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43,941 adherent statistic citations: membership and geography data for 4,300+ religions, churches, tribes, etc.

Index

back to Taoism, North America

Taoism, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Taoism Oceania - 0.00% - - 1981 Popenoe, David. Sociology (5th Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. (1983). [Source: 1981 Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 433. Table: Membership in the Major Religions of the World "; Oceania: "Includes Australia, New Zealand, and South Pacific Islands "
Taoism Singapore 358,450 13.40% - - 1989 *LINK* Library of Congress Country Studies 2,674,362 [total pop.] (1994). Daoist, 13.4 percent. Rapid growth of Christianity and decline of Chinese folk religion in 1980s.
Taoism Singapore - 13.00% - - 1992 Goring, Rosemary (ed). Larousse Dictionary of Beliefs & Religions (Larousse: 1994); pg. 581-584. Table: "Population Distribution of Major Beliefs "; "Figures have been compiled from the most accurate recent available information and are in most cases correct to the nearest 1% "
Taoism South America 10,000 - - - 1981 Popenoe, David. Sociology (5th Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. (1983). [Source: 1981 Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 433. Table: Membership in the Major Religions of the World "
Taoism South America 10,000 0.00% - - 1982 Robertson, Ian. Sociology (2nd ed.); New York, NY: Worth Publishers (1981 2nd edition; updated since 1977 1st ed.). [Orig. source: Encyclopaedia Britannica Book of the Year, 1982]; pg. 405. Table: "Estimated membership of the principal religions of the world "
Taoism Taiwan 3,000,000 13.40% - - 1996 *LINK* web page: "Religions in Taiwan " (Written by Miss C.Y.Li, 1996, TSA); (viewed 4 July 1999). "Taoism, which has close links with folk religion, entered Taiwan in the mid-17th century and has up to 3,000,000 followers... It is common to see that Taiwan folk deity Goddess of the Sea (Matsu) and the Buddhist Goddess of Mercy (Kuanyin) are worshipped in the same temple or even home. People often goto the temples to present petitions and solicit divine assistance on some important occasions. The charms, amulets, statuettes, and religious slogans are very popular. "
Taoism USA 23,000 - - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993); pg. 15-17. Table 1-2: Self-Described Adherence of U.S. Adult Population 1990. Phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by Graduate School of City U. of New York.
Taoism West, The - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 192. "As a spiritual practice, Taoism has made fewer inroads in the West than its sister traditions of Buddhism and Hinduism. Despite the popularity of its great classics the I Ching and the Tao Te Ching, the specific practices of Taoism have not beem promulgated in America with much success. "
Taoism world - - - - 1957 Welles, Sam. The World's Great Religions, New York: Time Incorporated (1957); pg. 7. "As for what has become of Taoism, with its hordes ofnearly illiterate, rapacious priests, one can hardly improve on the summary of Edmund Davison Soper: 'Taoism today... is a mass of puerile superstitions. It is the worst side of Chinese religion... Theoretically, the business of the ignorant priests is to help the people live in accord with Tao, i.e., the Way, but practically it is magic run mad. Soothsaying in every imaginable form... is carried on by a priesthood which has become skillful in working on the superstitious fears of the people. "
Taoism world 30,000,000 - - - 1975 Wallechinsky, David & Irving Wallace; The People's Almanac; Garden City, NY: Doubleday (1975); pg. 1262. List of "Major World Religions ": "Because the communists officially banned Taoism when they came to power in China in 1949, it is difficult to estimate how many followers the religion has today. Some say 30 mil., others say 55 mil. "
Taoism world 55,000,000 - - - 1975 Wallechinsky, David & Irving Wallace; The People's Almanac; Garden City, NY: Doubleday (1975); pg. 1262. List of "Major World Religions ": "Because the communists officially banned Taoism when they came to power in China in 1949, it is difficult to estimate how many followers the religion has today. Some say 30 mil., others say 55 mil. "
Taoism world - - - 7
countries
1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 745. "Taoism today. Little is known about the fate of the Taoist tradition in the People's Republic of China... government announced in 1958 that 30,000 Taoist priests were still active. Elsewhere Taoist traditions are alive wherever traditional Chinese culture survives (e.g., Taiwan, Singapore, Indonesia, Thailand, Hong Kong, Hawaii). The strongest Taoist tradition is found in Taiwan, where priests receive ordination from the sixty-fourth Celestial Master, Chang Yuan-hsien, allegedly a descendant of Chang Tao-ling... Taoist priests in Taiwan perform a vast array of ceremonies... "
Taoism world 31,286,000 - - - 1981 Popenoe, David. Sociology (5th Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. (1983). [Source: 1981 Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 433. Table: Membership in the Major Religions of the World "
Taoism world 30,286,000 0.67% - - 1982 Robertson, Ian. Sociology (2nd ed.); New York, NY: Worth Publishers (1981 2nd edition; updated since 1977 1st ed.). [Orig. source: Encyclopaedia Britannica Book of the Year, 1982]; pg. 405. Table: "Estimated membership of the principal religions of the world "
Taoism world 31,286,000 0.68% - - 1982 *LINK* Web site: "Urantia Book Fellowship Archives "; web page: "An Introduction to Taoism " [subtitle: "The Religion of the Divine Way "] (viewed 11 April 1999). Written by Meredith Sprunger. "Today (1982) Taoism claims 31,286,000 followers. " [Approx. 1982 world pop.: 4.6 billion.]
Taoism world 31,000,000 - - - 1983 Berger, Gilda. Religion: A Reference First Book. New York: Franklin Watts (1983); pg. 86. "Taoism as an organized religion dates from the first century A.D. In recent times, it has declined somewhat in popularity. There are about 31 million Taoists today, almost all among the peasants of China. "
Taoism world - - - - 1983 Oxtoby, Willard G. The Meaning of Other Faiths. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press (1983); pg. 39. "In America, the usual candidates for expansion of the list [of world religions] beyond five are China's great traditions other than Buddhism--the Confucian and the Taoist. Both are historically and philosophically significant, though their active practice as living religions since the victory of Mao in 1949 has been visible chiefly among Chinese outside the People's Republic of China. "
Taoism world - - - - 1993 Faux, Marian (ed.). The New York Public Library Sudent's Desk Reference. New York: Prentice Hall (1993); pg. 272. "Some groups within Taoism have priests and maintain temples and monasteries. Although Taoism continues to flourish in Taiwan, it has been actively discouraged by the People's Republic of China, and no one knows how many Taoists practice their religion today. "
Taoism world - - - - 1994 Yenne, Bill. 100 Men Who Shaped World History. San Francisco, CA: Bluewood Books (1994); pg. 12. "Born in Keuh-jin in China, Lao Tsu served as the archivist to the emperors of the Chou Dynasty, and it was during this time that he wrote the Tao Te Ching, on of the oldest and most influential philosophical works to originate in the Far East. It forms the basis of Taoism, one of the word's great religions. "
Taoism world 50,000,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "All Faiths Press "; web page: "Taoism " (viewed 27 Feb. 1999) "Estimated at 50 million, mostly in China and other parts of Asia. "
Taoism world 187,107,008 - - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "Mike Croghan's Religion Page "; web page: "Taoism " (viewed 27 Feb. 1999; viewed & URL updated 1 July 1999) Table: "Table of Faiths "
Taoism world 20,000,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "Toronto Consultants on Religious Tolerance "; web page: "Taoism " (viewed 2 March 1999) It, along with Buddhism and Confucianism, became the three great religions of China. Taoism currently has about 20 million followers, and is primarily centered in Taiwan.
Taoism - clergy China 5,000,000 - - - 1950 *LINK* web site of "Taoist Restoration Society "; web page: "Field Notes " (viewed 19 Feb. 1999) Subhead: "China ": "China currently has about 200,000 Buddhist clergy and only about 25,000 Taoist clergy. As a point of reference, in 1950 China had approximately 5,000,000 Taoist clergy. "
Taoism - clergy China 50,000 - - - 1960 *LINK* web site of "Taoist Restoration Society "; web page: "Introduction " (viewed 19 Feb. 1999) "The collapse of the Ch'ing Dynasty in 1911 brought an end to Imperial support for Taoism... When Mao Tze-tung's Communists claimed victory in China's civil war in 1949, they quickly banned most forms of religious expression. The new government put monks to manual labor, confiscated temples, and plundered treasures. Several million monks were reduced to fewer than 50,000 during Communism's first decade. "
Taoism - clergy China 20,000 0.00% - - 1972 Kinmond, William. The First Book of Communist China. New York: Franklin Watts (1972, revised edition); pg. 4, 74. Pg. 4: "No one really knows how many Chinese there are because distances are so great... roughly 750,000,000... "; Pg. 74: "There are approx. 100 million Chinese Buddhists, 10 million Moslems, 3 million Catholics, 700,000 Protestants, and 20,000 Taoist priests and nuns. "
Taoism - clergy China 30,000 - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 745. "Taoism today. Little is known about the fate of the Taoist tradition in the People's Republic of China. The White Cloud Monastery in Peking housed Taoist monks until the mid-1960s, and the government announced in 1958 that 30,000 Taoist priests were still active. "
Taoism - clergy China 25,000 - - - 1999 *LINK* web site of "Taoist Restoration Society "; web page: "Field Notes " (viewed 19 Feb. 1999) Subhead: "China ": "China currently has about 200,000 Buddhist clergy and only about 25,000 Taoist clergy. As a point of reference, in 1950 China had approximately 5,000,000 Taoist clergy. "
Taranapanthis India - - - - 1999 *LINK* web site: Jainworld; web page: "History of various sects " (viewed 16 Jan. 1999) "The Taranapanthis are few in number and they are mostly confined to Bundelkhand, Malwa area of Madhya Pradesh and Khandesh area of Maharashtra. "
Tasaday Philippines - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 709. "While their numbers are small, the religions of such groups as... the recently 'discovered' Tasaday of Mindanao in the Philippines... reflect, at least in part, an adaptation to a hunting-and-gathering mode of existence. "
Tasmanian Aborigines Australia: Tasmania 4,000 - - - 1787 Luling, Virginia. Aborigines. Morristown, N.J.: Macdonald Educational Ltd. (1979); pg. 37. "Many Aboriginal groups died out altogether from bullets, disease and ill-treatment. The best known of those who died were the Tasmanians. When the white people arrived, there were probably about 4,000. By 1847 there were only 47 left. "
Tasmanian Aborigines Australia: Tasmania 47 - - - 1847 Luling, Virginia. Aborigines. Morristown, N.J.: Macdonald Educational Ltd. (1979); pg. 37. "Many Aboriginal groups died out altogether from bullets, disease and ill-treatment. The best known of those who died were the Tasmanians. When the white people arrived, there were probably about 4,000. By 1847 there were only 47 left. "
Tasmanian Aborigines Australia: Tasmania 1 - - - 1876 Luling, Virginia. Aborigines. Morristown, N.J.: Macdonald Educational Ltd. (1979); pg. 37. "The surviving Tasmanians were rounded up from their territory and put in a special settlement. They were homesick there, and more died. The last man died in 1865. The last full-blooded Tasmanian of all was Truganini, shown here in her old age. She died in 1876, begging that her body would not be given to scientists for examination, as others had been. 'Don't let them cut me up, bury me behind the mountains.' "
Tasmanian Aborigines Australia: Tasmania 0 - - - 1877 Luling, Virginia. Aborigines. Morristown, N.J.: Macdonald Educational Ltd. (1979); pg. 37. "The last full-blooded Tasmanian of all was Truganini, shown here in her old age. She died in 1876... "
Tasmanian Aborigines world 4,000 - - 1
country
1787 Luling, Virginia. Aborigines. Morristown, N.J.: Macdonald Educational Ltd. (1979); pg. 37. "The best known of those who died were the Tasmanians. When the white people arrived, there were probably about 4,000. "
Tasmanian Aborigines world 47 - - 1
country
1847 Luling, Virginia. Aborigines. Morristown, N.J.: Macdonald Educational Ltd. (1979); pg. 37. "The best known of those who died were the Tasmanians. When the white people arrived, there were probably about 4,000. By 1847 there were only 47 left. "
Tasmanian Aborigines world 1 - - 1
country
1876 Luling, Virginia. Aborigines. Morristown, N.J.: Macdonald Educational Ltd. (1979); pg. 37. "The last full-blooded Tasmanian of all was Truganini, shown here in her old age. She died in 1876... "
Tasmanian Aborigines world 0 - - 1
country
1877 Luling, Virginia. Aborigines. Morristown, N.J.: Macdonald Educational Ltd. (1979); pg. 37. "The last full-blooded Tasmanian of all was Truganini, shown here in her old age. She died in 1876... "
Tatar Kyrgyzstan 91,340 2.00% - - 1989 Shoemaker, M. Wesley. Russia, Eurasian States, and Eastern Europe 1997 (The World Today Series). Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Stryker-Post Publications (1997); pg. 164-165. "Population: 4,567,000 (1992 est.)... Tatars (2%)... "
Tatar Lithuania - - 48
units
- 1799 Kagda, Sakina. Lithuania (series: Cultures of the World). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1997); pg. 73. "Islam came to Lithuania in the 14th century from Crimea and Kazan, a town on the Volga River, through the Tatars. For the last six centuries, the Tatars of Lithuania have maintained their ethnic identity as well as their religion. They live primarily within compact communities, where the mosque is the central focus of their lives. There were altogether 48 mosques in the Grand ducy of Lithuania from 1397 to the end of the 18th century. "
Tatar Lithuania 6,000 - - - 1997 Kagda, Sakina. Lithuania (series: Cultures of the World). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1997); pg. 73. "Now about 6,000 Tatar Muslims live in Lithuania. "
Tatar Russia: Chuvash 37,800 2.70% - - 1999 *LINK* Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site; web page: "Chuvash " (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). "The population of Chuvash Republic is 1.4 million, of which Chuvash make up 68%. Other groups are Russians (26.7%), Tatars (2.7%) and Mordovians (1.4%). "
Tatar Russia: Crimea 150,000 6.00% - - 1999 *LINK* Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site; web page: "Crimean Tatars " (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). "The total population of Crimea is approximately 2.5 million of which 6% are Crimean Tatars, 68% are Russian, 23% Ukrain and 3% Belorussian, Armenian, Greek, German and Karaim. 90% of this population settled in Crimes after the entire Crimean Tatar population had been deported by Stalin in 1944. "
Tatar Russia: Komi 25,017 2.00% - - 1999 *LINK* Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site; web page: "Komi " (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). "Approximately 1,250,8470 [sic: should be approx. 1.25 million] people live in the Republic of Komi... Other groups include Ukrainians (8%), Belarussians (2%) and Tatars (2%). "
Tatar Russia: Mari 45,000 6.00% - - 1999 *LINK* Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site; web page: "Mari " (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). "The population of Mari is approximately 750,000... In the Mari Republic, Russians are the second largest population group, representing 48% of the total, Tatars 6% and Chuvash 1%. "
Tatar Russia: Udmurt 115,080 7.00% - - 1999 *LINK* Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site; web page: "Udmurt " (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). "The population of Udmurtia is approximately 1,644,000 people... The majority of the population in Udmurt is Russian (59%), followed by Udmurts (31%) and Tatars (7%). "
Tatar Tatarstan 1,369,000 37.00% - - 1999 *LINK* Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site; web page: "Tatarstan " (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). "The Republic of Tatarstan is situated in the middle of the Volga-Basin at the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers. In the north, it borders Udmurtia, in the west - Mari and Chuvashia, in the east Bashkkortostan, and in the south - Samara Region. Area: 68,000 km2... The population of Tatarstan is 3.7 million, of which 48% are Tatars and 43% Russians. Only 23% of Tatars live in Tatarstan. The Tatars descends from nomadic tribes that migrated westward from southern Siberia between the 10th and the 13th centuries. The term, Tatar, refers to a people its roots from three main ethnic groups of Turkic origin. "
Tatar Uzbekistan 894,642 4.20% - - 1997 Shoemaker, M. Wesley. Russia, Eurasian States, and Eastern Europe 1997 (The World Today Series). Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Stryker-Post Publications (1997); pg. 176. "Population: 21,301,000... Tatars (4.2%), Kazakhs (4%)... "
Tatar world 5,952,174 - - - 1999 *LINK* Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site; web page: "Tatarstan " (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). "The population of Tatarstan is 3.7 million, of which 48% are Tatars and 43% Russians. Only 23% of Tatars live in Tatarstan. "
Tatog Tanzania - - - 1
country
1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures
Taurepan Venezuela 1,000 - - - 1898 Furst, Peter T. "'I Am Black Jaguar!': Magical Spells and Shamanism of the Pemon of Southern Venezuela " in South and Meso-American Native Spirituality, ed. by Gary H. Gossen. New York: Crossroad Publishing Co. (1997); pg. 396. "In the decades prior to Koch-Gruenberg's visit [1898], the Taurepan... had been reduced... from a former estimated high of three thousand to as few as one thousand. "
Taurepan Venezuela 1,800 - - - 1983 Furst, Peter T. "'I Am Black Jaguar!': Magical Spells and Shamanism of the Pemon of Southern Venezuela " in South and Meso-American Native Spirituality, ed. by Gary H. Gossen. New York: Crossroad Publishing Co. (1997); pg. 396-397. "...as the Pemon of Venezuela as a whole underwent a shart rise in population over the past 40 years, from a low of around sixteen hundred in the 1930s to about four thousand in 1970, the Taurepan as well recovered... increasing to around 1,800 persons (Thomas 1983)... Conversions... to new religions... have certainly not succeeded in obliterating all vestiges of Pemon shamanism: indeed, for the most part they represent a synthesis between the old and the new. "
Tawakoni North America - Southern Great Plains 600 - - - 1778 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 333. Table: "Southern Great Plains: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Tawakoni world 600 - - - 1778 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 333. Table: "Southern Great Plains: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Tawara Zimbabwe - - - 1
country
1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures
Tawehash North America - Southern Great Plains 1,100 - - - 1778 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 333. Table: "Southern Great Plains: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Tawehash world 1,100 - - - 1778 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 333. Table: "Southern Great Plains: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Tayyibi Ismailis Middle East - - - - 1992 Ovendale, Ritchie. The Longman Companion to The Middle East since 1914. London & New York: Longman (1992); pg. 215. "'Assassins': An Ismaili movement spread in the 11th century in the mountains of northern Iran around the fortress of Alamut by Husan-I Sabbah. He intimidated his enemies with political assassinations, often carried out by his followers... Disputed successions in the 12th century meant that the Assassins largely disappeared, but today there are still supporters of rival claimants: the Nizaris who support the claims of Nizar; and the Tayyibis who support Tayyib. "
Tayyibi Ismailis Middle East - - - - 1992 Ovendale, Ritchie. The Longman Companion to The Middle East since 1914. London & New York: Longman (1992); pg. 223. "Tayyibi Ismailis (the Bohras): Arising out of the disputed Assassins succession in the 12th century, the believe in the concealment of the two year-old al-Tayyib, and that there has been no revealed Imam since 1130. They give authority to the chief missionary, the Dai a-Dua. After persecution in Yemen his seat was moved to Bombay. Following a disputed succession the group divided between the Daudi Bohras who live mainly in India, and the Sulaymani Bohras who live in Najran in Saudi Arabia. "
Tayyibi Ismailis world - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 366. "...the Tayyibiyya survived in their traditional stronghold in Yemen, where from time to time they were persecuted by Shi'ites belonging to the Zaydiyya sect. In India they remained mostly undisturbed, although there too a split occurred in the succession of leaders, which led to another permanent schism, the Da'udi and Salaymani factions. "
Tayyibi Ismailis Yemen - - - - 1129 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 366. "A new subdivision developed among the Must'alians after the assassination of al-Amir in 1129. Those in Yemen supported the claims made for his infant son al-Tayyib, and came to be known as Tayyibiyya. In Egypt, al-Amir's cousin was proclaimed imam and caliph with the title al-Hafiz... "
Tayyibi Ismailis - Da'udi India - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 366. "...the Tayyibiyya... In India they remained mostly undisturbed, although there too a split occurred in the succession of leaders, which led to another permanent schism, the Da'udi and Salaymani factions. "
Tayyibi Ismailis - Da'udi world - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 679. Illustration: Early Shiite branches include: Zaydiyya, Isma'iliyya (Batiniyya), Imamiyya (Twelvers). From Isma'iliyya arose Sab'iyya (Seveners), Nizariyya and Must'aliyya (Bohoras). From Must'aliyya arose Tayibiyya and Hafiziyya. From Tayibiyya arose Da'udi and Sulaymani. "
Tayyibi Ismailis - Salaymani India - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 366. "...the Tayyibiyya... In India they remained mostly undisturbed, although there too a split occurred in the succession of leaders, which led to another permanent schism, the Da'udi and Salaymani factions. "
Tayyibi Ismailis - Salaymani world - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 679. Illustration: Early Shiite branches include: Zaydiyya, Isma'iliyya (Batiniyya), Imamiyya (Twelvers). From Isma'iliyya arose Sab'iyya (Seveners), Nizariyya and Must'aliyya (Bohoras). From Must'aliyya arose Tayibiyya and Hafiziyya. From Tayibiyya arose Da'udi and Sulaymani. "
technology USA - - - - 1988 Wuthnow, Robert. The Restructuring of American Religion: Society and Faith Since World War II, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press (1988); pg. 293-294. "Scientists N. Bruce Hannay and Robert McGinn observe that 'modern technology has increasingly become an important source of personal identity and self-esteem.' In their opinion, 'religion, race, class, sex, and nationality [have] become progressively less able to serve that function in achievement-oriented, post-traditional society.' Consequently, 'the items of technology an individual possesses and in which he or she is reflected have, along with work, become increasingly important sources of identity.' More critically, another writer concludes, 'It is not facetious to call our system of technoligically stimulated production and consumption a religion. An economic process defines for millions of Americas what it is to be truly human, what the meaning of life is, how to avoid guilt.' "


technology, continued

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