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43,941 adherent statistic citations: membership and geography data for 4,300+ religions, churches, tribes, etc.

Index

back to Tibetan Buddhism, Tibet

Tibetan Buddhism, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Tibetan Buddhism Tibet - - 6,000
units
- 1949 Kerr, Blake. Sky Burial: An Eyewitness Account of China's Brutal Crackdown in Tibet. Chicago: The Noble Press, Inc. (1993); pg. xii-xiii. "The people of the free world have read many books and seen many pictures testifying to the destruction of 99% of Tibet's temples, shrines, hermitages, and monasteries... Since China's army invaded Tibet in 1950, one million Tibetans--one-fifth of my [Tenzin Gyatso, The XIV Dalai Lama] people--have died. Over 6,000 monasteries have been destroyed... "
Tibetan Buddhism Tibet - - - - 1950 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 12). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1589. "Lamas. At the head of Tibetan Buddhism, officially suppressed since the Chinese invasion, stands the Dalai Lama; now in exile, he recently announced his intention of establishing a miniature Tibet in India for the preservation of his country's religion... In Tibet the principle of reincarnation determined the succession to high ecclesiastical office for at least 500 years. The religion of the country was Lamaism, a development of Mahayana Buddhism, first introduced into Tibet from India in the 7th century AD. Before the Chinese invasion of 1950 the lamas (abbots of the Tibetan monasteries, though the term is also used for all fully ordained Tibetan Buddhist monks) enjoyed immense power and prestige. "
Tibetan Buddhism Tibet - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 149. "The future of Tibetan Buddhism. The secularization of the country by the Chinese has resulted in destruction of monasteries, the forced laicizing of monks, and the persecution of believers. Programs of education and youth groups based on Communist ideology have been used to win the younger generation of Tibetans. yet it would be impossible to conclude that so deep and pervasive a tradition has been completely eradicated. Into the mid-1970s, the Dalia Lama expressed hopes for a return to Tibet to meet the religious needs of the people. "
Tibetan Buddhism world - - - - 1973 Zehavi, A.M. (editor) Handbook of the World's Religions. New York: Franklin Watts (1973); pg. 127. "Lamaism: Western name for the religion of Tibet, which is also practiced in Mongolia and other neighboring territories. "
Tibetan Buddhism world - - - - 1994 *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "TIBETAN BUDDHISM: after the failure of BUDDHISM in India during the twelfth century, Tibetan Monks became the main inheritors of the Indian BUDDHIST TRADITION preserving many ancient documents and practices which were rejected by THERAVDN Buddhism in the South. From Tibet, Buddhism spread to China, Korea and Japan where the MAHYNA TRADITION flourished to produce PURE LAND, ZEN and a host of other Schools. In Tibet itself a THEOCRATIC government was established and TANTRA flourished. Tibetan Buddhism spread to the West in the 1950s following the Chinese Communist invasion of Tibet. "
Tibetan Buddhism world 6,000,000 - - - 1999 Woodward, Kenneth L. "A Lama to the Globe " in Newsweek (Aug. 16, 1999); pg. 32. "With his influence stretching far beyond his 6 million Tibetan followers, the Dalai Lama is devoting his last years to a larger community. "
Tibetan Buddhism - Geluk order Mongolia - - - - 1989 *LINK* Library of Congress Country Studies 2,125,463 [total pop.] (1989). Predominantly Yellow Sect of Tibetan Buddhism (Lamaism); about 4 percent Muslim (primarily in southwest), some shamanism.
Tibetan Buddhism - Geluk order Russia: Kalmykia - - - - 1931 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 203, 205-206. "Kalmyks: Location: Russia (Republic of Kalmykia in the southwest); Population: 174,528 [1989]; Religion: Tibetan sect [Geluk] of Mahayana Buddhism (Lamaism) "; "Religion in the Kalmyk Autonomous Republic was completely suppressed [by Soviets]. All Buddhist temples were either closed or destroyed. The last elected religions head of the Kalmyk people, Lama Lubsan Sharab Tepkin (born in 1875), was arested in 1931, tried, condemned, and exiled... "
Tibetan Buddhism - Geluk order Russia: Kalmykia 174,528 - - - 1989 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 203, 205-206. "Kalmyks: Location: Russia (Republic of Kalmykia in the southwest); Population: 174,528 [1989]; Religion: Tibetan sect of Mahayana Buddhism (Lamaism) "; "The Kalmyks were faithful and fervent Buddhists, following the faith of their forebears. If Kalmykia is classified as a part of Europe, then the Kalmyks would be considered the only Buddhist ethnic group inhabiting Europe. They belong to the Tibetan 'Yellow Hat' or Gelugpa (Virtuous Way) sect of the Mahayana or Northern branch of Buddhism, which is also commonly referred to as Lamaism. It still contains an admixture of indigenous beliefs and shamanistic practices. The Kalmyks were converted from their earlier shamanistic beliefs to Tibetan Buddhism shortly before they reached the Lower Volga area in the early 17th century. "
Tibetan Buddhism - Geluk order Tibet - - - - 1420 C.E. Li, Dun Jen. The Ageless Chinese: A History (3rd Ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons (1978); pg. 318. "Early in the fifteenth century a reform movement took place within the Lamaist church, and the reformers emphasized a more secluded, meditative life as a way to enlightenment. A new sect emerged from the reform movement, known as the Yellow Hat Sect [Geluk order] to distinguish it from the older Red Hat Sect. The founder of the new sect, Tsong-kha-pa, died in 1419, but his branch of Lamaism continued to grow. in time his divinity was supposedly divided among two lines of successors, the Dalai Lamas and the Panchen Lamas, the successors to his first and second disciples respectively... Theoretically both Lamas shared the same degree of divinity, but historically the Dalai Lama had always enjoyed a greater temporal power. "
Tibetan Buddhism - Geluk order Tibet 1,000,000 - - - 1945 Ferm, Vergilius (ed). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976; 1st ed. pub. 1945 by Philosophical Library); pg. 102. "Yellow Hat Lamaism is prevalent in Tibet, Sinkiang, Mongolia, Manchuria, the Western border of China, and parts of Siberia and European Caucasus, with a total of some 1,000,000 priests and followers in Tibet alone. "
Tibetan Buddhism - Geluk order Tibet - - - - 1950 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 12). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1590. "As a political phenomenon the system of succession by reincarnation played na important role in the shapaing of the power structure of Tibet. The abbots of the great Gelugpa monasteries of the oly city of Lhasa were almost exclusively reincarnated lamas, and they exercised an important influence on the government of the country and the selection of the Dalai Lama, the Panchen Lama and the regents ruling Tibet during the infancy of the Dalia Lama. At the peak of the hierarchy stood the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama. The Dalai Lama was regarded as a reincarnation of all his predecessors in the exalted position of head of the Gelugpa Church... "
Tibetan Buddhism - Geluk order Tibet - - - - 1962 Dalai Lama of Tibet. My Land and My People. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. (1962); pg. 239-240. "The most prominent of these Tibetan schools are the Nyingma, Kagyud, Sakya, and Geluk. Each of them adheres to all the teachings of Hinayana and Mahayana, including Tantrayana, for Tibetan Buddhists do not separate these teachings, but pay equal respect to them all. "
Tibetan Buddhism - Geluk order Tibet - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 148. "There are four major orders:... The Gelugpa, the 'merit system ones,' or so-called 'Yellow Hats,' was founded in the fifteenth century as an outgrowth of the reform movement or Tsong-Kha-Pa. This reform order is headed by the present Dalia Lama, the latest in a line who ruled Tibet from the seventeenth century until 1959. "
Tibetan Buddhism - Geluk order Tibet - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 117. "Gelugpa Tib., roughly 'school of the virtuous; the last to be established of the 4 main schools of Tibetan Buddhism, founded by Tsongkhapa... Since the installation of the dalai lamas as heads of state in the 17th century, the Gelugpas have held political leadership. "
Tibetan Buddhism - Geluk order USA - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 118-120. "...in America, the Nyingma order [of Tibetan Buddhism] became established in San Francisco, and the Geluk order, to which the Panchen and Dalai Lamas belong, has gained a following as well. The Dalai Lama's cause has been championed by his best-known American student, the actor Richard Gere, which may or may not be a point in the order's favor... "
Tibetan Buddhism - Kagyu order Bhutan - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 118-119. "Approximately 75% of the Bhutanese are Buddhist. Mahayana Buddhism is the official religion of Bhutan. The dominant religious order in the country is the Red-Hat sect (Kargyupa). "
Tibetan Buddhism - Kagyu order Tibet - - - - 1050 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 167-168. "Kagyupa, Tib., lit. 'oral transmission'; one of the four principal schools of Tibetan Buddhism... The teachings were brought to Tibet from India in the 11th century by Marpa. Gampopa, a student of Milarepa's, organized them into the Kagyupa school. From this school is derived that of the Karma Kagyu and others... The Kagyu transmission has its point of origin in Vajradhara... and passed from Tilopa to Naropa. Marpa the Translator brought these teachings to Tibet. "
Tibetan Buddhism - Kagyu order Tibet - - - - 1962 Dalai Lama of Tibet. My Land and My People. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. (1962); pg. 239-240. "The most prominent of these Tibetan schools are the Nyingma, Kagyud, Sakya, and Geluk. Each of them adheres to all the teachings of Hinayana and Mahayana, including Tantrayana, for Tibetan Buddhists do not separate these teachings, but pay equal respect to them all. "
Tibetan Buddhism - Kagyu order Tibet - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 148. "There are four major orders:... The Kargyupa is a school of oral tradition in which the secret mystical traditions are passed on from teacher to pupil by word of mouth. It was founded by Marpa in the eleventh century and looks back to the great Indian teacher Naropa. "
Tibetan Buddhism - Kagyu order world - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 118. "The Kagyu (Tib. 'Oral transmission') school has its roots in the Tantric systems transmitted by the 11th-century Indian master Tilopa... Trungpa established a Buddhist college and learning center in Boulder, Colorado, called Naropa Institute... other leaders of the Kagyu school stepped in and began the process of reforming their Karma Kagyu subschool, which continues to flourish in the States. In Tibet, the Kagyu developed into at least four more major and eight minor schools, of which few still exist. "
Tibetan Buddhism - monastic Tibet - 20.00% - - 1950 Boorstin, Daniel J. The Seekers: The Story of Man's Continuing Quest to Understand His World. New York, NY: Random House (1998); pg. 71. "In Tibet after the 17th century Buddhist monastaries became major state institutions. Before the Communists conquered them, monks were said to form a fifth of the population. "
Tibetan Buddhism - monastic Tibet - 10.00% - - 1950 Dalai Lama of Tibet. My Land and My People. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. (1962); pg. 58. "Tibet has been called the most religious country in the world. I cannot judge if that is so or not, but certainly all normal Tibetans regarded spiritual matters as no less important than material matters, and the most remarkable thing about Tibet was the enormous number of monasteries in it. There are no exact figures, but probably ten per cent of the total population was monks or nuns. "
Tibetan Buddhism - monastic Tibet - 10.00% - - 1950 Hutchinson, John A. Paths of Faith; New York: McGraw-Hill (1969); pg. 140. "It has been estimated that prior to the Chinese Communist invasions of Tibet in 1950 and 1959, 20% of the male population were monks. " [10% of population is extrapolated from 20% of male pop. assuming 50/50 split between sexes.]
Tibetan Buddhism - Nyingma order Tibet - - - - 1962 Dalai Lama of Tibet. My Land and My People. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. (1962); pg. 239-240. "The most prominent of these Tibetan schools are the Nyingma, Kagyud, Sakya, and Geluk. Each of them adheres to all the teachings of Hinayana and Mahayana, including Tantrayana, for Tibetan Buddhists do not separate these teachings, but pay equal respect to them all. "
Tibetan Buddhism - Nyingma order Tibet - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 148. "There are four major orders: a) The Nyingmapa, the 'ancient ones,' or the 'Red Hat' order, so called because of the distinctive head wear that differentiates them from the later reform group that wears yellow hats. The Nyingmapa trace their lineage back to Padma-Sambhava. "
Tibetan Buddhism - Nyingma order Tibet - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 253. "Nyingmapa, Tib., lit. 'School of the Ancients'; one of the 4 principal schools of Tibetan Buddhism. The school that brings together the oldest Buddhist traditions in Tibet, which were brought to the country from India by Padmasambhava and the monks of Vimalamitra and Vairochana in the 8th century. Since the 15th century there has existed an independent collection of these teachings, which, however, is not included in the official Tibetan canon... In the 11th century the name nyingma ('old') came into use to distinguish their school from the new schools... "
Tibetan Buddhism - Nyingma order USA - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 118-120. "...in America, the Nyingma order [of Tibetan Buddhism] became established in San Francisco, and the Geluk order, to which the Panchen and Dalai Lamas belong, has gained a following as well... The fourth major school is the Sakya, perhaps the least known outside of Tibet. "
Tibetan Buddhism - Sakya order Tibet - - - - 1962 Dalai Lama of Tibet. My Land and My People. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. (1962); pg. 239-240. "The most prominent of these Tibetan schools are the Nyingma, Kagyud, Sakya, and Geluk. Each of them adheres to all the teachings of Hinayana and Mahayana, including Tantrayana, for Tibetan Buddhists do not separate these teachings, but pay equal respect to them all. "
Tibetan Buddhism - Sakya order Tibet - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 148. "There are four major orders:... The Saskyapa, founded in the eleventh century and named for its chief monastery, wielded great political power at one time and was the first to establish the idea of a priestly monarchy. "
Tibetan Buddhism - Sakya order Tibet - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 295. "Sakyapa - a major school of Tibetan Buddhism named after the Sakya (lit. 'Gray Earth') Monastery, located in southern Tibet. In accordance with a prophecy of Atisha, the Sakya Monastery was founded in the year 1073, and its abbots, members of the Khon family, devoted themselves primarily to the transmission of a cycle of Vajrayana teachings known by the name of 'path and goal' (Lamdre)... In the 13th & 14th centuries it had great political influence in Tibet... Sakya Pandita's missionary activities were so successful that rulership of Central Asia was conferred upon the Sakya school in the year 1249. In the following centuries the Sakyapas played an important role in the spiritual life of Tibet. "
Tibetan Buddhism - Sakya order Tibet - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 118-120. "...in America, the Nyingma order became established in San Francisco, and the Geluk order, to which the Panchen and Dalai Lamas belong, has gained a following as well... The fourth major school is the Sakya, perhaps the least known outside of Tibet. "
Tigari Ghana - - - - 1945 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 15). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1979. "One of the most celebrated of anti-witchcraft movements was the Tigari cult which spread throughout Ghana and neighbouring territories in the 1940s, and which was directed to the elimination of witches, the procuring of health, fortune and children. Tigari ceremonial was enacted for 'clients' who had particular requests to make at the shrine, and Tigari priests manipulated their equipment to bring the semi-magical forces that they claimed to command into operation. To the accompaniment of drums, sacrifices were performed by which the priest claimed to exorcize witches or the effect of witchcraft. Malefactors were condemned and fines levied against them: the system worked because thos condemned feared the power of the Tigari priest and his medicine, and so yielded up whatever as demanded of them. "
Tigari Ghana - - - - 1955 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 15). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1980. "As long as [it] was popular, Tigari provided a swifter avenue of social mobility than had the older religious system. In a society where men were just beginning to recognize the possibilities of 'getting on in the world', of leaving tribal and village associations and traditionally ascribed roles, it is not surprising that religion should become a field of endeavour both for those seeking wealth and success and those attempting to exercise power. A decline in the Tigari cult occurred in the 1950s, because changing circumstances demand new magical responses. What followed Tigari was an interesting development which illustrated a continuance of traditional preoccupations, the intensification of demand for reassurance from the insecurities with which Tigari had sought to cope, and the growing capacity to adopt Western forms of organization. The new movements resembled very much more the mission churches... "
Tigray Eritrea 1,700,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 1 - Africa. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 422, 424. "Tigray: Location: Tigray state (Ethiopia), Eritrea; Population: 3.2 million in Ethiopia, 1.7 million in Eritrea; Religion: Christianity " [Tigray form of 4th-century Christianity. These statistics are measure of tribal/ethnic affiliation, not a "distinct " religion.]
Tigray Ethiopia 4,160,000 8.00% - - 1991 Kurtz, Jane. Ethiopia: The Roof of the World (series: Discovering Our Heritage). New York: Dillon Press (1991); pg. 4, 26. Pg. 4: "Population: 52,000,000 (1991) "; Pg. 26: "The Tigre is the smallest of the major groups, making up about 8% of the population. Tigre and Amhara people share a Semitic cultural heritage and together shaped Ethiopian culture and politics. But the Tigre consider themselves purer descendants of Ethiopia's first great kingdom. Their language is closest to the ancient langauge of Geez and, traditionally, the Tigre upheld Ethiopian Christianity in its purest form. "
Tigray Ethiopia - - - 1
country
1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures; Culture column: "Tigrai "; Location column: "Ethiopia "
Tigray Ethiopia - - - - 1997 Dostert, Pierre Etienne. Africa 1997 (The World Today Series). Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Stryker-Post Publications (1997); pg. 168. Estimates of % of population in ethnic (NOT religious) backgrounds, & est. 1997 total pop.; "Amhara and Tigrean (31%) "
Tigray Ethiopia 3,200,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 1 - Africa. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 422, 424. "Tigray: Location: Tigray state (Ethiopia), Eritrea; Population: 3.2 million in Ethiopia, 1.7 million in Eritrea; Religion: Christianity " [Tigray form of 4th-century Christianity. These statistics are measure of tribal/ethnic affiliation, not a "distinct " religion.]
Tigray world 4,900,000 - - 2
countries
1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 1 - Africa. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 422, 424. "Tigray: Location: Tigray state (Ethiopia), Eritrea; Population: 3.2 million in Ethiopia, 1.7 million in Eritrea; Religion: Christianity "; Pg. 424: "Most people think of Christianity in Africa as a European import that arrived with colonialism, but thisis not the case with the Tigray (or with the Amhara). The empire centered in Axum and Adowa was part of the Mediterranean world in which Christianity grew. Fromentius's 4th-century arrival in Axum was roughly contemporary with St. Patrick's arrival in Ireland... Many Tigrean churches were cut into ciffs or from single blocks of stone... The church is a central feature of communities and of each family's daily life. Each community has a church with a patron saint. "
Tijaniyya Africa - - - - 1850 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 722-723. "Devotion to Sufism and militant anti-colonialism also characterized several nineteenth century African revivalists, from Usman dan Fodio of the traditional Qadiriyya to al-Hajj 'Umar Tal of the neo-Sufi Tijaniyya. "
Tijaniyya Mauritania - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 1 - Africa. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 296. "In Mauritania, as in much of West Africa, Islamic Sufi brotherhoods, known as tariqas, gained importance around the 13th century... The major ones are the Qadiriyya and Tijaniyya orders... The Tijaniyya brotherhood places less stress on learning. It is a missionary order that denounces theft, lying, cheating, and killing, and emphasizes continual reflection on God. "
Tijaniyya Senegal 1,000,000 - - - 1982 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: WORLD CHRISTIAN ENCYCLOPEDIA, A comparative survey of churches and religions in the modern world; Edited by David B. Barrett; published by Oxford University Press, 1982.); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) Islam:
Muslims: African Sunnis (of the Malikite rite). Islamic brotherhoods active (1957): Qadiriya with 304,000 members, the missionary order of Tinjaniya with 1 million; Muridiya 423,000; 23,000 in others.
Tillamook North America - Pacific Coast 2,200 - - - 1805 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 430-431. Table: "The Pacific Coast: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber); Includes figures for Siletz.
Tillamook world 2,200 - - - 1805 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 430-431. Table: "The Pacific Coast: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber); Includes figures for Siletz.
Timbira Brazil 1,000 - - - 1900 Pinney, Roy. Vanishing Tribes. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1968); pg. viii. "In Brazil... The Timbira, who numbered 1,000 in 1900, were only 40 in 1950. "
Timbira Brazil 40 - - - 1950 Pinney, Roy. Vanishing Tribes. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1968); pg. viii. "In Brazil... The Timbira, who numbered 1,000 in 1900, were only 40 in 1950. "
Times Square Church New York: New York City 2,000 - 1
unit
- 1992 *LINK* Thumma, Scott. web site: "Megachurches in the U.S. " (viewed Aug. 20, 1999; data collected 1992; last updated Aug. 19, 1999). Center for Social & Religious Research, Hartford Seminary. Table; "size " is avg. weekly attendance. Study finding all U.S megachurches.; Indep. cong. in New York City, NY; pastor David Wilkerson.
Timucua Florida 13,000 - - - 1650 Legay, Gilbert. Atlas of Indians of North America. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's (1995); pg. 9. "There were 13,000 around 1650. A century later, the Timucua had probably merged with other groups, becoming fewer in number. "
Timucua North America - Gulf Coasts and Tidal Swamps 13,000 - - - 1650 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 93. Table: "Gulf Coasts and Tidal Swamps: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber); Includes Acuera, Mococo, and Timucua numbers as well.
Timucua world 13,000 - - - 1650 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 93. Table: "Gulf Coasts and Tidal Swamps: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber); Includes Acuera, Mococo, and Timucua numbers as well.
Tiv Cameroon - - - - 1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures
Tiv Nigeria - - - - 1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures
Tiv world - - - 2
countries
1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures; "Nigeria, Cameroon "
Tiwa Pueblos North America - Southwestern Deserts and Mesa Lands 12,200 - - - 1680 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 27. Table: "Southwestern Deserts and Mesa Lands: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber); Distinct, different group from "Tewa Pueblos "
Tiwa Pueblos USA - Southwest - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 17). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 2300. "Once there were hundreds of villages, now there are only 25 (in north-west New Mexico and north-east Arizona). The villages cluster together in accordance with tribal links--for there are five separate tribes of Pueblo Indians: Hopi, Zuni, Keres, Tiwa and Tewa. "
Tiwa Pueblos world 12,200 - - - 1680 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 27. Table: "Southwestern Deserts and Mesa Lands: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber); Distinct, different group from "Tewa Pueblos "
Tlingit Alaska 14,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 2 - Americas. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 419-420. "Tlingit: Location: United States (Alaska); Population: 14,000; Religion: Christianity; native Tlingit "; "Like the other native peoples of the Northwest Coast, many Tlingit belong to the Russian Orthodox Church, to which their forebears were converted by the Russian missionaries who followed the traders that arrived in the area in the 18th century. " [NOTE: 14,000 is a measure of tribal/ethnic affiliation, not a measure of how many Tlingit practice traditional religion.]
Tlingit North America 10,000 - - - 1750 Legay, Gilbert. Atlas of Indians of North America. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's (1995); pg. 80. "Tlingit... They inhabited the islands of the Alexander Archipelago at the farthest reaches of Alaska... The population has been stable, with 10,000 in 1750 and about the same in 1985. "
Tlingit North America 10,000 - - - 1985 Legay, Gilbert. Atlas of Indians of North America. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's (1995); pg. 80. "Tlingit... The population has been stable, with 10,000 in 1750 and about the same in 1985. "
Tlingit USA 13,925 - - - 1990 Utter, Jack. American Indians: Answers to Today's Questions. Lake Ann, MI: National Woodlands Publishing Co. (1993); pg. 38. Table: "Largest American Indian Tribes (as identified in the 1990 Census, through self-reporting) "
Tlingit USA 13,925 - - - 1990 *LINK* web site: "American West "; web page: "Indian Tribes - Population Rankings " (viewed 13 Feb. 1999) Table: "Native American Tribes: Population Rankings of the 30 largest tribes in the U.S. according to the 1990 census report (U.S. Department of Commerce) "; NOTE: These are tribal affiliation figures, not religious preference figures.
Tlingit world 10,000 - 50
units
- 1750 Pinney, Roy. Vanishing Tribes. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1968); pg. 152. "Tlingit... These Indians, whose population has been estimated as once having totaled ten thousand in fifty communities... "
Toba Indonesia 1,650,000 - - - 1990 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 101. "Batak: Location: Indonesia (North Sumatra); Population: 3 to 6 million "; "According to the 1990 census, speakers of the... [three] Batak languages... numbered over 3.1 million... Assuming the percentages given in the 1930 colonial census are still accurate, one can break the total down as follows: 1.65 million Toba, living around Lake Toba, on Samosir Island, & in the highlands to the south; 500,000 Karo to the northwest of the lake; 200,000 Simalungun, east of the lake; 100,000 Dairi, west of the lake; & 650,000 Angkola a&nd Mandailing between the Toba & the Minangkabau. " [NOTE: These are tribal/cultural (NOT religious) stats.]
Toda traditional religion India 842 - - - 1988 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 768-769. "Todas: Location: India (primarily Tamil Nadu state); Population: 1,042 (1988); Language: Toda; Religion: Centered on the sanctity of the buffalo "; "Christian missionary efforts among the Todas at the turn of the century have resulted in the emergence of a very small community of Toda Christians. It numbers perhaps 200 persons who follow the Anglican rites of the Church of South India. "


Toda traditional religion, continued

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