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43,941 adherent statistic citations: membership and geography data for 4,300+ religions, churches, tribes, etc.

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Spiritism, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Spiritism Suriname - 3.00% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "
Spiritism United Kingdom 50,000 - - - 1972 Godwin, John. Occult America; Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc. (1972); pg. 189. "Today the National Spiritualist Association embraces 400 separate units... Total membership hovers at slightly above 150,000 (as against 50,000 in Great Britain, which has less than a quarter of our population). "
Spiritism United Kingdom: Britain 80,000 - - - 1999 Chryssides, George. Exploring New Religions. London, U.K.: Cassells (1999). [Source: Data from the religious organization: Steven Upton, PR officer of the Spiritualists' National Union.] "I have selected the best available [statistics], providing a range where adjudication is impossible... Spiritualism: Britain: 20,000 full members (1999); 60,000 regular members (1999); World: 150,000 (1972) "
Spiritism USA 1,500,000 6.00% - - 1855 Godwin, John. Occult America; Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc. (1972); pg. 188. "In the U.S. the [spiritualist] movement achieved its zenith around the 1850s. The number of Spiritualists were then estimated at 1.5 million (from a total pop. of 25,000,000), offering employment for 20,000 professional mediums... "
Spiritism USA - 75.00% - - 1855 *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "SPIRITUALISM: a modern FORM of SPIRITISM dating from 1848, when two teen-age sisters, Margaretta and Katie Fox, of Hydesville, New York... Enthusiasm for spiritualism swept the North America, spreading to Europe and Latin America. The teachings of SWEDENBORG and bitter rivalry between competing CHRISTIAN DENOMINATIONS and a growing awareness of the problems of BIBLICAL CRITICISM, as presented by FREE THINKERS like BRADLAUGH and PAINE, may be seen as a contributing factor to the growth of the spiritualist movement. After rapid growth in the 1850s, when by some estimates something like 75% of Americans visited spiritualists, enthusiasm declined. "
Spiritism USA 200,000 - - - 1946 Wuthnow, Robert. The Restructuring of American Religion: Society and Faith Since World War II, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press (1988); pg. 20. [In USA at close of World War II (1946): "...another 300,000 were Jehovah's Witnesses; 225,000 were Christian Scientists; nearly 200,000 were Spiritualists; and 70,000 were Buddhists. "
Spiritism USA 160,000 - - - 1955 Wuthnow, Robert. The Restructuring of American Religion: Society and Faith Since World War II, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press (1988); pg. 144. "Throughout the 1950s... Other fringe groups with sizable memberships included the Christ Unity Science Church with almost 700,000 members, the Seventh-Day Adventist Church with approximately 250,000 members, and the Spiritualists with more than 160,000 members. "
Spiritism USA 150,000 - - - 1982 Petersen, William J. Those Curious New Cults in the 80s. New Canaan, Connecticut: Keats Publishing (1982); pg. 56. "Actually, only 150,000 Americans officially list Spiritualism as their religion. Dr. Charles Braden says 500,000 to 700,000 might be a more accurate total. But in addition, Gallup polls have revealed that millions of Americans believe that man can communicate with the dead. "
Spiritism USA 700,000 - - - 1982 Petersen, William J. Those Curious New Cults in the 80s. New Canaan, Connecticut: Keats Publishing (1982); pg. 56. "Actually, only 150,000 Americans officially list Spiritualism as their religion. Dr. Charles Braden says 500,000 to 700,000 might be a more accurate total. But in addition, Gallup polls have revealed that millions of Americans believe that man can communicate with the dead. "
Spiritism USA 180,000 - - - 1990 Mead, Frank S. (revised by Samuel S. Hill), Handbook of Denominations in the United States (9th Ed.), Abingdon Press: Nashville, Tenn. (1990); pg. 225-226. "Most Spiritualist churchs have regular services with prayer, music, selections from the Spiritualist Manual... Attendance at church services; one authority estimates the average congregation at 20 to 25. But membership cannot be estimated on the basis of church attendance; for every enrolled member, at least 15 are not enrolled but are interested in the movement and in attending services. More than 180,000 have been reported as members, but this is not comprehensive of all those who use the services of the church. Administration and government differ slightly in various groups... "
Spiritism USA 180,000 - - - 1993 Mead, Frank S. (revised by Samuel S. Hill), Handbook of Denominations in the United States (10th Ed.), Abingdon Press: Nashville, Tenn. (1995). "A membership total of 180,000 has been reported but this is not comprehensive or inclusive of all who use the services of the church. "
Spiritism USA 270,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* web site: Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance (viewed circa Nov. 1998); "last updated October 1998 " Table: "'Other Than Christian' Organizations "; "Some of the following data were estimated from North American figures: "
Spiritism Venezuela - 2.50% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "
Spiritism world - - - - 1855 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 713. "Spiritualism, Spiritism. A mode of thinking based on the belief that the spirits of the dead, or other spirit beings, communicate with the living. Such communication normally takes place through a medium... Spiritualists with some justice claim that theirs is the 'oldest religion in the world,' for it has roots in Animism and Shamanism. The modern movement dates from 1848, when... Margaretta and Katie Fox, of Hydesville, New York... A Spiritualist enthusiasm sparked by these reevaluations swept the country and spread to Europe and Latin America. The ground has been well prepared for it by the teachings of Swedenborgianism, popularized in America by John Chapman ('Johnny Appleseed') and A. J. Davis... After rapid growth in the 1850s Spiritualism declined, but small Spiritualist churches have continued to exist... "
Spiritism world 11,000,000 - - - 1870 Johnson, Paul. A History of the American People; New York: Haprer Collins (1997); pg. 299. "By 1870 Spiritualism had 11 million followers, not only in America but throughout Europe, and it attracted outstanding intellects, like Victor Hugo and William James. "
Spiritism world 150,000 - - - 1972 Chryssides, George. Exploring New Religions. London, U.K.: Cassells (1999). "I have selected the best available [statistics], providing a range where adjudication is impossible... Spiritualism: Britain: 20,000 full members (1999); 60,000 regular members (1999); World: 150,000 (1972) "
Spiritism world - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 713. "After rapid growth in the 1850s Spiritualism declined, but small Spiritualist churches have continued to exist, and Spiritualist ideas have had an influence greater than the number of committed Spiritualists would suggest... The movement has attracted such prominent proponents as Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and Sir Oliver Lodge... Most churches are independent, centering around the charisma of particular mediums and ministers, but various associations exist. The National Spiritualist Alliance of the U.S.A. (founded in 1913) has headquarters in Lake Pleasant, Massachusetts, and the International General Assembly of Spiritualists (founded 1936) is based in Norfolk, Virginia. "
Spiritism world - - - - 1994 *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "Spiritualist ideas have had an influence far greater than the number of committed spiritualists would suggest making an important contribution to the growth of NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS. In places like Brazil, spiritualism has encouraged the growth of SYNCRETISM between ROMAN CATHOLIC, TRADITIONAL AFRICAN and Native American religious TRADITIONS. "
Spiritism world 10,190,000 0.18% - - 1995 The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1996 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 646. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1995 "
Spiritism world 10,292,500 0.18% - - 1996 The World Almanac & Book of Facts 1998 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1997 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 654. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1996 "
Spiritism world - - - - 1996 *LINK* web site: New Religious Movements (University of Virginia) (1998) [Orig. source: Melton, J Gordon. 1996 Encyclopedia of American Religions. Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research Co. Fifth Edition. (p 641)] "the 2 major Church of the New Jerusalem groups have only a few thousand members each. Modern spiritualism is manifest in many small organized groups... widely practiced under dif. names... large proportions of the U.S. pop. believe in contact with the dead, but do not necessarily participate in organized efforts to do so... Virtually every community of any size has individuals who offer various kinds of Spiritualist services. Probably no more than a small proportion of population engage in the activities of Spiritualists, and most of those are only occasional clients. Spiritualists have found an audience [thru] television channels., i.e. Psychic Friends Network... no way to know [how many] actively participate [but] certainly much greater than the number who participate in organized 'church' groups. "
Spiritism world 11,785,000 0.20% - - 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999). [Source: 1999 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 695. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1998 "
Spiritism world 7,000,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* web site: Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance (viewed circa Nov. 1998) [Original sources: J.W. Wright, Editor, The Universal Almanac, 1996, Andrews & McMeel, Kansas City. Greg H. Parsons, Executive Director, "U.S. Center for World Mission, " Pasadena, CA; quoted in Zondervan News Service, 1997-FEB-21.] Table: "Number of Adherents of World Religions "
Spiritism - mediums and shamans Brazil 500,000 - - - 1998 Newport, John P. The New Age Movement and the Biblical Worldview: Conflict and Dialogue, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan (1998); pg. 221-222. "There are said to be about half a million active mediums and shamans [of magic spiritism, incl. Umbanda & Macumba]... "
Spiritism - mediums and shamans USA 20,000 - - - 1855 Godwin, John. Occult America; Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc. (1972); pg. 188. "In the U.S. the [spiritualist] movement achieved its zenith around the 1850s. The number of Spiritualists were then estimated at 1.5 million (from a total pop. of 25,000,000), offering employment for 20,000 professional mediums... "
Spiritism - peripheral Brazil 50,000,000 50.00% - - 1998 Newport, John P. The New Age Movement and the Biblical Worldview: Conflict and Dialogue, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan (1998); pg. 221-222. "There are said to be about half a million active mediums and shamans [of magic spiritism, incl. Umbanda & Macumba], 15 million professed members, and according to some, a fringe following of up to 50 million, nearly half the population of [Brazil]. "
Spiritual Frontiers Fellowship world 5,000 - - - 1970 Melton, J. Gordon, Jerome Clark & Aidan A. Kelly. New Age Almanac; New York: Visible Ink Press (1991); pg. 354. "Founded in 1956 by a group of Christian ministers and lay persons interested in psychic phenomena... By 1970 the fellowship had approximately 5,000 members. "
Spiritual Frontiers Fellowship world 9,000 - - - 1974 Melton, J. Gordon, Jerome Clark & Aidan A. Kelly. New Age Almanac; New York: Visible Ink Press (1991); pg. 355. "The fellowship grew at a spectacular rate in the early 1970s. Between 1970 and 1974 the membership reached almost 9,000... "
Spokan North America 2,000 - - - 1780 Legay, Gilbert. Atlas of Indians of North America. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's (1995); pg. 71. "Spokan... They live on reservations in Montana and Washington. There were about 2,000 Spokan in 1780... "
Spokan Washington 2,100 - - - 1995 Legay, Gilbert. Atlas of Indians of North America. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's (1995); pg. 71. "Spokan... They live on reservations in Montana and Washington... 2,100 live in Washington State today on the Spokan Reservation. "
Squaxon North America - Pacific Coast 1,000 - - - 1780 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 430-431. Table: "The Pacific Coast: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber); Includes figures for Twana
Squaxon world 1,000 - - - 1780 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 430-431. Table: "The Pacific Coast: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber); Includes figures for Twana
Sri Chinmoy Australia 150 - 7
units
- 1998 *LINK* Ireland, Rowan. Web site: La Trobe University, Bundoora, Australia; web page: "New Religious Associations in Australia ", written January 1998. (Viewed 4 July 1999). "Since its inception in Australia in 1972, seven Sri Chinmoy Centres have been established with approximately 150 members. A newsletter Meditation and a magazine Kettledrum are produced in Australia. "
Sri Chinmoy Canada 1,000 - - - 1996 *LINK* web site: New Religious Movements (University of Virginia) (1998) [Orig. source: Melton, J Gordon. 1996 Encyclopedia of American Religions. Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research Co. Fifth Edition. (p 876) AND Eliade, Mircea. The Encyclopedia of Religion. 1987.] -
Sri Chinmoy Germany, West 300 - - - 1987 Clarke, Peter B. The New Evangelists: Recruitment, Method and Aims of New Religious Movements, London: Ethnographics (1987); pg. 10 to 14. "Another more detailed assessment for West Germany covering many more movements concludes that well over one million people are involved or 'influenced' by new religions, with a 'full-time' membership of 64,200. The estimated full time membership for 12 of these movements is: " [table]
Sri Chinmoy Switzerland 50 - - - 1987 Clarke, Peter B. The New Evangelists: Recruitment, Method and Aims of New Religious Movements, London: Ethnographics (1987); pg. 10 to 14. Table with following columns: Movement; Total Membership; Full-Time Members; P/T Members; Sympathizers.; For this study Clarke "approached researchers & observers in the field of new religions [& org./church reps.] to obtain their opinions & any hard... data "
Sri Chinmoy USA 1,500 - - - 1996 *LINK* web site: New Religious Movements (University of Virginia) (1998) [Orig. source: Melton, J Gordon. 1996 Encyclopedia of American Religions. Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research Co. Fifth Edition. (p 876) AND Eliade, Mircea. The Encyclopedia of Religion. 1987.] -
Sri Chinmoy world - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 319-320. "...American religious movements even thought their teachings... are traditionally Hindu. The following are some better-known examples of these missionaries and their movements... Others... Sri Chinmoy (b. 1931) has devoted himself to Western tours and writing books aimed at Western audiences since 1964; he teaches a combination of Yoga techniques. "
Sri Chinmoy world - - 113
units
- 1990 Fisher, Mary Pat & Robert Luyster. Living Religions, I.B. Tauris & Co.: New York (1990); pg. 330. "...Sri Chinmoy (founder of 113 Sri Chinmoy Centers on five continents)... "
Sri Chinmoy world 5,000 - - - 1996 *LINK* web site: New Religious Movements (University of Virginia) (1998) [Orig. source: Melton, J Gordon. 1996 Encyclopedia of American Religions. Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research Co. Fifth Edition. (p 876) AND Eliade, Mircea. The Encyclopedia of Religion. 1987.] -
Sri Chinmoy world 5,000 - 200
units
- 1998 *LINK* Ireland, Rowan. Web site: La Trobe University, Bundoora, Australia; web page: "New Religious Associations in Australia ", written January 1998. (Viewed 4 July 1999). "There are approximately 200 Sri Chinmoy Centres throughout the world with more than 5000 members. "
Sri Chinmoy world 7,000 - - 70
countries
2005 *LINK* Email from Dhruva Hein of New York City [northstar.eight@verizon.net], in response to our query. Received 30 April 2005. "I can provide you with some current information about Sri Chinmoy and the Sri Chinmoy Centres. There are currently about 7,000 students of Sri Chinmoy around the world. The group is active in 70 countries. Sri Chinmoy's website is at http://www.srichinmoy.org/. He has written some 1500 books, the texts of which are available at http://www.srichinmoylibrary.com Additionally, 10,000 of the 17,000 devotional songs Sri Chinmoy has composed are published at http://www.srichinmoysongs.com. "
Sri Lanka Baptist Sangamaya Sri Lanka 2,003 - 21
units
- 1998 *LINK* Baptist World Alliance web site; page: "BWA Statistics " (viewed 31 March 1999). "Figures are for BWA affiliated conventions/unions only (no independents included). "; Table with 3 columns: Country, "Churches ", & "Members "; "1997/1998 Totals "
Sri Vaisnava India - - - - 1100 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 715. "Sri Vaisnava. A South Indian theistic sect of worshippers of Vishnu and the goddess Sri or Laksmi (see Bhakti Hinduism); widely known for its leading teachger Ramanuja and as the first movement led by Brahmins to integrate fully a popular, largely non-Brahmanical devotional movement employing a vernacular langauge, i.e., the ecstatic bhakti of the Tamil hymns of the Alvars... Ramanuja (eleventh-twelfth centuries) provided the final essential element in the synthesis, a theistic system of Vedanta based strictly upon Vedic sources... "
Sri Vaisnava India - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 715. "Sri Vaisnava. A South Indian theistic sect... While all Sri Vaisnavas revere both their Vedic and their Tamil heritages, there has been a continuing tension between these two sides. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries this tension hardened into a sectarian division between the 'Southern (Tengali) and the 'Northern' (Vadagalai) schools, with the former emphasizing the Tamil heritage and making a larger place for non-Brahmin groups while the latter stresses the Sanskritic or Vedic and has in practice little involvement with non-Brahmins. "
St. George's Open-Air Church Georgia (country) - - 1
unit
- 1999 *LINK* Religion News Service. "Renegade Group Targets Minority Faiths in Former Soviet Union " in Salt Lake Tribune, 30 Oct. 1999 (v. online). "TBILISI, Georgia -- Lying in a hospital ward here with blurred vision and a bruised body, Fati Tabagari described in calm, level tones how she and her 13-year-old son were beaten Oct. 17 by a mob of renegade Orthodox Christians. Tabagari, a 40-year-old housewife, was among 20 Jehovah's Witnesses hospitalized following a 30-minute melee inside a theater rented for Sunday services by the Witnesses. The group claims about 15,000 members in this mountainous country... According to witnesses and television footage, about 200 Orthodox Christians arrived Sunday on foot and in two buses, blocked exits to the three-story building and attacked the 124 Witnesses inside with wooden clubs and foot-long iron crucifixes. [The attackers were members] of defrocked Father Basili Mkalashvili's St. George's Open-Air Church... In the past, local Baptists, Pentecostals and even fellow Georgian Orthodox have accused Mkalashvili's parishioners of organized physical attacks... "
St. Thomas Evangelical India: Kerala 10,000 - - - 1999 *LINK* Web site: "Syro-Malabar Catholic Mission "; web page: "Church History " (viewed 23 July 1999). "Note: The figures given above are approximate, worked out from various sources. The exact numbers are not readily available. " Table: "Christian Denominations in Kerala "; "Other Christians [other than Catholics]: Syrian Orthodox (Methran Kakshi) -1,100,000; Jacobite Syrian Orthodox (Bava Kakshi) - 1,000,000; Independent Jacobites (Thozhiyur) - 9,000; Marthomites - 500,000; St. Thomas Evangelical & Others - 10,000; Church of the East (Nestorians/Surais) - 100,000; Church of South India (CSI) and other Protestants - 700,000 "
Standard Church of America world - - - 4
countries
1991 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.) The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); Chapter: Holiness Family; section: 19th Century Holiness; pg. 215. "Standard Church of America... Brockville, ON, Canada [H.Q.]... Ralph C. Horner had been an evangelist in both the Methodist church in Canada and the Wesleyan Methodist Church... in the late 19th century, but left them to found his own organization, the Holiness Movement Church, in 1895... in 1918 the aging bishop was asked to retire. Not satisfied with the request of the church, he, with his supporters, left and founded the Standard Church of America... There are 4 conferences: Western, Kingston, New York, & Egyptian... There is missionary work in China and Egypt. Membership: Not reported. "
Star Wolf Medicine Lodge Australia - - - - 1998 *LINK* Ireland, Rowan. Web site: La Trobe University, Bundoora, Australia; web page: "New Religious Associations in Australia ", written January 1998. (Viewed 4 July 1999). "The Star Wolf Medicine Lodge was founded in Perth in 1995. It was created after the cessation of the activities of the 'Starseeds Supporting Earth's Ascension' group by its former member, Mark Small. "
Stauffer Mennonite Church Maryland - - 1
unit
- 1991 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 307. "There are three congregations (Lancaster County, Pennsylvania; Snyder County, Pennyslvania and St. Mary's County, Maryland)... "
Stauffer Mennonite Church Pennsylvania - - 2
units
- 1991 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 307. "Stauffer... Membership:... There are three congregations (Lancaster County, Pennsylvania; Snyder County, Pennyslvania and... Maryland)... "
Stauffer Mennonite Church Pennsylvania: Lancaster County - - 1
unit
- 1991 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 307. "There are three congregations (Lancaster County, Pennsylvania; Snyder County, Pennyslvania and... Maryland)... "
Stauffer Mennonite Church USA 750 - 3
units
1
country
1991 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 307. "Stauffer... Membership:... There are three congregations (Lancaster County, Pennsylvania; Snyder County, Pennyslvania and... Maryland)... "
Stauffer Mennonite Church world 40 - - 1
country
1935 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.) The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); Chapter: European Free-Church Family; section: German Mennonites; pg. 307. "Stauffer Mennonite Church... Ephrata, PA [H.Q.]... Jacob Stauffer, a minister in the Mennonite Church at Groffdale, Pennsylvania, was the leader of a group in a progressive-conservative split. The issue was the ban, which Stauffer and colleague Joseph Wenger of the Old Order (Wenger) Mennonites believed should be applied more strictly. About forty members withdrew from the Mennonite Church... "
Sthavira Buddhism world - - - - -150 B.C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 129. "The Hinayana enumerates the traditions of 18 schools that developed out of the original community... Two other schools that splintered from the Sthaviras are the Sarvastivada, out of which, around 150 B.C.E., came the Sautrantikas, and the Vibhajyavadins, who see themselves as orthodox Sthaviras. Out of this last school arose the Theravada, Mahishasakas, and Kashyapiyas; from the Mahishasakas came the Dharmaguptakas. "
Sthavira Hinayana world - - - - -300 B.C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 129. "The Hinayana enumerates the traditions of 18 schools that developed out of the original community; however, the texts make reference to many more. At the third Buddhist council the first schism took place, which split the original community into Sthavira (Paili, Thera) and Mahasanghika factions. Between 280 and 240 B.C.E., the Mahasanghika group divided into 6 schools... "
Sthavira Hinayana world - - - - -250 B.C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 151. "From the Sthaviras, the first sects appear to be the Pudgalavadin group (around 280 B.C.)... During Asoka's council (around 250 B.C.) the Sthaviras spawned the Sarvastivadins and the Vibhajyavadins... Other major groups spawned by the Sthavira tradition include the Sautrantikas and Dharmaguptakas. "
Sthavira Hinayana world - - - - -200 B.C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 150. "Buddhist Sectarianism... By around 200 B.C., a movement began... referred to itself as Mahayana... while branding the earlier Buddhist sects, which included primarily the Sthaviras, Mahasanghikas, Pudgalavadins, and Theravadins as Hinayana... "
Stieng Asia - Southeast 25,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 539-540. "The Stieng also number between 20,000 and 25,000 and live along the Cambodian-Vietnamese border. "
Stieng Cambodia 25,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 539-540. Chapter about Mon-Khmer Groups: "The Stieng of Cambodia number approximately 25,000, with about double that number in Vietnam. "; Pg. 540: The people of the hill tribes continue the traditional beliefs and practices of their ancestors... "
Stieng Vietnam 50,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 539-540. Chapter about Mon-Khmer Groups: "The Stieng of Cambodia number approximately 25,000, with about double that number in Vietnam. "; Pg. 540: The people of the hill tribes continue the traditional beliefs and practices of their ancestors... "
Stoicism Greece - - - - -300 B.C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 305. "...Roman religion... included various moral schools, largely influenced by Greek philosophy... Stoicism, which was founded at Athens c. 300 BC by Zeno, borrowed most of its moral philosophy from the Cynics. Through Plato's influence, it was introduced to Rome, where its most famous adherents included Seneca and Marcus Aurelius. Underlad with a generally fatalistic attitude, Stoicism placed great emphasis on logical thinking and a knowledge of physics, which amounted to a kind of pantheism that saw God (sometimes referred to as the Logos, or 'Word') as indistinguishable from the world of matter. The Stoics' goal was to 'lead a life according to nature' and, like Cynics, their highest good was virtue, which was in harmony with humanity's true nature... "
Stoicism Roman Empire - - - - -270 B.C.E. Walker, Williston. A History of the Christian Church (3rd ed., revised by Robert T. Handy; 1st ed. 1918). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons (1970); pg. 6-7. "Greek philosophy... Two great answers were given, on of which was wholly foreign to... Christianity... and the other only partially foreign, and therefore destined prfoundly to influence Christian theology. These were Epicureanism and Stoicism... The other great answer was that of Stoicism, the noblest type of ancient pagan ethical thought, the nearest in some respects to Christianity... Its leaders were Zenos (B.C.?-264?), Cleanthes (B.C. 301?-232?), and Chrysippus (B.C. 280?-207?). Though developed in Athens, it flourished best outside of Greece, and notably in Rome, where Seneca (B.C. 3?-A.D. 65), Epictetus (A.D. 60?-?), and the Emperor, Marcus Aurelius (A.D> 121-180), had great influence. It was powerfully represented in Tarsus during the early life of the Apostle Paul. Stoicism was primarily a great ethical system, yet not without claims to be considered a religion. "
Stoicism Roman Empire - - - - 300 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 305-306. "...Roman religion... included various moral schools, largely influenced by Greek philosophy... Cynicism... Stoicism... Epicureanism... All three schools were commonly adopted and practiced by the Romans until Christianity became predominant in the 3rd or 4th century and stamped them out as formal schools. "
Stoicism world - - - - -375 B.C.E. *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "STOICISM: a school of PHILOSOPHY founded in the fourth century B.C. by Zeno of Citium which taught a PANTHEISTIC MONISM that identified GOD with the principle of UNIVERSAL REASON and advised everyone to accept their place in the scheme of life by doing their duty which was to follow the most RATIONAL path possible. The STOIC virtues were knowledge, reason, courage, justice, and self-discipline attained through the study of philosophy which leads to a virtuous life. Stoics taught the EXISTENCE of NATURAL law which is known to all people and the common humanity of mankind. Today the best known stoic is Marcus Aurelius whose works have been popularized by such POSITIVE THINKERS as Dale Carnegie. "


Stoicism, continued

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