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43,941 adherent statistic citations: membership and geography data for 4,300+ religions, churches, tribes, etc.

Index

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Yuma, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Yuman North America 3,000 - - - 1776 Legay, Gilbert. Atlas of Indians of North America. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's (1995); pg. 59. "Yuman... About 3,000 in 1776... "
Yuman North America 6,500 - - - 1995 Legay, Gilbert. Atlas of Indians of North America. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's (1995); pg. 59. "Yuman... About 3,000 in 1776, today about 6,500 live in Calif. and Ariz. "
Yuman USA 7,128 - - - 1990 Utter, Jack. American Indians: Answers to Today's Questions. Lake Ann, MI: National Woodlands Publishing Co. (1993); pg. 38. Table: "Largest American Indian Tribes (as identified in the 1990 Census, through self-reporting) "
Yurok North America 2,500 - - - 1850 Legay, Gilbert. Atlas of Indians of North America. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's (1995); pg. 65. "Yurok... Estimated at about 2,500 in the nineteenth century, there were about 1,000 in 1985. "
Yurok North America 1,000 - - - 1985 Legay, Gilbert. Atlas of Indians of North America. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's (1995); pg. 65. "Yurok... Estimated at about 2,500 in the nineteenth century, there were about 1,000 in 1985. "
Yurok North America - Pacific Coast 2,500 - - - 1770 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 430-431. Table: "The Pacific Coast: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Yurok USA 4,296 - - - 1990 Utter, Jack. American Indians: Answers to Today's Questions. Lake Ann, MI: National Woodlands Publishing Co. (1993); pg. 38. Table: "Largest American Indian Tribes (as identified in the 1990 Census, through self-reporting) "
Yurok world 2,500 - - - 1770 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 430-431. Table: "The Pacific Coast: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Yuzenembutsu Japan 153,000 - 357
units
- 1945 Ferm, Vergilius (ed). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976; 1st ed. pub. 1945 by Philosophical Library); pg. 105. "Pure Land School [of Buddhism]:... Minor differences exist in the four Japanese sects of Jodo (8,245 temples & 3,646,000 adherents), Shin (19,815 & 13,327,000), Yuzenembutsu (357 & 153,000), and Ji (494 & 350,000). "
Zaan Apostolic Church of God world 10,875 - 124
units
- 1999 Shillinger, Kurt (Globe Correspondent). "Africans embrace Christian faith, with native touch " in Boston Globe (page A01, 01/03/99). [Posted to Nurel-l newslist by Frank Kaufmann]; Dateline: Harare, Zimbabwe. "On one such recent day, Bishop Thomas Nyakarare of the Zaan Apostolic Church of God preached from the Gospel of John... Bishop Nyakarare says there are 124 branches and 10,875 members in his church. "
Zaidis Middle East - - - - 739 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 820. "Zaydiyya. A Shi'ite group who supported the revolt of Zayd ibn Ali, al-Husayn's grandson, in Kufa in AD. 739. "
Zaidis Middle East - - - - 1992 Ovendale, Ritchie. The Longman Companion to The Middle East since 1914. London & New York: Longman (1992); pg. 224. "Zeidis: A Shiite sect recognizing a continuing line of Imams from Zeid who was killed around 740. Became an elite in Yemen. The immamate was abolished in 1962. "
Zaidis USA - - - - 1993 Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck & Jane Idleman Smith. Mission to America: Five Islamic Sectarian Communities in North America; Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida (1993); pg. 20. "The Zaidis, mostly from Yemen, were among the first Shi'ites to come to the U.S. While a small number settled in Brooklyn, the major concentration of Yemenis in the U.S. is in the Dearborn [Michigan] area; many came to work at the Ford Rouge factory there. Some have found employment in the steel mills around Buffalo, New York, and a significant group are seasonal agricultural workers in California. "
Zaidis world - - - - 1993 Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck & Jane Idleman Smith. Mission to America: Five Islamic Sectarian Communities in North America; Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida (1993); pg. 4. "The Zaidis, known also as the 'Fivers,'... still constitute an active Muslim group in Yemen, the line of Imams having continued until 1961. Small groups of Zaidis also can be found in Syria, Lebanon, & the Caspian region of Iran. "
Zaidis world - - - - 1994 *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "ZAYDIS: a branch of Shi'ite ISLAM which shares many features of the SUNN TRADITION such as accepting the legitimacy of AB BAKR and Umar but rejecting many Shi'ite BELIEFS about ALI and the NATURE of the IMAM. "
Zaidis Yemen - - - - 1971 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 821. "The last Zaydi imam to rule Yemen was Muhammad al-Badr, whose policies ushered Yemen into the twentieth century. The constitution of the Yemen Arab Republic abolished the Zaydi imamate in 1971, declaring Yemen an Islamic state in accord with the 'principles of Muslim social justice.' "
Zaidis Yemen - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 434. "In Syria and Lebanon, Twelvers are called Matawila ('friends of Ali'), and in Yemen, Zaydites (after a great-grandson of Ali). "
Zaidis Yemen - - - - 1997 Russell, Malcom B. The Middle East and South Asia 1997 (The World Today Series). Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Stryker-Post Publications (1997); pg. 238. "Principal Religion: Islam, with a few Christians and Hindus in the South. The northern mountains contain a large number of adherents to the Zaidi sect of Shi'a Islam, otherwise, most Yemenis are Sunnis of the Shafii legal school. "
Zaidis Yemen 5,214,000 33.00% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 830-832. [Article: Yemenis] "Location: Republic of Yemen; Population: 15.8 million "; "Some 33% belong to the Zaydi sect of Shi'ah Islam. The Zaydis once ruled the country (during the 17th and 18th centuries AD). Though they are now a minority numerically, they still have a great deal of influence in the country. "
Zalamo Tanzania - - - 1
country
1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures
Zan Hua Ge Malaysia - - 10
units
- 1982 *LINK* Yoshihara, Kazuo. "Dejiao: A Chinese Religion in Southeast Asia " in Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 1988 15/2-3. (Viewed on JJRS web site, 30 Jan. 1999) "In addition, there are ten organizations affiliated with Zan Hua Ge of Penang, which was established in 1957, eleven organizations affiliated with the Zhen Yi Ge established in 1966, and some others. These each have different deities as their central objects of worship. " [A sect of Dejiao]
Zande Central African Republic - - - - 1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures
Zande world - - - 2
countries
1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures; "Central African Republic, Zaire "
Zande Zaire (Democratic Republic of Congo) - - - - 1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures
Zao Vietnam 200,000 0.28% - - 1994 Bratvold, Gretchen (ed). Vietnam ...in Pictures (Visual Geography Series). Minneapolis, Minnesota: Lerner Publications Co. (1994); pg. 37, 39. Pg. 37: "...Vietnam's 71.8 million people... "; Pg. 39: "In the mountains of northern Vietnam, the largest ethnic groups are the Tai (2,000,000), the Muong (550,0000), the Hmong Meo (200,000), and the Zao (200,000)... People from the Hmong Meo and Zao groups speak Sino-Tibetan dialects that are rooted in China. "
Zar Egypt - - - - 1975 Nyrop, Richard F., et al. Area Handbook for Egypt (3rd Ed.). Washington, D.C.: Foreign Area Studies of The American University (1976; research completed 1975); pg. 119. "Although little known by social scientists, a body of specifically feminine religious traditions appears to be handed down from mother to daughter. One well-known manifestation of female spirituality is the zar cult, a body of lore concerning spirit possession. Apparently brought to Egypt by Ethiopian slave women in the 18th and 19th centuries, the zar cult centers on a weekly meeting at a saint's tomb and includes exorcism, music, dancing, and ecstatic trances. "
Zar Sudan - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 1 - Africa. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 402. "However, many peoples, particularly in the southern and western Sudan, are not Muslim. Some are Christian... Others continue to practice indigenous beliefs, particularly concerned with various types of spirits. Such beliefs also infuse Islam and Christianity in the Sudan. One of the most widespread is known as zar, which is found throughout northern Africa. "
Zealots Israel - - - - 6 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), Chapter: Judaism; pg. 266. "Zealots: Sect founded in AD 6 by Judah the Galilean protesting Roman rule and taxes. The Zealots believed in violence as a legitimate tool against the occupying Romans and their Jewish collaborators. "
Zealots Israel - - - - 30 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 4). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970), Chapter author: Roland H. Bainton; pg. 466. "By the time of Jesus... There were three parties among the Jews. The Sadducees were willing to collaborate with the occupying power, the Zealots fomented rebellion, and the Pharisees would neither fraternize nor rebel but kept the law and waited for vindication at the hands of God. "
Zealots Israel - - - - 66 C.E. *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "ZEALOTS: a JEWISH SECT founded by Judas of Galilee to resist the Roman annexation of Judaea. After their initial revolt was crushed, they resorted to guerilla warfare against the Romans and those they saw a collaborators. They were finally destroyed after the Jewish revolt of 66 A.D. "
Zealots Israel - - - - 70 C.E. Oxtoby, Willard G. The Meaning of Other Faiths. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press (1983); pg. 25. "A fourth option, and a very political one, was the path of guerrilla resistance aimed at ousting the Romans from Palestine... The guerrilla party (the Zealots) apparently scored enough successes to irritate and ultimately infuriate the Romans, but they had taken on too mighty an adversary. When the Romans, who had little taste for insubordination, put their attention to it, they utterly crushed the Zealot movement. Jerusalem was besieged, the Temple and Qumran were destroyed... "
Zealots Israel - - - - 73 C.E. Jacobs, Louis. Oxford Concise Companion to the Jewish Religion. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press (1999); pg. 316. "Zealots: Jewish freedom-fighters in the War against Rome (66-73 CE. Josephus in The Jewish War refers to the Zealots together with other rebels against the Roman occupation. The Mishnah (Sanhedrin 9:6) refers to the Zealots as Kannaim, a Hebrew word with the same connotation, and generally in the Rabbinic literature an ambivalent attitude emerges towards these rebels. Modern scholarship discusses at length the relationship between the Zealots, the Sicaii ('dagger men'), other rebels against Rome, and the Qumran sectarians, a question much discussed nowadays. In later Jewish literature, the term Kannaim is applied to zealots of every description who use questionable means in their fights against those they consider to be enemies of God or the Jewish religion. Jacob Emden, for example, was proud to call himself kannai ben kannai ('a zealot son of a zealot') in his struggle against the followers of Shabbetai Zevi. "
Zealots Israel - - - - 135 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 821. "Zealots. Usually identified with the Jewish freedom fighters who led the first war against Rome in A.D. 67-68... The Zealots more or less disappeared with the fall of Jerusalem (A.D. 70) an Masada (A.D. 73), only to reappear in the messianic followes of Bar Kochba in A.D. 132-35. "
Zen California: San Francisco - 3.00% - - 1973 Wuthnow, Robert. The Restructuring of American Religion: Society and Faith Since World War II, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press (1988). [Orig. source: "These and other figures from the San Francisco area are from a representative sample survey of 1,000 residents of the greater San Francisco metropolitan area conducted by the author in 1973. For greater detail, see my Consciousness Reformation. "]; pg. 51. "By the early 1970s, approximately 3 percent of the San Francisco metropolitan area claimed to have practiced Zen at one time or another and four times this many said they found Zen attractive. "
Zen China - - - - 400 C.E. Welty, Paul Thomas. The Asians: Their Heritage and Their Destiny (Revised Edition). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. (1966); pg. 245. "Zen traces its origin to Ch'an Buddhism which started in China around 400 A.D. "
Zen China - - - - 1960 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998); pg. 45. "The most influential Buddhist school was the so-called School of Meditation (Chan in China, Zen in Japan), which developed under the Tang dynasty. "
Zen Europe - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 825. "In Europe scholarship in Buddhist texts has generally overshadowed interest in Zen practice, though Rudolph Otto and Eugen Herrigel in Germany and more recently the work of Christmas Humphreys in England has done much to popularize Zen meditative practice. "
Zen Germany - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 825. "In Europe scholarship in Buddhist texts has generally overshadowed interest in Zen practice, though Rudolph Otto and Eugen Herrigel in Germany... has done much to popularize Zen meditative practice. "
Zen Japan - - - - 1282 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 538. "Nichiren Buddhism has been criticized as... intolerant... Nichiren condemned other sects in the stinging phrase: Nembutsu mugen, Zen tenma, Shingon bokoku, Ritsu kokuzoku (the Nembutsu--Amida Buddhism--is hell; Zen is a devil; Shingon is the nation's ruin; and Ritsu is treason).' "
Zen Japan 9,000,000 - - - 1957 Welles, Sam. The World's Great Religions, New York: Time Incorporated (1957); pg. 58. "Today [Zen] is still practiced to by Japan's second largest (nine million monks and laymen) and most rigorous Buddhist sect. "
Zen Japan 9,000,000 - - - 1958 Welles, Sam. The World's Great Religions, New York: Western Publishing Co. (1972). [11th printing; original edition: 1958]; pg. 53. "Second largest [after Shin shu], with nine million monks and laymen, is Zen, a sect of stern discipline. "
Zen Japan - - - - 1966 Welty, Paul Thomas. The Asians: Their Heritage and Their Destiny (Revised Edition). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. (1966); pg. 245. "The second largest Buddhist sect in Japan is Zen, which differs radically from Shin-shu because it teaches that salvation is the result of one's own efforts rather than the outcome of faith in some supernatural deity. Zen traces its origin to Ch'an Buddhism which started in China around 400 A.D. "
Zen Japan 9,000,000 10.00% - - 1969 Storry, Richard; Japan; New York: David White, Inc. (1969); pg. 105. "Figures here are difficult to assess with acuracy, but there are probably rather more than 9 million adherents of Zen Buddhism in Japan. This represents nearly 10% of the total population. "
Zen Japan - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 825. "Japanese Zen suffered some destruction during World War II, went through a period of depression following the war, and more recently has experienced a noticeable revival. The work of D. T. Suzuki and new appeal for Japanese youth impressed by the positive reception of Zen in the West have marked recent years. "
Zen Japan 5,000,000 - - - 1983 Berger, Gilda. Religion: A Reference First Book. New York: Franklin Watts (1983); pg. 96. "A new burst of interest in Zen developed in Japan after World War II. It is still very strong there, with an estimated 5 million Zen Buddhists in Japan today. "
Zen Japan 8,380,616 6.72% - - 1993 O'Brien, J. & M. Palmer. The State of Religion Atlas. Simon & Schuster: New York (1993); pg. 26-27. "Shares of Buddhist sect membership in Japan, 1981: Tendai: 30%; Nichiren: 30%; Pure Land: 18%; Shingon: 10%; Zen: 8%; Nara: 4%. " Percentages and numbers made using est. of 84% of Japan being Buddhist, total pop. of country: 124,711,551 (1993).
Zen Japan - - - - 1998 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998); pg. 285. "The impact of that particularly eclectic form of Buddhism called Zen on Japanese culture is considerable, reaching far beyond the temple and entering into cultural and social areas of all kinds, including gardening, ink painting, calligraphy, the tea ceremony, and even military strategies. "
Zen Kansas: Wichita 20 - 1
unit
- 1999 *LINK* Lewis, Brian. "Rise of Buddhism " in Wichita Eagle, 16 Oct. 1999 (v. online). "...in Wichita... two recent Buddhist groups have started and are attracting people who were not born in Buddhist cultures. Five years ago, Earl Griffith and Greg Smith were involved in starting a general Buddhist meditation group in Wichita. Griffith had an interest in meditation, and a mutual friend introduced him to Smith, who had previous experience with a Tibetan Buddhist group in Columbus, Ohio. Eventually, a group of four people started focusing on Zen Buddhist meditation. Smith, who wanted to continue in the Tibetan Buddhist tradition, started a separate Tibetan Buddhist group. The Zen group now has 20 people... "
Zen Korea - - - - 1953 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 825. "In Korea all forms of Buddhism except Zen were forced to unite in the fifteenth century... Many monasteries were burned during the war with the communists (1950-53), though the south emerged with a strong lay movement, university-centered Buddhist scholarship, and vigorous training programs in Zen meditation at such centers as the Haein-sa monastery. "
Zen Poland - - 22
units
- 1992 Chalfant, H. Paul, et al. Religion in Contemporary Society (3rd Ed.); Itasca, Illinois: F.E. Peacock Publishers (1994); pg. 243-244. "In Poland he found (Maxwell, 1992:37) the following NRMs: 22 Zen Buddhist organizations; 13 Hindu orgs.; 2 Theosophical orgs; Hawaiian Kahuna, a magic movement; Ordo Lux, a Pagan occult movement; 2 esoteric Yoga groups; a Sikh group; a Bahai' group; a Rastafarian gorup. " [these are number of organizations, not necessarily be number of "units "]
Zen USA - - - - 1982 Long, Robert Emmet (ed.). Religious Cults in America (The Reference Shelf: Volume 66 Number 4), New York: The H. W. Wilson Co. (1994). [Orig. source: Article by J. Gordon Melton. From appendix A of The Cult Experience, Cleveland, OH: The Pilgrim Press (1982)]; pg. 91. "Since Zen arrived in 1893, and spread after World War II it has become the most popular form of Buddhism for non-Asiatic Americans. Presently Zen centers can be found in most Amerian cities, with a few--such as the Zen Meditation Center of Rochester (NY) and the Zen Center of San Francisco--heading up a chain of centers. "
Zen USA - - - - 1982 Melton, J. Gordon & Robert L. Moore. The Cult Experience: Responding to the New Religious Pluralism. New York: The Pilgrim Press (1984 [3rd printing; 1st printing 1982]); pg. 143. "Presently, Zen centers can be found in most American cities, with a few--such as the Zen Meditation center of Rochester (NY) and the Zen Center of San Francisco--heading up a chain of centers. "
Zen USA 200,000 - 20
units
- 1982 Petersen, William J. Those Curious New Cults in the 80s. New Canaan, Connecticut: Keats Publishing (1982); pg. 114. "Zen has moved into Zen Centers, where it is practiced on a serious basis. Today there are about a score of these centers scattered across America with more than 200,000 dedicated students enrolled. "
Zen USA - - 6
units
- 1993 Mead, Frank S. (revised by Samuel S. Hill), Handbook of Denominations in the United States (10th Ed.), Abingdon Press: Nashville, Tenn. (1995). Zen Centers based in the US based on Japanese Rinzai and Soto: New York City; Rochester, New York; Los Angeles; San Francisco; Cambridge, Mass.; Honolulu, Hawaii
Zen USA - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 113-114. "Today a half-dozen or more American-born Zen masters who are authentic lineage holders run Zen centers or teach. Among them are the following: Philip Kapleau Roshi, founder of the Zen Center in Rochester, NY...; Bernard Glassman Sensei... abbot of the Zen Center New York in Yonkers...; Richard Baker Roshi, abbot of the Zen San Francisco Zen Center from 1971 to 1983...; Jiyu Kennett Roshi... founded the Zen Mission Society near... Mount Shasta in northern Calif...; Charlotte Joko Beck... teaches at the San Diego Zen Center...; Jakusho Bill Kwong... abbot of the Santa Rosa, CA, community's Soto Zen Buddhist temple, Genjoji, or the Way of Everyday Life Temple. "
Zen Vietnam - - - - 1960 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 825. "In Vietnam the Buddhism practiced in the local pagodas was a synthesis between Thien (Zen) and Tinh-do (Pure Land), while a few large pure Thien monastaries acted as spiritual centers for training local leadership. Movement toward Buddhist unification and an active Buddhist peace movement during the Vietnamese conflict found support in Vietnamese Thien, thought its present situation is problematic. "
Zen West, The - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 825. "Zen's impact on the West, especially the United States, is a significant aspect of Zen today. Zen master Soyen Shaku's appearance at the World Parliament of Religions at the Chicago World's Fair of 1893, several decades of work by D. T. Suzuki, and the influence of Zen centers in Hawaii and California have all had an impact. Reputable scholars, Japanese and American roshis, and Zen institutes and monasteries are increasingly visible and active... Zen has found especially friendly reception in the West among psychotherapists, poets, and artists. "
Zen world - - - - 1983 Oxtoby, Willard G. The Meaning of Other Faiths. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press (1983); pg. 69-70. "Buddhism is the world's third great missionary religion... [Its] big impact has been recent. It was due to the intellectual influence of Daisetz T. Suzuki, who lived in the U.S. in the 20th century, that Zen teachings and discipline were popularized among Americans looking for alternatives to Western modes... By the mid-1960s, few could be considered educated who did not have at least a vague idea of Zen... "
Zen world - - - - 1994 *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "ZEN BUDDHISM: a development of Japanese BUDDHISM which denies the REALITY of the external world and advocates mental and physical self-control as a path to ENLIGHTENMENT. It is known for its use of the KAN and vivid stories about the sudden enlightenment of particularly HOLY men. "
Zen - Bonpu world - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid; Franz-Karl Ehrhard; Kurt Friedrichs; Michael S. Diener. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 108. "Five Types of Zen: classification by early Chinese Zen master Kuei-feng Tsung-mi... The notion of Zen in this context stands generally for "meditative practice. " The 5 types are: "1. Bonpu Zen... the type of zazen that is practices without religious motivation, as, for example, for the improvement of mental or bodily health. "
Zen - Daijo world - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 108. "Five Types of Zen: classification by early Chinese Zen master Kuei-feng Tsung-mi... The notion of Zen in this context stands generally for "meditative practice. " The 5 types are: "...4. Daijo Zen... central characteristic of daijo Zen is self-realization (satori) and the actualization of the 'great way' in everyday life... this is Zen of the Mahayana type... The view occasionally put forward that daijo Zen refers to the practice of the Rinzai school and saijojo to that of the Soto school is not entirely accurate. Daijo and saijojo Zen mutually complement and interpenetrate each other and both... are practiced in both schools. "
Zen - Fuke world - - - - 900 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 112. "Fuke school: one of the less important secondary schools of the Chinese Ch'an (Zen) tradition, founded in the ninth century by... P'u-hua (Jap. Fuke)... In this school, which does not belong to the goke-shichishu, the chanting of sutras as a meditative practice is replaced by the playing of a bamboo flute... brought to Japan during the Kamakura period... Adherents..., who were for the most part lay people, made pilgrimages through the country wearing beehive-shaped bamboo hats... Toward the end of the Tokugawa period, the Fuke school became a refuge for lordless samurai (ronin)... In the Meiji period this school was officially prohibited. "
Zen - Gedo world - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 108. "Five Types of Zen: classification by early Chinese Zen master Kuei-feng Tsung-mi... The notion of Zen in this context stands generally for "meditative practice. " The 5 types are: "...2. Gedo Zen... betokens a type of Zen that is religious in character but follows teachings that are outside the Buddhist teachings. Yoga meditation or Christian contemplation, for example, would fall into this category. Also subsumed under gedo Zen are those meditative practices that are pursued purely for the sake of developing supernatural powers and abilities. "
Zen - Gozu China - - - - 700 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 120. "Gozu school a secondary lineage of Chinese Ch'an, which does not belong to the traditional Zen schools (Goke-shichishu) in China. It derives from Master Fa-jung, also known as Niu-t'ou, a student of Tao-hsin, the fourth patriarch of Zen in China. The school declined during the Song dynasty. "
Zen - Hakuun China - - - - 1000 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 124-125. "Hakuun school... an unimportant secondary lineage of Zen founded by the Chinese master Ch'ing-chueh (Jap., Shokaku), which is regarded as splinter group deviating from the true dharma tradition of Zen. It arose during the southern Sung Dynasty and died out during the Yuan Dynasty. Its name comes from that of the monastery where Ch'ing-chueh lived. "


Zen - Hakuun, continued

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