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43,941 adherent statistic citations: membership and geography data for 4,300+ religions, churches, tribes, etc.

Index

back to Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists, Tennessee

Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists Texas 53 0.00% 1
unit
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center (Mars Hill, NC). Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. Courtesy of American Religion Data Archive. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members' column: 42. [Listed as 'Two-Seed-In-The-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists.']
Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists Texas 42 0.00% - - 1990 Ramos, Mary G. (ed). 1996-1997 Texas Almanac. Dallas, TX: Dallas Morning News (1995). [Source: Glenmary: "Churches & Church Membership in the U.S., 1990 "]; pg. 325-327. Table: "Religious Groups, Members/Adherents, In Texas, 1990 "; pg. 7: Texas pop. (1990 U.S. census): 16,986,335; "Data based on reports from 133 church bodies. "; This figure is from MEMBERS column ( "Members " in this study includes only communicant, confirmed members with full membership status), not the more inclusive "adherents " column.
Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists Texas 53 0.00% - - 1990 Ramos, Mary G. (ed). 1996-1997 Texas Almanac. Dallas, TX: Dallas Morning News (1995). [Source: Glenmary: "Churches & Church Membership in the U.S., 1990 "]; pg. 325-327. Table: "Religious Groups, Members/Adherents, In Texas, 1990 "; pg. 7: Texas pop. (1990 U.S. census): 16,986,335; "Data based on reports from 133 church bodies. "; This figure is from ADHERENT column ( "Adherents " defined as all members, incl. regular participants not considered as communicant.), not the more restrictive "member " column.
Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists USA 200 - 16
units
- 1945 Ferm, Vergilius (ed). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976; 1st ed. pub. 1945 by Philosophical Library); pg. 798. "Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists: A group of 16 conservative Baptist churches having 200 members in Tennese, Kentucky, and Alabama. "
Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists USA 201 - 16
units
- 1956 Marty, Martin E. Protestantism (History of Religion Series). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston (1972); pg. 55. "John A. Hardon reached for the tables in the Yearbook of the American Churches to document his The Protestant Churches in America and came up with colorful and exotic church bodies. The Baptists... included...Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists (16 churches, 201 members in the U.S.). The implication of such compilations is that Protestants only divide. "
Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists USA 87 - 3
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center (Mars Hill, NC). Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. Courtesy of American Religion Data Archive. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. [Listed as 'Two-Seed-In-The-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists.']
Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists world 12,881 - - - 1890 Ahlstrom, Sydney E. A Religious History of the American People; Yale University Press: New Haven & London (1973); pg. 722. In 1890 the "Old Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists " [founded by Daniel Parker] numbered 12,881; but by 1945 the membership had declined to 201 and the number of churches to sixteen. "
Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists world 201 - 16
units
- 1945 Ahlstrom, Sydney E. A Religious History of the American People; Yale University Press: New Haven & London (1973); pg. 722. In 1890 the "Old Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists " [founded by Daniel Parker] numbered 12,881; but by 1945 the membership had declined to 201 and the number of churches to sixteen. "
Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists world 200 - 16
units
1
country
1945 Ferm, Vergilius (ed). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976; 1st ed. pub. 1945 by Philosophical Library); pg. 798. "Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists: A group of 16 conservative Baptist churches having 200 members in Tennese, Kentucky, and Alabama. "
Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists world 201 - 16
units
- 1945 Mead, Frank S. (revised by Samuel S. Hill), Handbook of Denominations in the United States (9th Ed.), Abingdon Press: Nashville, Tenn. (1990); pg. 57. "originated in this country in the late 18th century with... Daniel Parker... There are no home missions or benevolences. Membership is decreasing; there were 201 members and 16 churches in 1945. "
U'wa Colombia 5,000 - - - 1999 *LINK* "Tribe Denies Planned Sacrifice Of Twins " in Excite News; Dateline: BOGOTA, Colombia (Reuters). (Viewed online 25 Feb. 1999) "Elders from Colombia's U'wa Indian tribe denied Friday that a pair of newborn twins, considered by the tribe a curse and evil omen, would be killed in a ritual sacrifice... U'wa includes about 5,000 people who live in close-knit communities on tribal lands in 4 northern provinces in Colombia, including Arauca. "
U'wa world 5,000 - - 1
country
1999 *LINK* "Tribe Denies Planned Sacrifice Of Twins " in Excite News; Dateline: BOGOTA, Colombia (Reuters). (Viewed online 25 Feb. 1999) "Elders from Colombia's U'wa Indian tribe denied Friday that a pair of newborn twins, considered by the tribe a curse and evil omen, would be killed in a ritual sacrifice... U'wa includes about 5,000 people who live in close-knit communities on tribal lands in 4 northern provinces in Colombia, including Arauca. "
Udmurts Russia 746,000 - - - 1989 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 389-390. "Udmurts: Location: Russia; Population: 746,000 (1989); Religions: Eastern Orthodox Christianity; native Udmurt religion "; "Today the majority of Udmurts professing religious beliefs are Eastern Orthodox Christians, although a significant minority of Udmurts, especially those inhabiting southern Udmurtia, Tatarstan, and Bashkortostan, have retained their formal adherence to native Udmurt religion and commonly refer to themselves as 'unbaptized' Udmurts... Udmurt native religion had and continues to have a communal orientation, and many of the ritual prayers and sacrifices are held in conjunction with the gathering of the village... At the summit of the Udmurt pantheon is Inmar, the supreme god. Today, the Christian Udmurts use this term to refer to the Christian god as well... "
Udmurts Russia: Udmurt 509,640 31.00% - - 1999 *LINK* Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site; web page: "Udmurt " (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). "The Udmurt Republic is located in the Russian Federation in the western part of the Urals, bordering Tatarstan and Bashkortostan. Area: 42,100 km2. The capital is Izhevsk. The Udmurt are a Finno-Ugric people. The population of Udmurtia is approximately 1,644,000 people. Of the total Udmurt population of 747,000 living in the former Soviet Union only 66.5% live in Udmurt itself. The majority of the population in Udmurt is Russian (59%), followed by Udmurts (31%) and Tatars (7%). "
Udmurts Soviet Union 1,123,308 - - - 1999 *LINK* Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site; web page: "Udmurt " (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). "The population of Udmurtia is approximately 1,644,000 people. Of the total Udmurt population of 747,000 living in the former Soviet Union only 66.5% live in Udmurt itself. "
Udmurts world 700,000 - - - 1997 *LINK* Gamming, Jenny. They have a flag-but no country " in Swedish Expressen, 17 Aug. 1997. (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site. Translated by SSF/Goran Hansson. "Udmurt lays 800 kilometres northeast of Moscow and borders to Tartarstan. The indigenous population, a Finish-Udmurt people, fell victim to the Soviet population transfer. 700,000 of the Udmurts live in Udmurt and are today a minority in Udmurt. "
Ukrainian Evangelical Alliance of North America North America - - 2
units
- 1991 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 171. "Ukrainian Evangelical Alliance of North America... Elmhurst, IL [H.Q.]... Membership: At last report there were only two congregations solely attached to the Alliance, though congregations consisting of Ukrainian-Russian immigrants of the Reformed faith can be found in several of the larger Presbyterian bodies. "
Ukrainian Greek-Orthodox Church of Canada world 140,000 - 250
units
- 1987 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 135. "Ukrainian Greek-Orthodox Church of Canada... Winnipeg, MB, Canada [H.Q.]... Membership: In 1987 there were 140,000 members in 250 congregations, and 85 priests. "
Ukrainian Orthodox Australia 3,268 0.02% - - 1996 *LINK* Parliament of Australia web site; page: "Census 96: Religion " (viewed 18 Dec. 1999) Self-identification, from 1996 govt. census.
Ukrainian Orthodox Canada 120,000 - 258
units
- 1988 Bedell, Kenneth (ed.). Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches 1993. Abingdon Press: Nashville, Tenn (1993); pg. 244-247. Table 1: Canadian Current Statistics. (# of adherents is from table's "inclusive membership " column, not the sometimes smaller "full communicant or confirmed members " col.) Listed in table as "Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Canada. "
Ukrainian Orthodox Canada 120,000 - 258
units
- 1996 World Almanac and Book of Facts 1998; K-III Reference Corp.: Macwah, NJ (1997). [Orig. sources: 1997 Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches; World Almanac research]; pg. 653. Table: "Membership of Religious Groups in Canada "; Membership figs. based on reports from group officials. Figs. are inclusive: refer to all "members, " not simply full communicants. Listed as "Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Canada. "
Ukrainian Orthodox Germany 4,600 - - - 1999 *LINK* web site: "Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und Informationsdienst e.V. " [REMID: Religious Studies Media and Information Service, Marburg, Germany]; web page: "Informationen und Standpunkte " (viewed 2 Aug. 1999). Table: "Religious communities in Germany: Numbers of members " [data published July, 1999]; Sum of two groups: "Ukrainische Orthodoxe Kirche - Patriarchat Kiew " and "Ukrainische autokephale Orthodoxe Kirche "
Ukrainian Orthodox Saskatchewan: Saskatoon - - 2
units
- 1998 *LINK* web site: Saskatoon Free-Net:Religion (viewed 1998) citywide religion directory for Saskatoon & area
Ukrainian Orthodox Ukraine - - - - 1993 Twining, David T. The New Eurasia: A Guide to the Republics of the Former Soviet Union. Westport, CT: Praeger (1993); pg. 95. "In 1991 the Russian Orthodox Church in Ukraine split into two parts: the existing church, subordinate to the patriarch in Moscow, and a Ukrainian Orthodox Church. Both compete with a third Orthodox faction, the independent Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, which merged with elements of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church to form the Ukrainian Orthodox Church--Kiev Patriachate on June 27, 1992. It is said to enjoy the support of Ukrainian officials. "
Ukrainian Orthodox Ukraine - - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year; pg. 781-783. Table; "Believers are predominantly affiliated with the Ukrainian Orthodox Church; Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox and Ukrainian Catholic (Uniate) minorities "
Ukrainian Orthodox Ukraine 35,000,000 67.31% - - 1997 Clay, Rebecca. Ukraine: A New Independence (series: Exploring Cultures of the World). New York: Benchmark Books/Marshall Cavendish (1997); pg. 29. "Today, the most popular Christian faith is Ukrainian Orthodox. Thirty-five million Ukrainians attend the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, making it the largest religious denomination... in the country. "
Ukrainian Orthodox USA 25,000 - - - 1932 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 2 - Americas. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 428. "In 1924, an American Ukrainian Orthodox archbishop was appointed, and by 1932 there were 32 parishes in theUS. Today there are about 25,000 Ukrainian Orthodox in America. "
Ukrainian Orthodox USA - - 32
units
- 1932 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 2 - Americas. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 428. "In 1924, an American Ukrainian Orthodox archbishop was appointed, and by 1932 there were 32 parishes in theUS. Today there are about 25,000 Ukrainian Orthodox in America. "
Ukrainian Orthodox USA 130,000 - - - 1957 Spence, Hartzell. The Story of America's Religions; New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston (1960) [1st printing 1957]; pg. 117. "Orthodoxy in America today is divided into 23 dif. groups... The others range from 200,000 of serbian extraction, 130,000 Ukrainians, 100,000 Carpatho-Russians, 80,000 Syrians and 50,000 Rumanians, to a small group of Estonians and Latvians. "
Ukrainian Orthodox USA 130,000 - - - 1963 Rosten, Leo (ed.). Religions in America; New York: Simon & Schuster (1963), 8th ed. [1st pub. in 1952. 8th ed. completely revised]; pg. 94. "Other Orthodox bodies include the Serbian (200,000), Ukrainian (130,000), Carpatho-Russian (100,000), Syrian (80,000), Rumanian (50,000), and smaller branches of national extractions including the Bularian, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian and others. "
Ukrainian Orthodox - Ecumenical Patriachate Germany 1,000 - - - 1999 *LINK* web site: "Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und Informationsdienst e.V. " [REMID: Religious Studies Media and Information Service, Marburg, Germany]; web page: "Informationen und Standpunkte " (viewed 2 Aug. 1999). Table: "Religious communities in Germany: Numbers of members " [data published July, 1999]; Listed as "Ukrainische Orthodoxe Kirche - Patriarchat Kiew " in table. Source: REMID. [Listed in 'Orthodox and Eastern Churches' section.]
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate) Colorado - - 1
unit
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center (Mars Hill, NC). Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. Courtesy of American Religion Data Archive. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. [Listed as 'Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Amer (Ecum Patr).']
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate) Connecticut - - 1
unit
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. [Listed as 'Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Amer (Ecum Patr).']
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate) Florida - - 1
unit
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. [Listed as 'Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Amer (Ecum Patr).']
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate) Georgia, USA - - 1
unit
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. [Listed as 'Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Amer (Ecum Patr).']
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate) Illinois - - 2
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. [Listed as 'Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Amer (Ecum Patr).']
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate) Indiana - - 1
unit
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. [Listed as 'Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Amer (Ecum Patr).']
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate) Michigan - - 2
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. [Listed as 'Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Amer (Ecum Patr).']
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate) Nebraska - - 1
unit
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. [Listed as 'Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Amer (Ecum Patr).']
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate) New Jersey - - 1
unit
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. [Listed as 'Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Amer (Ecum Patr).']
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate) New York - - 5
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. [Listed as 'Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Amer (Ecum Patr).']
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate) Ohio - - 3
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. [Listed as 'Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Amer (Ecum Patr).']
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate) Oklahoma - - 1
unit
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. [Listed as 'Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Amer (Ecum Patr).']
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate) Pennsylvania - - 3
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. [Listed as 'Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Amer (Ecum Patr).']
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate) USA 5,000 - 27
units
- 1986 Bedell, Kenneth (ed.). Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches 1993. Abingdon Press: Nashville, Tenn (1993); pg. 248-255. Table 2: US Current Stats. (# of adherents from "inclusive membership " column, not sometimes smaller "full communicant " col.) Listed in table as "Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate). "
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate) USA - - 23
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. [Listed as 'Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Amer (Ecum Patr).']
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate) USA 5,000 - 27
units
- 1990 Mead, Frank S. (revised by Samuel S. Hill), Handbook of Denominations in the United States (9th Ed.), Abingdon Press: Nashville, Tenn. (1990); pg. 187. "...the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate), was organized in 1928 and has 27 parishes and 5,000 members. Primary areas of Ukrainian Orthodox strength lie in New England, Chicago, Pittsburgh and western Pennsylvania. "
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate) USA 5,000 - 27
units
- 1996 World Almanac and Book of Facts 1998; K-III Reference Corp.: Macwah, NJ (1997). [Orig. sources: 1997 Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches; World Almanac research]; pg. 651. Table: "Membership of Religious Groups in U.S. "; Membership figs. generally based on reports from officials by each group. Figs. are inclusive: refer to all "members, " not simply full communicants.
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate) world 45,000 - 24
units
- 1970 Melton, J. Gordon. The Encyclopedia of American Religions, vol. 1. McGrath Publishing Co.: Wilmington, NC (1978); pg. 71. -
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate) world 25,000 - 28
units
- 1977 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 137. "Membership: In 1977 the Church reported 28 parishes, 25,000 members... A 1980 survey indicated 23 parishes, 3,465 confirmed members and an additional 2,000 adherents. "
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate) world 5,465 - 23
units
- 1980 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 137. "Ukrainian Orthodox Church in America (Ecumenical Patriarchate)... Jamaica, NY... In 1950 the 2 branches of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church in America united. The initial attempts toward union had followed the replacement of Bishop Bohdan T. Shpilka as ruling bishop of one branch of the church by Mystyslaw Skrypnyk. At the time of the union, Bishop Bohdan declined to participate in the new church and withdrew with his following & reorganized as the Ukrainian Orthodox Church from 1935 to 1950... The Church is identical in faith and practice to the Ukrainian Orthodox Church in the U.S.A... Membership: In 1977 the Church reported 28 parishes, 25,000 members... A 1980 survey indicated 23 parishes, 3,465 confirmed members & an additional 2,000 adherents. "
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the U.S.A. USA 85,000 - 92
units
- 1988 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 136. "Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the U.S.A... South Bound Brook, NJ... Membership: In 1988 the church reported 85,000 members, 92 congregations and 108 priests in the United States. "
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the U.S.A. USA 87,745 - 107
units
- 1990 Mead, Frank S. (revised by Samuel S. Hill), Handbook of Denominations in the United States (9th Ed.), Abingdon Press: Nashville, Tenn. (1990); pg. 187. "...Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the U.S.A., was formally organized in this country in 1919... This group has 107 churches and 87,745 members... Primary areas of Ukrainian Orthodox strength lie in New England, Chicago, Pittsburgh and western Pennsylvania. "
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the U.S.A. world 84,475 - 107
units
- 1966 Melton, J. Gordon. The Encyclopedia of American Religions, vol. 1. McGrath Publishing Co.: Wilmington, NC (1978); pg. 71. -
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the U.S.A. world 20,000 - 95
units
- 1993 Mead, Frank S. (revised by Samuel S. Hill), Handbook of Denominations in the United States (10th Ed.), Abingdon Press: Nashville, Tenn. (1995). -
Ultramontanism France - - - - 1750 *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "ULTRAMONTANISM: a movement within the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH originating in France during the seventeenth century which favored direct, centralized, control from Rome. The JESUITS were strong supporters of this position which came to dominate the Church in the nineteenth century. "
Umbanda Brazil - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 15). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1981. "Brazilian Spiritualists are of two principal kinds, those known as Kardecists... and those known as Umbandists. The Umbandists represent a more primitive type of Spiritualism, the inspiration for which is originally African, and which is some respects is rather closer as a religious phenomenon to the beliefs and practices of the candombles... "
Umbanda Brazil - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 360. "Candomble is the generic name for a number of African religious traditions established by slaves in 19th-century Brazil, specifically in the region of Bahia. (In the southeast it is called Macumba; Rio de Janeiro's sect is known as Umbanda.) "
Umbanda Brazil - - - - 1997 Heinrichs, Ann. Brazil ( "Enchantment of the World Second Series "). New York: Children's Press (1997); pg. 98. "Umbanda is a religion prevalent in Rio de Janeiro. It combines candomble, Spiritism, and other African and Brazilian folk beliefs. In contrast to the 'dark' tone of candomble, umbanda relies on 'white magic,' Umbandits make offerings of candles and food to their spirit protectors, who may be Catholic saints, African deities, or historical heroes. "
Umbanda Brazil - - - - 1998 *LINK* "AFRICAN RELIGION syncretism " (viewed 5 April 1999) "In Brasil there seems to be four distinct movements, Candomble of Bahia and the northeast, Spiritism of Rio and the more advanced urban centers; Umbanda in the urban centers not influenced by Bahia and Quimbanda a form of black magic that is practiced clandestinely everywhere. "
Umbanda Brazil - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 2 - Americas. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 88. Chapter: "Brazilians "; "After Catholicism, Afro-Brazilian religions are the most important in Brazilian society. Umbanda, for example, is one of the most rapidly growing sects. Attracting both African and non-African Brazilians, Umbanda sects use music, dancing, and sometimes alcohol to reach a trance state that enables believers to communicate with spirits. "
Umbanda Brazil - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 2 - Americas. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 14-15. "Afro-Brazilian sects are becoming increasingly popular with Blacks and Whites alike in Brazil... Other spiritualist sects, such as Umbanda, combine African and non-African influences. In these religions, it is common for the services to be led by a female priestess. Umbanda is becoming widespread in Brazil's major cities. Followers of Umbanda invite spirits into their bodies as part of the services. When they are 'possessed,' they traditionally light a cigar. Umbanda services account for the majority of cigar sales in Brazil. "
Umbanda Brazil: Rio Grande do Sul - - 100,000
units
- 1998 *LINK* "AFRICAN RELIGION syncretism " (viewed 5 April 1999) "For instance 100,000 Umbanda congregations have emerged in Brazil's southernmost state settled largely by Polish, Italian, and German immigrants. This religion also moves along with Haitian and Cuban populations to New York, New Jersey, Florida, California, Pennsylvania, Indiana and Texas. (Brown, ch.4and M.Drewal, ch.9) "
Umbanda world - - - - 1998 *LINK* "AFRICAN RELIGION syncretism " (viewed 5 April 1999) "For instance 100,000 Umbanda congregations have emerged in Brazil's southernmost state settled largely by Polish, Italian, and German immigrants. This religion also moves along with Haitian and Cuban populations to New York, New Jersey, Florida, California, Pennsylvania, Indiana and Texas. (Brown, ch.4and M.Drewal, ch.9) "
unaffiliated Alaska - - - - 1999 Zuckerman, Phil. "Atheism: Contemporary Rates and Patterns ", chapter in The Cambridge Companion to Atheism, ed. by Michael Martin, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK (2005) "Within the United States, the Pacific Northwest region (Oregon, Washington, and Alaska) is the least religious in the country, with over 62% of the people there unaffiliated with any specific denomination and over 30% claiming the identity of 'No religion/Humanist' (Killen and Silk, 2004). " [Killen, Patricia O'Connell and Mark Silk. 2004. Religion and Public Life in the Pacific Northwest: The None Zone. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press]


unaffiliated, continued

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