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43,941 adherent statistic citations: membership and geography data for 4,300+ religions, churches, tribes, etc.


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Group Where Number
% of
Year Source Quote/
miscellaneous regional info Indonesia - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 11. "Acehnese: Location: Indonesia (Sumatra); Population: About 3 million; Language: Acehnese; Religion: Islam "; "the Acehnese are regarded as among the most devout Muslims in the archipelago and their culture as the most inseparable from Islam... zealous in their observance of... Hajj... zakat... and puasa.... " [NOTE: This is a tribal/ethnic affiliation, NOT a distinct religion.]
miscellaneous regional info Indonesia: Lombok - - - - 1996 *LINK* Cederroth, Sven. "From Ancestor Worship to Monotheism: Politics of Religion in Lombok " in Temenos 32 (1996), 7-36. (Viewed online, Temenos web site, 30 Jan. 1999). "The island of Lombok is the home of the Sasak people, most of whom are now orthodox Muslims and as such adherents of the waktu lima sect. However, even today some of the Sasak are still counted as adherents of the wetu telu. There are also some smaller groups of entirely non-Islamized pagan Sasak, known as Boda, as well as a Hindu Balinese minority. Whereas the orthodox waktu lima Sasak follow the Islamic fundamentals as taught to them by their religious teachers, the Tuan Guru, the wetu telu practise a religious syncretism in which there are traces not only of Islam, but of Hinduism and pantheistic beliefs as well. "
miscellaneous regional info Indonesia: South Moluccas 1,000,000 - - - 1997 *LINK* Gamming, Jenny. They have a flag-but no country " in Swedish Expressen, 17 Aug. 1997. (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site. Translated by SSF/Goran Hansson. "One million people live in the South Moluccas, which belongs to Indonesia. The South Moluccas consists of about 150 islands in the Banda Sea, west from New Guinea. The South Moluccans are Melanese, but the main religion is Christianity. South Moluccas was a Dutch colony until the Netherlands handed over to powers to Indonesia. Muslim Indonesians have immigrated to the South Moluccas and the indigenous people fear that they may become a minority on the islands. The struggle for independence has been met with Indonesian repression. "
miscellaneous regional info Iran - - - - 100 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 16). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 2144. "Besides such evidence of the syncretizing of Iranian, Semitic and Greek religious traditions in Parthia, there are also indications of even wider tolerance of foreign faiths. In eastern Partha there were sympathetic contacts with Buddhism and Hindu [groups], while in the western parts Jewish communities flourished, which were permitted to proselytize. Christianity also was established early in Parthian lands, and there are even legendary letters rom Christ to Abgar V, ruler of Edessa. "
miscellaneous regional info Iraq: Kurdistan - - - - 1997 *LINK* Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site; web page: "Kurdistan (Iraq) " (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). "In Iraq, there are 4 million Kurds, who run their own administration. In addition to the Kurds, Assyrians, Armenians and Iraqi Turkoman live in Iraqi Kurdistan. "
miscellaneous regional info Israel - - - - 1986 Jones, Helen Hinckley. Israel (series: Enchantment of the World). Chicago: Childrens Press (1986); pg. 63-64. "Haifa is the world center of the Baha'i faith. The Baha'is believe that some day there will be one religion... Israel has accepted the Baha'is' freedom to worship. In Haifa, the Baha'is have built a shrine with a golden dome over the grave of their founder... "
miscellaneous regional info Israel: Jerusalem - - - - 1983 Charing, Douglas. The Jewish World. London, UK: Silver Burdett Co. (1983); pg. 38. "Most of Israel's citizens are Jews, but 15% of them are non-Jews, and that includes Muslims, Christians, Samaritans, Druze and Baha'i. Jerusalem, of course, is a very important religious centre for Christians and Muslims as well as Jews, and the city contains many churches and mosques as well as synagogues. "
miscellaneous regional info Japan - - - - 1997 Leibo, Steven A. East, Southeast Asia, and the Western Pacific 1997 (The World Today Series). Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Stryker-Post Publications (1997); pg. 47. "Principal Religions: Shinto, the earliest religious tradition, and Buddhism. The latter is especially widespread and split into many old and new sects; Christianity. "
miscellaneous regional info Korea, North - - - - 1991 *LINK* Library of Congress Country Studies "Estimated 21.8 million [total pop.] as of July 1991... Religion: Buddhism, Confucianism, and some Christians and native Ch'ndogyo religious adherents, although religious activities almost nonexistent. "
miscellaneous regional info Korea, North - - - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) "Religion: Buddhism and Confucianism, some Christianity and syncretic Chondogyo; note: autonomous religious activities now almost nonexistent; government-sponsored religious groups exist to provide illusion of religious freedom; Total pop.: 24,317,004. "
miscellaneous regional info Korea, North - - - - 1999 Belke, Thomas J. Juche: A Christian Study of North Korea's State Religion. Bartlesville, OK: Living Sacrifice Books Co. (1999); pg. 3. "Before 1945, Korean religion was dominated by a mixture of Confucian thought, Buddhism, and shamanism... There was also a vibrant and growing Christian community. However, under Juche, these competing religions were systematically eliminated, suppressed, or persecuted through a totalitarian system of fear and thought control. "
miscellaneous regional info Korea, South - - - - 1989 *LINK* Library of Congress Country Studies Est. 42.2 million [Total pop.] (1989). Great diversity, incl. Buddhism, Confucianism, Ch'ondogyo, Catholicism, & Protestantism, and as many as 300 new religions incorporating elements of these mainstream religions. Shamanism oldest religious tradition.
miscellaneous regional info Laos - - - - 1981 The Peoples and Cultures of Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics/Language and Orientation Resource Center (1981); pg. 31. "The majority of Lao is Buddhist, while other traditions, including Christianity, Islam and Confucianism, are practiced by very small minorities. Buddhism has existed in Laos for approximately 200 years. "
miscellaneous regional info Latvia - - - - 1998 Ruggiero, Adriane. The Baltic Countries: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Parsippany, New Jersey: Dillon Press (1998); pg. 11. "Major Religions: Religious freedom is guaranteed under Latvia's constitution. The Lutheran Church is the largest organized religion in Latvia. There are also Catholic, Russian Orthodox, Baptist, and Jewish congregations. "
miscellaneous regional info Lebanon - - - - 1983 *LINK* Library of Congress Country Studies Est. 2.6 million (1983), not incl. about 400,000 Palestinian refugees. Muslims included Shias, Sunnis, Druzes, Ismailis, and Alawis. Fewer than 100 Jews in 1987. A variety of Muslim and Christian sects. included Maronites, Greek Orthodox, Greek Catholics, Roman Catholics, Jacobites, Armenian Orthodox, Assyrians, and Protestants.
miscellaneous regional info Lithuania - - - - 1997 Kagda, Sakina. Lithuania (series: Cultures of the World). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1997); pg. 65. "Today the main religion is Roman Catholicism. While most ethnic Lithuanians and virtually all Poles are Roman Catholics, there are also small pockets of Lutherans, Calvinists, and some other Protestant denominations. Adherents of Russian Orthodoxy and the Old Believers (Old Ritualists) are mostly Russians. There are some Tatars, who are Muslim, and a small Jewish community. "
miscellaneous regional info Lithuania - - - - 1998 Ruggiero, Adriane. The Baltic Countries: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Parsippany, New Jersey: Dillon Press (1998); pg. 15. "Major Religions: The Roman Catholic Church is the largest organized religion in Lithuania, and most Lithuanians are Catholics... Today religious freedom is guaranteed by Lithuania's constitution. "
miscellaneous regional info Malaysia - - - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Peninsular Malaysia - Muslim (Malays), Buddhist (Chinese), Hindu (Indians); Sabah - Muslim 38%, Christian 17%, other 45%; Sarawak - tribal religion 35%, Buddhist and Confucianist 24%, Muslim 20%, Christian 16%, other 5%; Total pop.: 20,491,303.
miscellaneous regional info Malta - - - - -2500 B.C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 13). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1700. "The great prehistoric temples of Malta, extraordinary feats of engineering, were constructed long before the pyramids of Egypt; their use and purpose is still unknown... Malta... Through the third millenium BC it supported a rich culture which devoted a great part of its efforts to religion, and of which the remains have survived in great quantity and variety. The temples of Malta were an extraordinary achievement in their art, their architecture and their engineering, at a period well before the pyramids of Egypt. They are built of great blocks of stone, up to 20 tons in weight, but inside were faced with carefully dressed slabs, often tastefully decorated... rituals which were performed in these temples... To whom were the temples dedicated? Of the many surviving figures, only one unarguably represents a deity. This is the great stone statue at Tarxien, once about 9 feet high... "
miscellaneous regional info Mongolia - - - - 1271 C.E. *LINK* "Asia " in SIM NOW, Feb. 1999 (vol. #85); (viewed online 6 July 1999); SIM International web site. "Mongolia is one of the oldest countries in the world. In 1271, Kublai Khan sent an official request to the Pope: 'Send 100 teachers of the Christian faith able to clearly show that the law of Christ is best. If persuaded, I and all under my rule will become His followers.' He made the same offer to the Buddhist Lamas from Tibet. Tibet sent monks; the Pope sent two priests, who failed Mongolia. The country became strongly entrenched in Buddhism until the last 70 years of communist rule. "
miscellaneous regional info Mongolia - - - - 1998 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site; (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) "Originally shamanist, then lama Buddhist, now largely atheist. "
miscellaneous regional info Netherlands - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 274. "Location: The Netherlands; Population: 15 million "; "An estimated 37% of the Dutch people are Roman Catholics, while 30% belong to six major Protestant groups, of which the largest is the Dutch Reformed Church. There are smaller populations of Muslims, Hindus, and Jews. Traditionally, the northern and eastern parts of the country have been Protestant, while the south has been Catholic. "
miscellaneous regional info Oceania - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 545. "Oceanic tribal religions (Australia, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia). Today almost all Polynesians, most Melanesians and Micronesians, and many aboriginal Australians are baptized Christians. Still, despite linguistic diversity and the many local variations of the past, it is possible to speak of traditional Australian, Melanesian, and Polynesian types of religion. "
miscellaneous regional info Peru - - - - -1000 B.C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 11). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1423. "At the time of the Inca arrival Peru was divided. The mountain peoples were heirs to three previous empires. The earliest originated around Chavin de Huantar well before 1000 BC and its characteristic art styles enable archeologists to show how it dominated much of the northern part of the Peruvian Adnes. It has a close artistic relationship with the peoples of the more southerly part of the Peruvian Coast around the Paracas Peninsula, where there was a typically Peruvian [religious tradition] of the dead... A slightly later development of this religious art centred arond Nasca on the southern half of the Peruvian Coats and was expressed in the creation of beautifully painted pottery, which in the early centuries AD included the first near realist figures of human beings in Peru. "
miscellaneous regional info Peru - - - - 700 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 11). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1423-1424. "The people of the highlands seem to have developed separately and by the 6th century AD formed into two rather similar groups around the northern city of Huari and the famous southern one of Tiahuanaco near Lake Titicaca. In the 8th century people defeated the tribes around Nasca and imposed their culture upon them. But the conquest did not last, and eventually Tiahuanaca itself fell in some catastrophe beyond our knowledge. Similarly the Huari power broke up. "
miscellaneous regional info Philippines - - - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "Philippines1 " (1998); web page: "Life & Living/Basic Facts " "Population: 68.2 million... Religion: Predominantly Roman Catholic (85% of the pop.). About 5% are Muslim, concentrated principally in western Mindanao, Palawan & Sulu archipelago. There are a number of non-Catholic Christian sects, incl. Aglipayan, & various Protestant & fundamentalist groups. Within the Chinese community, there are also Buddhists & Taoists. "
miscellaneous regional info Puerto Rico - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 2 - Americas. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 378. "Religion: Most Puerto Ricans are Christian, mainly Roman Catholic. Santeria, the religion introduced by the African slaves, is also prevalent. "
miscellaneous regional info Rhode Island - - - - 1635 Lang, Susan S. Extremist Groups in America. New York: Franklin Watts (1990); pg. 18. "In 1635, Roger Williams was called a radical because he objected to laws telling him how to observe God. When the Puritans banished him from the Massachusetts Bay Colony, Williams founded Rhode Island, where he established a feer government based on tolerance for all--except for Roman Catholics. Catholics had to flee to Maryland... "
miscellaneous regional info Roman Empire - - - - 100 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 304-305. "One of the most influential early Christian communities grew up in Rome... The Roman religion was a state religion, ancient but lacking in profound spiritual content. It revolved around civic virtue and displays of loyalty to the emperor and household gods (lares and penates) and was administered by government workers. It was, in effect, a kind of official secularism that left citizens free to follow other creeds as long as they didn't interfere with the smoothe functioning of government. Those other creeds included various moral schools, largely influenced by Greek philosophy, which reflected on vice and virtue and the ethics of familial and interpersonal duties--rather like Confucianism, for centuries the state religion of China. "
miscellaneous regional info Russia - - - - 1995 Kort, Michael. Russia (series: Nations in Transition). New York: Facts on File, Inc. (1995); pg. 132. "Freedom of religion has led to a religious revival. Thousands of churches and other places of worship have been returned to the control of religious authorities and permitted to open. Monasteries that the Soviets had seized... are filled with monks and echo with melodies of medieval religious chants... "
miscellaneous regional info Russia - - - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Total population: 147,305,569. Russian Orthodox, Muslim, other
miscellaneous regional info Russia: Dagestan - - - - 1989 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 294-295. "Peoples of Dagestan: Location: Dagestan in the Caucasus Mountain region between Russia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia "; "The name Dagestan refers only to the territory of Dagestan. It does not refer to a particular ethnic group... The most recent official census in Dagestan was taken in 1989. At that time, the list of officially recognized ethnic groups and their populations was as follows: " [Table with 2 columns: "Ethnic Group " [not religious groups] & "Population "; "The few peoples of Dagestan who are not Muslim include the Mountain Jews, who follow Judaism... and the Cossacks, who are Christians. Cossacks are not identified in official census data but live as a distinct ethnic group in Dagestan. " Pg. 295: "Aside from the Mountain Jews and the Christian Cossacks, the peoples of Dagestan are almost exclusively Muslim. "
miscellaneous regional info Russia: Dagestan - - - - 1993 Twining, David T. The New Eurasia: A Guide to the Republics of the Former Soviet Union. Westport, CT: Praeger (1993); pg. 52. "Dagestan's more than 2 million residents range from half a million Avars to 12,000 Aguls. Most are Sunni Muslims, but Shiites, Jews, and a small group of Christians live there as well. "
miscellaneous regional info Singapore - - - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Total population: 3,440,693. Buddhist (Chinese), Muslim (Malays), Christian, Hindu, Sikh, Taoist, Confucianist
miscellaneous regional info South Africa - - - - 1999 Canesso, Claudia. South Africa (series: Major World Nations). Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers (1999); pg. 9. "Population: 42,500,000... Religions: Christian, 77%; African traditionalist or no professed religion, 20%; Hindu, Muslim, or Jewish, 3% "
miscellaneous regional info South Africa: Johannesburg - - - - 1981 Gibbs, Richard. Living in Johannesburg (series: "Living in Famous Cities "). East Sussex, England: Wayland Publishers (1981); pg. 38. "Johannesburg is a city rich in religion. The many different race and language groups from all over the world, who have made Johannesburg their home, brought their religions with them. Christian churches of every denomination, Jewish synagogues, Muslim mosques and Hindu temples are scattered in and around the city. "
miscellaneous regional info Soviet Union - - - - 1984 Time-Life Books. The Soviet Union (series: Library of Nations). Amsterdam: Time-Life Books (1984); pg. 79. "The practice of ethnic religions is sometimes discouraged and sometimes tolerated. In the areas where religious beliefs are ingrained but regarded as politically harmless, Moscow tends to permit observance... "
miscellaneous regional info Suriname - - - - 1999 Beatty, Noelle Blackmer. Suriname (series: Major World Nations). Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers (1999); pg. 39. "Each immigrant group that came to Suriname brought along its own religion. Today, no one religious group is dominant, and all faiths are respected. Hindus, Roman Catholics, Protestants from a variety of denominations, Muslims..., and Jews all practice their faiths freely in Suriname. "
miscellaneous regional info Swaziland - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 1 - Africa. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 412. "Swazis: Location: Swaziland... Religion: Christianity (various sects); traditional religious beliefs "; "'Swazi' refers to the nation, tribe, or ethnic group. "; "Adherents of traditional Swazi religion believe in an aloof supreme being known as Mkhulumnqande... Currently, many Christian sects are present in the country, ranging from the more eclectice Catholics to the more rigid Afrikaner Calvinists. A majority of Swazis are registered as 'Christian.' Many Christian converts belong to nationalistic separatist 'Zionist' churches, which practice a flexible dogma and great tolerance of custom. "
miscellaneous regional info Switzerland - - - - 1550 C.E. Hintz, Martin. Switzerland (series: Enchantment of the World). Chicago: Childrens Press (1969); pg. 37-39. "In the 16th century, a broadly based religious renewal movement swept Europe. This crusade, called the Reformation, shook the existing Christian world to its theological foundation. Demands for change in church structure and practices often took a violent turn. As a crossroads of ideas as well as geography, Switzerland was involved in the controversy. The Reformation split the Swiss Confederation into Catholic and anti-Catholic factions... Over the ensuing years, as Christianity reestablished itself, Swiss spirituality deepened... In addition to homegrown reformers... became a haven for refugees persecuted in their homelands because of religious beliefs. Ulrich Zwingli was a Zurich priest... broke away from Roman Catholicism and formed his own branch of Protestantism. A number of unhappy Catholics agreed with Zwingli and son converted to his strict brand of religion... Elsewhere in Switzerland [Berthold Haller, John Hausschein, Guillaume Farel attracted large followings]. "
miscellaneous regional info Taiwan - - - - 1996 *LINK* web page: "Religions in Taiwan " (Written by Miss C.Y.Li, 1996, TSA); (viewed 4 July 1999). "In Taiwan, people are free to have any religious preference. At present, there are 12 religions recognized by the government in Taiwan including the Buddhism, Taoism, Catholicism, Protestantism, Hsuan-Yuan Chiao, Idam, Li-ism, Tenrikyo, Baha'i Faith, T'ien Dih Chiao, T 'ien Te Chiao, and I-Kuan-Tao. The Buddhism is the biggest... People seldom exclude aspects of other faiths from their personal or collective religious portfolios. Most people are not necessarily Buddhist or Taoist or officially affiliated with any certain temples or registered with a religious organization. Although each religious sect postulates its independent doctrine, some of them cannot be strictly categorized... People often go to the temples to present petitions and solicit divine assistance on some important occasions. The charms, amulets, statuettes, and religious slogans are very popular. "
miscellaneous regional info Taiwan - - - - 1997 *LINK* Gamming, Jenny. They have a flag-but no country " in Swedish Expressen, 17 Aug. 1997. (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site. Translated by SSF/Goran Hansson. "Taiwan is located on the island of Formosa, 160 kilometres from the Chinese mainland. The 21 million people can be divided into three separate peoples. The largest group is the Chinese immigrating during the 16th to 18th centuries. In addition, there is a small group of indigenous people. And of course, the Kuomintang sympathisers escaping China after the revolution 1949. Taiwan has a varied and complex history. Presently Taiwan is a democracy trying to get a seat in the UN -- so far with no success. The question of Taiwan's relations to China is perhaps the most difficult issue today. "
miscellaneous regional info Taiwan - - - - 1997 Leibo, Steven A. East, Southeast Asia, and the Western Pacific 1997 (The World Today Series). Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Stryker-Post Publications (1997); pg. 14. "Principal Religions: Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism. These three, which migrated with the earliest Chinese from the mainland, have not been and are not clearly defined, but are generally intermixed. "
miscellaneous regional info Tanzania: Zanzibar - - - - 1997 *LINK* Gamming, Jenny. They have a flag-but no country " in Swedish Expressen, 17 Aug. 1997. (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site. Translated by SSF/Goran Hansson. "Zanzibar, east of the coast of East Africa, belongs to Tanzania and consists of the coral islands Unguja and Pemba. The 750,000 inhabitants have a multi-ethnic background with roots in Africa, Middle East and India. Zanzibar became independent from Great Britain in 1963 and gained a seat in the UN. The following year the islands became involved in a revolution and as a result Zanzibar and Tanganyika was joined into one: Zanzibar. "
miscellaneous regional info Tatarstan - - - - 1997 *LINK* web site: "The Republic of Tatarstan " (viewed 8 Jan 1999); web page: "Religion "; "Copyright 1998 Department of Foreign Relations for President of the Republic of Tatarstan " "Nearly a thousand religious societies have been registered in the Republic of Tatarstan as of January 1, 1997. Islam and Orthodoxy are traditional confessions for the Republic... Since 1995... Russian Orthodox Free Church... Beside Orthodoxy, Christianity is represented by religious communities of Old Believers, Catholics and Protestants, i.e. Baptists, Seventh-Day Adventists, Pentecostals, Lutherans, etc. Also registered in Tatarstan are the Kazan communities of Jews and Lutherans as well as the religious organisations of Krishnaits, Bakhaists, Followers of Vissarion, etc. "
miscellaneous regional info Tatarstan - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 381. "Most Tatars are Sunni Muslims, with the exception of the Kryashan Tatars, who are Christian. In Tatarstan, along with Islam and Orthodoxy there are some other religious communities such as Old Believers, Protestants, Seventh-Day Adventists, Lutherans and Jews... Sufism (Islamic mysticism) also has a long history with the Tatars... "
miscellaneous regional info Thailand - - - - 1988 Kusy, Frank & Frances Capel. Thailand & Burma; Chester, Connecticut: The Globe Pequot Press (1988); pg. 40. "Survival, not spiritual growth, now seems to be people's main concern. And while Thailand's minority religions--the Muslims of the far south, the Christians of the north, the Indian Hindus, Chinese Confucianists, Taoists & Mahayana Buddhists--have all made a few converts, the new gods of materialism and money look set to claim very many more. "
miscellaneous regional info Ukraine - - - - 1993 Twining, David T. The New Eurasia: A Guide to the Republics of the Former Soviet Union. Westport, CT: Praeger (1993); pg. 95. "Ukraine... Religion: The Ukrainian Greek Catholic (Uniate) church is primarily found in western Ukraine. This church recognizes the authority of the Roman Catholic pope but permits its clergy to marry and conducts Greek Orthodox rites. In 1991 the Russian Orthodox Church in Ukraine split into two parts: the existing church, subordinate to the patriarch in Moscow, and a Ukrainian Orthodox Church. Both compete with a third Orthodox faction, the independent Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, which merged with elements of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church to form the Ukrainian Orthodox Church--Kiev Patriachate on June 27, 1992. It is said to enjoy the support of Ukrainian officials. "
miscellaneous regional info Ukraine - - - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "General Information about Ukraine "; Copyright The Ukrainian National Association (UNA) 1993; Information compiled by the Washington Office. "While most believers are Orthodox Christians, there is a large Eastern-rite Catholic population in Western Ukraine. Protestant, Judaic, and Moslem religions are also practiced. The major Churches are the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, the Ukrainian Catholic Church, the Ukrainian Baptist Church, and the Ukrainian Evangelical Alliance. While all Ukrainian Churches were severely persecuted in the U.S.S.R., the Ukrainian Orthodox and Ukrainian Catholic Churches were forcibly incorporated into the Russian Orthodox Church by Soviet authorities and outlawed. Both churches were reestablished in 1990. "
miscellaneous regional info United Kingdom - - - - 2001 *LINK* Religion News Service. "Religion Query Draws Ire in U.K. " in Salt Lake Tribune. (5 May 2001) LONDON -- For the first time since 1851, the census of the United Kingdom held every 10 years includes a question about religion. But the way the question is framed has drawn severe criticism. The question asks: "What is your religion? " It provides the options: none, Christian (covering all Christian denominations without distinction), Buddhist, Hindu, Jewish, Muslim, Sikh and "any other religion [please write in]. " The question fails to differentiate among Christian denominations, critics said, and that makes the census virtually worthless at the practical level.
miscellaneous regional info United Kingdom: England - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 130-131. "Location: United Kingdom (England) "; "About 60% of England's population claim membership in the Church of England, although fewer than 20% attend church regularly. Other Protestant sects, including Methodists and Baptists, are also active in England and are called free churches. The Roman Catholic church is still very strong, partly due to the large number of Irish immigrants and Polish or Italian refugees who have settled in England. The county also has one of Europe's largest Jewish populations, numbering 400,000, and many cities have recently become home to large Sikh, Hindu, and Muslim immigrant populations. "
miscellaneous regional info United Kingdom: Wales - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 402-403. "Location: United Kingdom (Wales); Population: 2.8 million "; "The Methodism of evangelist John Wesley had a strong influence on the Welsh beginning in the 18th century, and most Welsh Christians today are Methodists (also called Nonconformists). In addition, Wales has an Anglican Church with six dioceses and about 120,000 members, a Presbyterian Church with 180 ministries and some 75,000 members, and one Catholic province. The Welsh generally observe religious practices quite strictly, and few people work on Sundays. Wales also has a small number of Jews, Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs and other religious minorities, concentrated mainly in the large cities of South Wales, such as Cardiff and Swansea. "
miscellaneous regional info Uruguay - - - - 1969 Carpenter, Allan & Jean Currens Lyon. Uruguay (series: Enchantment of the World). Chicago: Childrens Press (1969); pg. 57. "Most of the people are Roman Catholic but freedom of religion provides opportunity for Holy Trinity Anglican (British) and Emmanuel Methodist Churches (American) to hold services in English. There are also a number of Jewish synagogues. "
miscellaneous regional info Uruguay - - - - 1992 Morrison, Marion. Uruguay (series: Enchantment of the World). Chicago: Children's Press (1992); pg. 84. "Today in Uruguay there is complete freedom to practice any religion, and Evangelical, Baptist, Methodist and other Protestant congregations are represented. The Catholic Church does run some schools... But religion is not an important aspect of daily life and is not taught in state schools... in some remote parts of the country there are no churches. "
miscellaneous regional info USA - - - - 1955 Reeves, Thomas C. Twentieth Century America: A Brief History. New York: Oxford University Press (2000); pg. 157. "During these years, Americans celebrated the family. The popular image, often drawn by Norman Rockwell (the most popular American artist of the century) on Saturday Evening Post covers and seen on television in such popular programs as 'Father Knows Best,' include the bread-winning father, the domestic-minded mother, and three or four happy children living in a single-family home in the suburbs. Family members experienced 'togetherness,' sharing activities at home and in the community... While families enjoyed the abundance of postwar life, they also tended to heed a set of traditional moral standards that stressed religious faith, integrity, and personal responsibility. Many children experienced the parental kindness and consideration taught in Dr. Benjamin Spock's best-seller Baby and Child Care. "
miscellaneous regional info USA - Spanish-speaking - - - - 1990 Greeley, Andrew M. The Catholic Myth: The Behavior and Beliefs of American Catholics. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons (1990); pg. 120. "Catholics of Hispanic origin are defecting to Protestant denominations at the rate of approximately 60,000 people a year. Over the past 15 years this departure from Catholicism has amounted to almost a million men and women, almost one of ten (8%) of the Spanish Catholic population. "
miscellaneous regional info USA - Vietnamese - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 2 - Americas. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 443. "...about 29-40% of Vietnamese Americans are Catholic... Most Vietnamese Americans, however, are Buddhist of the 'Northern School,' also known as Mahayana Buddhism. In 1991 there were 80 Vietnamese Buddhist temples in the US. Other religions are also represented among Vietnamese Americans, including Confucianism (considered a philosophy rather than a religion by some), Taoism, Cao-Dai (a combination of Eastern belief systems), and Hoa-Hao (a meditative sect originating in the Mekong Delta in 1939). A small minority of Vietnamese Americans are either Muslim or Protestant. "
miscellaneous regional info USA - women - - - - 1900 Reeves, Thomas C. Twentieth Century America: A Brief History. New York: Oxford University Press (2000); pg. 15. "Despite the fact that 20 percent of all women over the age of 15 were employed outside the home in 1900, women were expected to conform to a value system centering exclusively upon domestic matters. They were to be pious, modest, submissive, unintellectual, and thoroughly domestic in their tastes and activities... The code of proper female conduct, which the great majority of women apparently accepted and defended, was especially severe in the subject of sex. young girls were advised to avoid romantic novels, dancing, and chatter about young men on pain of disease, hysteria or worse. Physicians and purity manuals told the married woman to remain cold and passive to her husband's sexual impulses. Continence was sanctioned as the ideal marriage relationship... "
miscellaneous regional info Utah - - - - 2000 *LINK* Mims, Bob. "For 2002 Winter Games, Faiths Agree Cooperation Is in, Indoctrination Out " in Salt Lake Tribune (15 Jan 2000). "Bishop William Swing... was pleasantly taken aback by the desire for interfaith cooperation he found while leading a two-day seminar on spirituality in the upcoming 2002 Winter Games. 'We were surprised by the breadth of religious diversity present and the willingness of people to rise up and make commitments to each other,' said Swing, spiritual leader of California's Episcopalians and founder of the 7-year-old United Religions Initiative (URI). 'The quality of the exchange was from the heart. We were able to address hard issues without people forming into opposition.' Besides the predominant Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, faiths represented included Islam, Buddhism, Unitarian, Unity, Baha'i, Greek Orthodox, Catholic, Presbyterian, Methodist, United Church of Christ, Lutheran, Southern Baptist, Jewish, Episcopalian, Quakers and Christian Science. "
miscellaneous regional info Venezuela - - - - 1992 Morrison, Marion. Venezuela (series: Enchantment of the World). Chicago: Children's Press (1992); pg. 72-73. "The majority of Venezuelans are Roman Catholic, although there is freedom to practice any religion. In Caracas there are two Protestant churches... Church services are regular and well attended in Venezuela. By contrast, the Indians of the forest still keep their pagan beliefs in a world of spirits. "
miscellaneous regional info Vietnam - - - - 1989 *LINK* Library of Congress Country Studies "64,411,668 [total pop.] (1989). Mahayana Buddhism, Theravada Buddhism, Cao Dai, Hoa Hao, Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, Islam, Hinduism, and animism. "
miscellaneous regional info Vietnam - - - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) "Total population: 75,123,880. Buddhist, Taoist, Roman Catholic, indigenous beliefs, Islam, Protestant, Cao Dai, Hoa Hao "
miscellaneous regional info Vietnam - - - - 1997 Leibo, Steven A. East, Southeast Asia, and the Western Pacific 1997 (The World Today Series). Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Stryker-Post Publications (1997); pg. 162. "Principal Religions: Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, subdivided into many sects; Roman Catholic Christianity is a strong element in the South; animism, Islam and Protestant Christianity "
miscellaneous regional info Washington: Seattle - - - - 1990 Naisbitt, John & Patricia Aburdene. Megatrends 2000: Ten New Directions for the 1990's. New York: William Morrow and Co. (1990); pg. 278. "Baby boom parents in Seattle are returning to church to give their children religious educations. Sunday school at University Presbyterian Church increased by 200 enrollments in each of the past two year. Overlake Christian Church records 1,000 children attending Sunday school. Membership overall is up 14 percent. Each year Seattle's Catholic archdiocese baptizes 1,000 more infants than a decade ago. The Jewish community reports similar increases. "
miscellaneous regional info world 5,849,698,816 - - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Total world population all people: 5,849,699,041 (July 1997 est.)

miscellaneous regional info, continued


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