Conference web site. Directory 1998. Web page: "Europe: Mennonite & Brethren in Christ Churches " GERMANY... Bund Taufgesinnter Gemeinden e.V. (BTG); Members: 5,220; Congregations: 20
Bunga Central African Republic - - - 1
country
1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures
Bungan Malan Indonesia: Borneo - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 3). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 316. "Unfortunately, early missions in the are were of the extremist sort. They tended to be fundamentalist, teetotal, and preaching hellfire and brimstone. But there is now a reaction against this new austerity which has led to a new-Christian cult called Bungan Malan. This combines old and new ideas and lays emphasis on the interpretation of dreams. It is already the largest single sect inside Borneo. "
Bunji Zimbabwe - - - 1
country
1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures
Burhani Egypt - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 448. "The Shadhili [Sufi] order is one of the largest worldwide, attributed to Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali al-Shadhili (1196-1258), but derived from Abu Madyan Shuaib (d. 1197). Popular in North Africa, Arabia, and Syria, it also gave rise to the Burhani order in Egypt. "
Buriats Russia 500,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 83-84. "Location: Russia (mtns. of Southeast Siberia); Pop.: 500,000; Religion: Shamanism; Buddhism;... Orthodox, Christianity "; "traditional religion of Buriats was shamanism... Buriats east of Baikal adopted... [Tibetan Buddhism in] 1600s. Most western Buriats remained shamanists, but some adopted Buddhism or Russian Orthodox... Buddhism practiced by Buriats has incorporated many shamanist beliefs & rituals... Soviet govt. destroyed monasteries & imprisoned or killed almost all... Buriat lamas [in 1930s]... Buriat religious practices had to go underground until 1980s, when... Gorbechev abandoned... anti-religious policies... Now some of previously destroyed datsans are being rebuilt,...new ones are being opened, datsan schools... again training lamas, & shamans can practice openly without fear of persecution. "
Buriats Soviet Union 450,000 - - - 1997 *LINK* Gamming, Jenny. They have a flag-but no country " in Swedish Expressen, 17 Aug. 1997. (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site. Translated by SSF/Goran Hansson. "More then half of the 450,000 Buryatians lives in a large mountain area in Siberia. During the Soviet era many Russians moved to Buryatia. The Buryatians are today a minority in the republic, which is a part of the Russian Federation. That is the reason why they are unable to obtain any higher degree of independence. "
Buriats world 285,000 - - - 1897 Pinney, Roy. Vanishing Tribes. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1968); pg. 79. "When the Russians first met the Buryat they numbered around 25,000; by 1897 there were more than 285,000. "
Buriats world 450,000 - - - 1999 *LINK* Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site; web page: "Buryatia " (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). "BURYATIA... The Republic of Buryat is situated in the central part of Asia... It borders Irkutsk and Chita Regions, Republic of Tuva and Mongolia and is adjacent to the lake Baikal. Population: The Buryat population is 450,000 people, more than half lives within the Buryat Republic. A large percentage live in various regions of the Russian Federation and the CIS, as well as in parts of Mongolia and the Peoples Republic of China. Ethnic Diversity: The Buryat people ethnic origin is a mixture of Mongol, Turkic, Tugus, Saoyed and other peoples. The ties between Mongol and Buryat tribes have been close throughout the centuries. Languages: Buryat language. Organisations: The All Buryat Association for the Development of Culture (ABADC) represents Buryatia in UNPO. "
Bushido/Samurai Japan - - - - 1600 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 152. "Bushido... The social code of the military class developed from the Kamakura period (1185-1333) and systematized during the Tokugawa (1600-1867), especially in the writings of Yamaga Soko... on the warrior's creed (bukyo) and way of the samurai (shido)... "
Bushido/Samurai Japan - - - - 1600 Welty, Paul Thomas. The Asians: Their Heritage and Their Destiny (Revised Edition). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. (1966); pg. 232. "Bushido, or 'the Way of the Warrior,' is the name for a code of behavior and morals which had its origin in the military history of Japan. It developed from the intimate relationships that existed between the early landholder and his armed retainers. Gradually it evolved into an expected pattern of behavior that governed soldiers under the stress of war. From vague beginnings in the early feudal and prefeudal period to the seventeenth century, this creed of Bushido served as a well-known social guide, rule of life, and set of ideas for the Samurai, or military class. "
Bushido/Samurai Japan - - - - 1700 Lewis, Brenda Ralph. Growing up in Samurai Japan. London: Batsford Academic and Educational Limited (1981); pg. 11. "...like the medieval knights, the samurai had a strict code of honour--the code of Bushido (Way of the Warrior)--and they believed that loyalty to their lord was the most important virtue soldiers could possess. They took this loyalty to extreme limits, and were willing to sacrifice themselves for their lord, quite literally laying down their lives to protect him. "
Bushido/Samurai Japan - - - - 1943 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 12). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1557. "Kamikaze... The belief that death is the honourable and desirable objective of the fighting man also goes back to medieval Japan, to the code of behaviour of the samurai warrior caste, which was later called bushido and survived the abolition of the caste itself. The warrior regarded himself not so much as a man but as a weapon, a tool in the hands of his mater, and his honour required that if he was ordered to die, he obeyed. Early in the Second World War the Japanese Prime Minister, General Tojo, enshrined this principle in the instruction that a soldier should be ashamed of surrender, however hopeless the circumstances. "
Bushido/Samurai Japan - - - - 1966 Welty, Paul Thomas. The Asians: Their Heritage and Their Destiny (Revised Edition). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. (1966); pg. 232. "With the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1603, Bushido was codified and given a definite philosophical base. It became a system of practical ethics which was to serve not only as a guide for the samurai, but as a set of high ideals for all good Japanese citizens. It was an ambitious attempt to apply the code of the warrior to citizens. Taken from the context of war and battle, it became somewhat elaborate, ceremonial, and cmplex, but the ideal and spirit of Bushido still remains a part of every Japanese. Bushido incorporated elements from Confucianism, Buddhism, and Shinto. "
Bushido/Samurai Japan - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 152. "The spirit of Bushido passed through the samurai class to become the moral idea of ordinary Japanese citizens, and continues in the fusion of spirituality and martial arts, corporate ideals of discipline, respect, and loyalty in Japanese culture today. "
Bushido/Samurai Korea, North - - - - 1999 Belke, Thomas J. Juche: A Christian Study of North Korea's State Religion. Bartlesville, OK: Living Sacrifice Books Co. (1999); pg. 96, 98. Bushido' Incorporated into Juche...A review of the Japanese preceden tis helpful to more fully understand the implications of the North Korean's recent adoption of 'the spirit of human bombs' terminology... "; pg. 98: "Though the terminology differs slightly, North Korea has accomplished the same thing through the sacred teachings of Juche, Red Flag ideology, and a personal oath of allegiance to Kim Jong Il... "
Bushmen of the Kalahari (San) Botswana 50,000 - - - 1993 Laure, Jason. Botswana (series: "Enchantment of the World "). Chicago: Childrens Press (1993); pg. 7. "There are about 1.3 million people living in Botswana. Most of them belong to the eight Tswana clans. There also are small groups of people belonging to other cultures who make their home here, including... and an estimated 50,000 people called San, also known as the Bushmen of the Kalahari. The San are descendants of the earliest people who lived in Botswana. They once lived throughout southern Africa, but were pushed into the less desirable parts of the land by the arrival of Bantu and European people. Eventually, the San were forced to live in the Kalahari Desert. "
Bushmen of the Kalahari (San) Botswana 69,000 5.00% - - 1997 Dostert, Pierre Etienne. Africa 1997 (The World Today Series). Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Stryker-Post Publications (1997); pg. 104. Estimates of % of population in ethnic (NOT religious) backgrounds, & est. 1997 total pop.; "Ethnic Background: Tswana subgroups (94%), Bushman (5%), other (1%) "
Bushmen of the Kalahari (San) South Africa 4,000 - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 3). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 378. "Only a few thousand bushmen today continue to live as their ancestor lived in South Africa. Less than two centuries ago their people were ruthlessly killed by the Dutch... Their numbers have been further reduced by many tribesmen leaving their old hunting grounds to become 'tamed' by working for white settlers. The remaining representatives of the Bushmen race are mostly found in the Kalahari desert in the south-west. "
Bushmen of the Kalahari (San) world 30,000 - - - 1968 Pinney, Roy. Vanishing Tribes. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1968); pg. 36. "...the Bushmen of South-West Africa, who cling to their precarious existence in the unyielding Kalahari Desert. Their population has dwindled to some thirty thousand through illness, starvation, and assimilation in the taller, stronger bantu tribes that surround them. The Bushmen are not only a distinct group of tribes; they are also a distinct race. Not true Pygmies (they average five feet and will grow taller with proper nourishment), or true Negroes (their skin is light yellowish brown), or even connected with the Mongoloids (despite their slight eye fold), they seem related only to themselves. "
Bushmen of the Kalahari (San) world - - - - 1968 Pinney, Roy. Vanishing Tribes. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1968); pg. 39. "The Bushmen are fast disappearing... From fifteen separate language groups they have been reduced to two or three, notably the Kung Bushmen, numbering some four thousand, who still follow the traditional way of life. They others have either disappeared, are in the process of disappearing, or are intermarrying and vanishing into the dominant Bantu culture of the region. "
Bushmen of the Kalahari (San) world 55,000 - - 3
countries
1995 Haskins, Jim & Joann Biondi. From Afar to Zulu: A Dictionary of African Cultures. New York: Walker Publishing Co. (1995); pg. 139, 145. "San: Population: 55,000; Location: Namibia, Botswana, and Angola; Language: Khoisan "; Pg. 140: "Although it is believed that the San once roamed all of southern Africa from the Cape of Good Hope to Zimbabwe, Angola, and Mozambique, over the course of several hundred years they have been driven out of the well-watered grasslands and scrub forests and into the Kalahari Desert... The San are a unique racial group, differing from other African peoples, and it has been suggested by some anthropologists that they have Asian ancestry... About 2,000 San continue to live a semitraditional life in the eastern Kalahari Desert... "; Pg. 145: "Spiritual practices place great emphasis on the dead... San worship the moon as well as the stars. Most of their prayers are for food... Most San have undergone radical changes... in recent years; those who adhere to the traditional way of life are a dwindling minority. "
Bussho Gonenkai Japan 1,354,662 1.18% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991 reprint; 1st pub. 1984). [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.]; pg. 373. "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " Classified as Buddhist new religion (year of origin: 1950).
Buyi China 2,500,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 147. "Buyi: Alternate Names: Buyue, Bunong, Buyai, Buzhang, Burao, and Buman; Location: China; Population: 2.5 million; Language: Buyi; Religion: Ancestor worship; some Catholicism and Protestantism "; "The Buyi believe in ghosts and worship their ancestors. The shaman, called laomo by the Buyi, acts as an intermediary between ghosts and human beings... The Buyi also believe in chicken divination... Since the beginning of this century, a sizable number of Buyi have converted to Catholicism and Protestantism. "
Bwaka Zaire (Democratic Republic of Congo) - - - 1
country
1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures


Bwaka, continued

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