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43,941 adherent statistic citations: membership and geography data for 4,300+ religions, churches, tribes, etc.

Index

back to Zen - Hakuun, China

Zen - Hakuun, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Zen - Hogen China - - - - 900 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 119. "Goke-shichishu: Jap., lit. 'five houses-seven schools'; general term for the 7 schools of Ch'an (Zen) during the T'ang period; these stemmed from 5 lineages ('houses' or 'families'). The 5 houses and their founders are (1) Rinzai school of Lin-chi I'hsua... (2) Igyo school of Kuei-shan Ling-yu & Yang-shan Hui-chi; (3) Soto school of Tung-shan Liang-chieh & Ts'ao-shan Pen-chi; (4) Ummon school of Yu-men Wen-yen (Jap. Ummon Ben'en); & (5) Hogen school of Fa-yen Wen-i... The 7 schools are the above-mentioned 5 houses plus the 2 further schools into which the Rinzai school split after Shi-shuang Ch'u-yuan. These 2 are (6) Yogi school of Yang-ch'i Fang-hui & (7) Oryo school of Huang-lung Hui-nan "
Zen - Hogen world - - - - 900 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 132. "Hogen school... a school of Ch'an (Zen) that belongs to the five houses-seven schools, i.e., to the great schools of the authentic Ch'an tradition... founded by Hsuan-sha Shih-pei... dharma successor of Hsueh-feng... Master Hsuan-sha's renown was later overshadowed by that of his grandson in dharma Fa-yen Wen-i (Jap., Hogen Bun'eki) & since then the lineage has been known as the Fa-yen (Jap. Hogen) school. Fa-yen... attracted students from all parts of China. His 63 dharma successors spread his teaching over the whole of the country & even as far as Korea. For 3 generations the Hogen school flourished but died out after the 5th generation. "
Zen - Igyo China - - - - 900 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 119. "Goke-shichishu: Jap., lit. 'five houses-seven schools'; general term for the 7 schools of Ch'an (Zen) during the T'ang period; these stemmed from 5 lineages ('houses' or 'families'). The 5 houses and their founders are (1) Rinzai school of Lin-chi I'hsua... (2) Igyo school of Kuei-shan Ling-yu & Yang-shan Hui-chi; (3) Soto school of Tung-shan Liang-chieh & Ts'ao-shan Pen-chi; (4) Ummon school of Yu-men Wen-yen (Jap. Ummon Ben'en); & (5) Hogen school of Fa-yen Wen-i... The 7 schools are the above-mentioned 5 houses plus the 2 further schools into which the Rinzai school split after Shi-shuang Ch'u-yuan. These 2 are (6) Yogi school of Yang-ch'i Fang-hui & (7) Oryo school of Huang-lung Hui-nan "
Zen - Igyo China - - - - 950 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 153. "Igyo school... a school of Ch'an (Zen) that was among the 'five houses-seven schools'... The name derives from the... two founders, Kuei-shan Ling-yu [and] Yang-shan Hui-chi... In the middle of the 10th century the Igyo lineage merged with the lineage of the Rinzai school and from that time no longer subsisted as an independent school. "
Zen - O-To-Kan School Japan - - - - 900 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 256. "O-To-Kan School - Jap.; lineage of Japanese Rinzai Zen stemming from the three great Zen masters Nampo Shomyo, Myocho Shuho, and Kanzan Egan. The name of this lineage derives from the last characters of Daio and Daito and from the first of Kanzan. The important Zen master and great reformer of Rinzai Zen Hakuin Zenji was a heritor of this lineage. " [I'm not certain about when this existed. 900 is an approximation.]
Zen - Oryo Asia - - - - 900 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 256. "Oryo school - a lineage of Rinzai Zen stemming from the Chinese Ch'an (Zen) master Huang-lung Hui-nana. It belongs to the 'seven schools' (goke-shichishu) of Ch'an and was the first school of Zen in Japan, brought there by Eisai Zenji. It died out both in China and Japan after a few generations. Since the Oryo lineage developed out of the Rinzai school, it is also called the Rinzai Oryo school. "
Zen - Oryo China - - - - 900 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 119. "Goke-shichishu: Jap., lit. 'five houses-seven schools'; general term for the 7 schools of Ch'an (Zen) during the T'ang period; these stemmed from 5 lineages ('houses' or 'families'). The 5 houses and their founders are (1) Rinzai school of Lin-chi I'hsua... (2) Igyo school of Kuei-shan Ling-yu & Yang-shan Hui-chi; (3) Soto school of Tung-shan Liang-chieh & Ts'ao-shan Pen-chi; (4) Ummon school of Yu-men Wen-yen (Jap. Ummon Ben'en); & (5) Hogen school of Fa-yen Wen-i... The 7 schools are the above-mentioned 5 houses plus the 2 further schools into which the Rinzai school split after Shi-shuang Ch'u-yuan. These 2 are (6) Yogi school of Yang-ch'i Fang-hui & (7) Oryo school of Huang-lung Hui-nan "
Zen - Oryo Japan - - - - 1190 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 290-291. "Rinzai school... At the beginning of the 11th century the Rinzai school split into two lineages, the Rinzai Yogi lineage and the Rinzai Oryo lineage. The Rinzai school is one of the two schools of Zen still active in Japan. At the end of the 12th century Eisai Zenji brought Rinzai Oryo Zen to Japan. It was the first school of Zen to reach Japan; however, it soon died out. "
Zen - Saijojo world - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 108. "Five Types of Zen: classification by early Chinese Zen master Kuei-feng Tsung-mi... The notion of Zen in this context stands generally for "meditative practice. " The 5 types are: "...5. Saijojo Zen... in this highest form of Zen practice, the way and path are fused into one. Zazen is understood here not so much as a means to 'attain' enlightenment, but rather as a realization of the buddha-nature immanent in every being... This practice, also known as shikantaza, is the Zen particularly fostered by Dogen Zenji. "
Zen - Shojo world - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 108. "Five Types of Zen: classification by early Chinese Zen master Kuei-feng Tsung-mi... The notion of Zen in this context stands generally for "meditative practice. " The 5 types are: "...3. Shojo Zen... a type of Zen that leads to the state of mushinjo, a condition in which all sense perceptions are cut off and consciousness discontinued... The view occasionally put forward that daijo Zen refers to the practice of the Rinzai school and saijojo to that of the Soto school is not entirely accurate. Daijo and saijojo Zen mutually complement and interpenetrate each other and both... are practiced in both schools. "
Zen - Ummon China - - - - 900 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 119. "Goke-shichishu: Jap., lit. 'five houses-seven schools'; general term for the 7 schools of Ch'an (Zen) during the T'ang period; these stemmed from 5 lineages ('houses' or 'families'). The 5 houses and their founders are (1) Rinzai school of Lin-chi I'hsua... (2) Igyo school of Kuei-shan Ling-yu & Yang-shan Hui-chi; (3) Soto school of Tung-shan Liang-chieh & Ts'ao-shan Pen-chi; (4) Ummon school of Yu-men Wen-yen (Jap. Ummon Ben'en); & (5) Hogen school of Fa-yen Wen-i... The 7 schools are the above-mentioned 5 houses plus the 2 further schools into which the Rinzai school split after Shi-shuang Ch'u-yuan. These 2 are (6) Yogi school of Yang-ch'i Fang-hui & (7) Oryo school of Huang-lung Hui-nan "
Zen - Ummon China - - - - 1050 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 391. "Ummon school - (Chin., Yun-men-tsung; Jap., Ummon-shu); a school of Ch'an (Zen) originated by the great Chinese Ch'an master Yun-men Wen-yen (Jap., Ummon Bun'en). It belonged to the 'five houses' (goke-shichishu) of Ch'an... Hsueh-tou was the last important master of the Ummon school, which began to decline in the middle of the 11th century and died out altogether in the 12th. "
Zen - Yogi China - - - - 900 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 119. "Goke-shichishu: Jap., lit. 'five houses-seven schools'; general term for the 7 schools of Ch'an (Zen) during the T'ang period; these stemmed from 5 lineages ('houses' or 'families'). The 5 houses and their founders are (1) Rinzai school of Lin-chi I'hsua... (2) Igyo school of Kuei-shan Ling-yu & Yang-shan Hui-chi; (3) Soto school of Tung-shan Liang-chieh & Ts'ao-shan Pen-chi; (4) Ummon school of Yu-men Wen-yen (Jap. Ummon Ben'en); & (5) Hogen school of Fa-yen Wen-i... The 7 schools are the above-mentioned 5 houses plus the 2 further schools into which the Rinzai school split after Shi-shuang Ch'u-yuan. These 2 are (6) Yogi school of Yang-ch'i Fang-hui & (7) Oryo school of Huang-lung Hui-nan "
Zen - Yogi Japan - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 290-291. "Rinzai school... At the beginning of the 11th century the Rinzai school split into two lineages, the Rinzai Yogi lineage and the Rinzai Oryo lineage. The Rinzai school is one of the two schools of Zen still active in Japan. At the end of the 12th century Eisai Zenji brought Rinzai Oryo Zen to Japan. It was the first school of Zen to reach Japan; however, it soon died out. The Rinzai Zen that was to flourish anew in Japan was that deriving from the Chinese and Japanese masters of the strict Rinzai Yogi lineage. "
Zen Center of Rochester New York - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 137. "The monastic atmosphere tends to prevail even in Buddhist centers with American teachers. Examples here include the San Francisco Zen Center and the Rochester Zen Center in New York. In these groups only a small percentage of the particpants are formally ordained as monks or nuns, yet the atmosphere tends toward that of the monastery and emphasis is given on the cultivation of teaching relationships between members of the group. "
Zen Center of Rochester USA 515 - - - 1990 *LINK* Religious Requirements & Practices of Certain Selected Groups: A Handbook for Chaplains (1993) - (online ed. - 1998); contract #: MDA903-90-C-0062 w/ Dept. of Defense; J. Gordon Melton, Project Director & James Lewis. "ROCHESTER ZEN CENTER... MEMBERSHIP: In 1990 there were 515 members in the United States and an additional 100 members worldwide. There are five centers and two priests. "
Zen Center of Rochester world 615 - 5
units
- 1990 *LINK* Religious Requirements & Practices of Certain Selected Groups: A Handbook for Chaplains (1993) - (online ed. - 1998); contract #: MDA903-90-C-0062 w/ Dept. of Defense; J. Gordon Melton, Project Director & James Lewis. "ROCHESTER ZEN CENTER: ADDRESS: 7 Arnold Park, Rochester. New York 14607; LEADERSHIP: Zen is not organized as an international body with centralized leadership. Rather, Zen training centers and affiliate groups are oriented around any one of a number of autonomous teachers. Bodhin Kjolhede, Sensei, is the director of the Rochester Zen Center and its affiliates in the Americas and Europe.; MEMBERSHIP: In 1990 there were 515 members in the United States and an additional 100 members worldwide. There are five centers and two priests. "
Zen Center of Rochester - clergy world 2 - - - 1990 *LINK* Religious Requirements & Practices of Certain Selected Groups: A Handbook for Chaplains (1993) - (online ed. - 1998); contract #: MDA903-90-C-0062 w/ Dept. of Defense; J. Gordon Melton, Project Director & James Lewis. "ROCHESTER ZEN CENTER... MEMBERSHIP: In 1990 there were 515 members in the United States and an additional 100 members worldwide. There are five centers and two priests. "
Zen Center of San Francisco California - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 137. "The monastic atmosphere tends to prevail even in Buddhist centers with American teachers. Examples here include the San Francisco Zen Center and the Rochester Zen Center in New York. In these groups only a small percentage of the particpants are formally ordained as monks or nuns... "
Zen Center of San Francisco USA - - - - 1983 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 113. Richard Baker Roshi, abbot of the San Francisco Zen Center from 1971 to 1983, at the time the largest and best-known Zen community in America... Baker resigned his post in 1983 under pressure from his own students after acknowledging affairs with women students, including his best friend's wife, and other inappropriate behavior. "
Zen Center of San Francisco world 300 - 5
units
- 1968 Wuthnow, Robert. The Restructuring of American Religion: Society and Faith Since World War II, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press (1988); pg. 151. "An example was the San Francisco Zen Center. With some 300 regular students in five locations, it was the focal point of the burgeoning interest in in Zen Buddhism during the late 1960s. "
Zenrinkai Japan 602,153 0.52% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991 reprint; 1st pub. 1984). [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.]; pg. 373. "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " Classified as "other " new religion (neither Shinto nor Buddhist); origin year: 1947.
Zezuru Zimbabwe - - - 1
country
1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures
Zhen Yi Ge Malaysia - - 11
units
- 1982 *LINK* Yoshihara, Kazuo. "Dejiao: A Chinese Religion in Southeast Asia " in Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 1988 15/2-3. (Viewed on JJRS web site, 30 Jan. 1999) "In addition, there are ten organizations affiliated with Zan Hua Ge of Penang, which was established in 1957, eleven organizations affiliated with the Zhen Yi Ge established in 1966, and some others. These each have different deities as their central objects of worship. " [A sect of Dejiao]
Zhuang China 16,093,000 1.33% - - 1996 Stefoff, Rebecca. China (series: Major World Nations). Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers (1999); pg. 8-9. "Population: 1,210,000,000 (1996)... Ethnic Groups: Han Chinese, 92%; Zhuang, 1.33%; Mancu, .75%; Hui, .67%; Miao, .67%; Uygur, .58%; Yi, .57%; Tibetan, .42%; Mongol, .42% "; Pg. 81: "The Zhuang are China's largest minority group, making up 1.33% of the total population. They are culturally related to the people of Thailand. Some of them are Buddhists, and some practice a form of ancestor worship and spirit worship. The Zhuang have their own written and spoken language. They are concentrated in the Guangxi Zhuangzu autonomous region and the neighboring provinces of Yunnan and Guangdong, where they live largely by rice farming. "
Zhuang China 15,600,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 839-840. "Zhuang: Alternative Names: Buzhuang, Bunong, Buyang, Butu, Buyue, Buman, Gaolan; Location: China; Population: 15.6 million; Language: Zhuang; Religion: Polytheistic; ancestor worship; Christianity "; Pg. 840: "The Zhuang are polytheistic... The Zhuang were influenced by organized Buddhism and Taoism since the Tang Dynasty (618-907). Since the beginning of this century, a small number have adopted Christian beliefs and practices. "; [NOTE: This statistic is of cultural/ethnic affiliation, not how many practice traditional Zhuang religion.]
Zhuang China 12,000,000 1.00% - - 1998 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998); pg. 41. "...minority group, with the largest being the 12-million-strong Zhuang, in southwestern China. Given China's population of 1.2 billion... "
Zhuang China: Guangxi 9,000,000 0.87% - - 1982 McLenighan, Valjean. China (series: Enchantment of the World). Chicago: Childrens Press (1984); pg. 117. "The Zhuang are another important ethnic group. About 8 or 9 million Zhuang live in the Kwangsi (Guangxi) Autonomous Region. They speak a form of Thai and live by farming rice. Westerners know very little about their religious beliefs. But it is known that the Zhuang have been absorbed to a certain extent by the Han mainstream. "
Zigula Tanzania - - - 1
country
1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures
Zikri world 750,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 85. "Baluchi: Alternate Names: Baloch; Balochi; Location: Pakistan (Province of Baluchistan); Iran; Afghanistan; Turkmenistan; Oman; East African coast; Population: 3 million; Language: Baluchi; Religion: Islam (mostly Sunni Muslim; also the Zikri sect) "; "The Baluchis are Muslim, mostly Sunni but also including members of the Zikri sect. Zikris (pronounced 'Zigris' in Baluchi) are estimated to number over 750,000 people. They live mostly in Makran and Las Bela in southern Pakistan and are followers of a 15th-century mahdi, an Islaic messiah, called Nur Pak ('Pure Light'). Zikri practices and rituals differ from those of orthodox Islam... "
Zikri world - Baluchi 750,000 6.82% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 84-85. Location: Pakistan (Province of Baluchistan); Iran; Afghanistan; Turkmenistan; Oman; East African coast "; "The Baluchis are Muslim, mostly Sunni but also including members of the Zikri sect. Zikris (pronounced 'Zigris' in Baluchi) are estimated to number over 750,000 people. They live mostly in Makran and Las Bela in southern Pakistan and are followers of a 15th-century mahdi, an Islamic messiah, called Nur Pak ('Pure Light'). Zikri practices and rituals differ from those of orthodox Islam... "
Zion Christian Church South Africa 80,000 - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 13). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1831. "Edward Lekganyane is a conteporary self-styled messiah who commands the devotion of between 40,000 and 80,000 followers from his headquarters at Zion City, Moria in the northern Transvaal. Lekganyane was one of two sons of the leader of a religious movement known as the Zion Christian Church. Although the brothers quarrelled after their father's death in 1949 or 1950, a large proportion of the movement followed Edward. His capital is a village of about 300 persons in which strangers are now welcomed; from here he rules the movement, which has churches as far away as Johannesburg and Pretoria... "
Zion Christian Church South Africa 1,660,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year; pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop.
Zion Christian Church South Africa 5,250,000 - - - 1996 Shillinger, Kurt (Globe Correspondent). "Africans embrace Christian faith, with native touch " in Boston Globe (page A01, 01/03/99). [Posted to Nurel-l newslist by Frank Kaufmann]; Dateline: Harare, Zimbabwe. "Memberships [of African indigenous Christian Churches] are difficult to verify. A 1996 national census counted 5.25 million followers of the Zion Christian Church in South Africa. "
Zion Christian Church South Africa - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 1 - Africa. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 325. "Ndebele: Location: The Mpumalanga and the Northern provinces of South Africa; Population: 403,700; Religion: Christianity; African Christianity "; Pg. 326: "Recent Christian and African Christian church influences spread rapidly, and most Ndebel are now members of these churches: ZCC (Zion Christian Church), a variety of (African) Apostolic churches, Roman Catholic, etc. "
Zion Christian Church world 3,000,000 - - - 1994 *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "ZION CHRISTIAN CHURCH: commonly known as the ZCC, this AFRICAN INDEPENDENT CHURCH is the largest Church in Southern Africa with well over three million members making it at least twice the size of any other Church. It was founded in 1924 by Ignatius Lekganyane who had been influenced by the work of John Alexander Dowie. "
Zionist world - - - - 1891 Jacobs, Louis. Oxford Concise Companion to the Jewish Religion. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press (1999); pg. 319. "Zionism: The movement that arose at the end of the nineteenth century with the aim of establishing a homeland for Jews in Palestine, as it then was. The actual term 'Zionism' was coined by Nathan Birnbaum in 1891 to denote the political efforts to achieve this aim, although the settlement of Jews in Palestine had begun earlier and was represented by the Hovevey Tzion ('Lovers of Zion'). Zion had been a synonym for Jerusalem from biblical times. The Psalmist, for example, makes the exiles in Babylon say: 'By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down, yea we wept, when we remembered Zion' (Psalms 137:1)... The creation of the State of Israel, the result of this resolve, made academic the whole Zionist question... "
Zionist Organization of America USA 200,000 - - - 1915 Marty, Martin E. Pilgrims in Their Own Land: 500 Years of Religion in America. Boston: Little, Brown and Co. (1984); pg. 395. "By the end of the First World War, there were a surprising 200,000 declared Zionists in America. "
Zionist Organization of America USA 18,000 - - - 1922 Marty, Martin E. Pilgrims in Their Own Land: 500 Years of Religion in America. Boston: Little, Brown and Co. (1984); pg. 394. "...the Zionist Organization of America looked like a lost cause. From the World War I high of 200,000 active members, it dropped to 18,000 in 1922. "
Zobop Haiti - - - - 1976 Davis, Wade. The Serpent and the Rainbow. New York: Simon & Schuster (1985); pg. 211-212. "Haitian anthropologist... Michel Laguerre... 1976 [met] peasants who had been invited to join secret societies, [but later] converted to Protestantism & hence were willing to talk. There were... secret societies in all parts of the country, & each one maintained control of a specified territory. Names varied from region to region but included Zobop, Bizango, Vlinblindingue, San Poel, Mandingue, &... Macandal... quasi-political arm of the vodoun society charged above all with the protection of the community... "
Zoroastrian Africa 650 - - - 1981 Popenoe, David. Sociology (5th Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. (1983). [Source: 1981 Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 433. Table: Membership in the Major Religions of the World "
Zoroastrian Africa 700 0.00% - - 1982 Robertson, Ian. Sociology (2nd ed.); New York, NY: Worth Publishers (1981 2nd edition; updated since 1977 1st ed.). [Orig. source: Encyclopaedia Britannica Book of the Year, 1982]; pg. 405. Table: "Estimated membership of the principal religions of the world "
Zoroastrian Africa 1,000 0.00% - - 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999). [Source: 1999 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 695. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1998 "
Zoroastrian Asia 256,000 - - - 1981 Popenoe, David. Sociology (5th Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. (1983). [Source: 1981 Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 433. Table: Membership in the Major Religions of the World "
Zoroastrian Asia 257,000 0.01% - - 1982 Robertson, Ian. Sociology (2nd ed.); New York, NY: Worth Publishers (1981 2nd edition; updated since 1977 1st ed.). [Orig. source: Encyclopaedia Britannica Book of the Year, 1982]; pg. 405. Table: "Estimated membership of the principal religions of the world "
Zoroastrian Asia - - - - 1992 Ovendale, Ritchie. The Longman Companion to The Middle East since 1914. London & New York: Longman (1992); pg. 224. "Zoroastrians: Followers of a religion founded in Iran... around 6th century BC. Views the cosmos in terms of a battle between good (Ahura-Mazda) and evil (Ahriman). Small number of followers in modern Iran, and also in India (Parsees). "
Zoroastrian Asia 269,000 0.01% - - 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999). [Source: 1999 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 695. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1998 "
Zoroastrian Australia 1,522 0.01% - - 1996 *LINK* Parliament of Australia web site; page: "Census 96: Religion " (viewed 18 Dec. 1999) Self-identification, from 1996 govt. census.
Zoroastrian Canada 3,190 - - - 1991 *LINK* web site: Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance (viewed circa Nov. 1998); web page: "Zoroastrianism " "The 1991 census counted 3,190 Zoroastrians in Canada. The actual number is believed to be much higher. "
Zoroastrian Canada 2,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "United Church of Canada Inter-Faith Dialogue "; web page: "Zoroastrianism " (viewed 19 Feb. 1999), written by Fritz B. Voll, "Updated: Tue Jun 9 23:39:38 1998 " "About 2,000 [Zoroastrians] reside in Canada. "
Zoroastrian Europe 10,000 - - - 1981 Popenoe, David. Sociology (5th Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. (1983). [Source: 1981 Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 433. Table: Membership in the Major Religions of the World "
Zoroastrian Europe 12,000 0.00% - - 1982 Robertson, Ian. Sociology (2nd ed.); New York, NY: Worth Publishers (1981 2nd edition; updated since 1977 1st ed.). [Orig. source: Encyclopaedia Britannica Book of the Year, 1982]; pg. 405. Table: "Estimated membership of the principal religions of the world "
Zoroastrian Europe 0 0.00% - - 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999). [Source: 1999 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 695. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1998 "
Zoroastrian India 101,778 0.03% - - 1921 Ferm, Vergilius (ed). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976; 1st ed. pub. 1945 by Philosophical Library); pg. 368. Table: "The latest census gives the following enumeration of the adherents... " [1921 and 1931 figures.]
Zoroastrian India 109,752 0.03% - - 1931 Ferm, Vergilius (ed). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976; 1st ed. pub. 1945 by Philosophical Library); pg. 368. Table: "The latest census gives the following enumeration of the adherents... " [1921 and 1931 figures.]
Zoroastrian India 77,000 - - - 1976 Eliade, Mircea & Ioan P. Couliano. The Eliade Guide to World Religions. Harper Collins: New York (1991); pg. 254. "According to a 1976 poll, the total number of Zoroastrians in the world reached 130,000, of which 77,000 lived in India, 25,000 in Iran, 5,000 in Pakistan, and 23,000 in the United States. "
Zoroastrian India 120,000 - - - 1978 Rice, Edward. Ten Religions of the East. New York: Four Winds Press (1978); pg. 41. "When the British made Bombay the center of trade, the Parsees followed. Today they are a small but prosperous community of some 120,000 people... "
Zoroastrian India - 0.01% - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 827. "Nonetheless, the Zoroastrians today, though members of a minority that numbers less than one in a thousand in the population of Iran and only about one in ten thousand in India, are highly educated and enjoy an influence out of all proportion to their numbers. "
Zoroastrian India 100,000 - - - 1983 Carmody, Denise Lardner & John Tully Carmody. Western Ways to the Center: An Introduction to Western Religions; Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Co. (1983); pg. 29. "True enough, less than 10,000 Zoroastrians remain in Iran (perhaps 100,000 in India). "
Zoroastrian India 150,000 - - - 1983 Carmody, Denise Lardner & John Tully Carmody. Western Ways to the Center: An Introduction to Western Religions; Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Co. (1983); pg. 33. "In the 8th century significant numbers emigrated to India... Their descendance have survived... Known as Parsis, they now number about 150,000, with the largest concentration in Bombay... one of India's best educated... groups. "
Zoroastrian India 100,000 - - - 1983 Hopfe, Lews M. Religions of the World, Macmillan Publishing Co.: New York (1983) [3rd edition]; pg. 313. "Today the religion... is kept by an insignificant minority (approx. 11,000) in Iran known as Gabars..., by a larger minority (approx. 100,000) in India, and in other small communities around the world totaling approximately 254,000. "
Zoroastrian India 100,000 - - - 1986 Pastva, Loretta. Great Religions of the World; Winona, Minnesota: Saint Mary's Press, Christian Brothers Publications (1995) [9th printing. 1st printing in 1986]; pg. 142. "Living in and around Bombay, they have grown to over a hundred thousand members. "
Zoroastrian India 90,000 - - - 1990 Noss., David S. & John B. Noss. A History of the World's Religions. Macmillian (1990).; pg. 371. "More fortunate have been the Parsis of India, who number today about ninety thousand souls, most of them in Bombay and neighboring areas. "
Zoroastrian India 130,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year; pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop.
Zoroastrian India 92,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* web page: "Frequently asked questions on Zoroastrianism and the Avesta " (viewed 27 Feb. 1999) "Last figure I saw was around 140,000. Largest populations are in India & Iran. J Hinnells' booklet Zoroastrianism and the Parsis (p.8) has 17,000 in Iran and 92,000 in India. North American Zoroastrians: around 5,000. "


Zoroastrian, continued

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