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43,941 adherent statistic citations: membership and geography data for 4,300+ religions, churches, tribes, etc.

Index

back to Skinheads, Virginia

Skinheads, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Skinheads Washington - - 2
units
- 1992 Thompson, S. E. Hate Groups. San Diego, CA: Lucent Books (1994). [Source: Klanwatch]; pg. 30. Map: "White Supremacist Groups in the U.S. in 1992 " [Racist] skinhead groups.
Skinheads Washington - - 3
units
- 2000 Swain, Carol M. The New White Nationalism in America; Its Challenge to Integration. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press (2002); pg. 78-79. Pg. 78-79: "Active Hate Groups in the United States in 2000 [map]... Source: Southern Poverty Law Center "
Skinheads Wisconsin - - 1
unit
- 2000 Swain, Carol M. The New White Nationalism in America; Its Challenge to Integration. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press (2002); pg. 78-79. Pg. 78-79: "Active Hate Groups in the United States in 2000 [map]... Source: Southern Poverty Law Center "
Skinheads world - - - - 1985 Thompson, S. E. Hate Groups. San Diego, CA: Lucent Books (1994); pg. 27. "By the 1980s, the skinheads had spread throughout Western Europe, Scandinvia, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Latin America... The skinheads are not a single organization as is the Ku Klux Klan. Skinheads have formed many groups. "
Skinheads world - - - - 1991 Landau, Elaine. The White Power Movement: America's Racist Hate Groups. Brookfield, CT: Milbrook Press (1993); pg. 41-42. "During the early 1990s it was estimated that there were approximately 3,000 racist skinheads in thirty-four states. Similar skinhead groups also exist in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Germany, South Africa, Scandinavia, and Latin America. Not all skinheads are racists. A number of these youths merely adopt the skinhead 'look' and enjoy listening to music such as thrash and hardcore rock. These young people maintain a skinhead look and life-style but do not crusade for racial purity. "
Skinheads Wyoming - - 1
unit
- 1992 Thompson, S. E. Hate Groups. San Diego, CA: Lucent Books (1994). [Source: Klanwatch]; pg. 30. Map: "White Supremacist Groups in the U.S. in 1992 " [Racist] skinhead groups.
Skoptsy world 1,000,000 - - 3
countries
1875 Godwin, John. Occult America; Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc. (1972); pg. 214. "If the Hernhuters exalted sex, the Skoptsi regarded it as a devilish aberration. In the second half of the nineteenth century they were a sect numbering close to a million members, spread over western Russia, Romania and parts of Poland. "
Slavic Muslim Croatia 55,977 1.20% - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Catholic 76.5%, Orthodox 11.1%, Slavic Muslim 1.2%, Protestant 0.4%, others and unknown 10.8%; Total population: 4,664,710.
Slavonic Orthodox world 92,523,984 - - - 1985 Ash, Russell. The Top 10 of Everything 1997, DK Publishing: New York (1996); pg. 84. Table: "Top 10 Christian Affiliations in the World " (listing of religious "affiliations ", or denominational families, with largest numbers of adherents, based on mid-1980s. Ranked #2. [ "Slavonic Orthodox " presumably means Russian Orthodox and other autonomous national Eastern Orthodox churches such as Serbian Orthodox, Ukrainian Orthodox, etc., but not including non-Slavonic such as Greek Orthodox.]
Slovak Evangelical Slovakia 330,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year; pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop.
small-group movement USA - 40.00% - - 1992 Gallagher, Winifred. Working on God. New York: Random House (1999). [Orig. source: Robert Wuthnow, Sharing the Journey: Support Groups and America's New Quest for Community (New York: The Free Press, 1994)]; pg. 78-79. "After conducting a national survey in 1992, Robert Wuthnow, a sociologist who is director of the Center for Study of American Religion at Princeton University, discovered what he calls a 'quiet revolution' of small groups. Tradition has it that Americans crave autonomy, but research shows that recent generations increasingly value social relationships. According to Wuthnow, an astounding 40 percent of Americans regularly meet in small groups to provide each other with information, insight, and support. "
small-group movement - adult religious classes USA 800,000 - - - 1992 Gallagher, Winifred. Working on God. New York: Random House (1999). [Orig. source: Robert Wuthnow, Sharing the Journey: Support Groups and America's New Quest for Community (New York: The Free Press, 1994)]; pg. 79-80. "Almost two thirds of participants in the huge small-group movement, or 24% of all Americans, meet under the aegis of a religious organization and share some spiritual concern. Along with 900,0000 Bible-study groups and 800,000 adult religious classes... "
small-group movement - Bible study USA - 20.00% - - 1984 Wuthnow, Robert. The Restructuring of American Religion: Society and Faith Since World War II, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press (1988). [Orig. source: a 1984 Gallup survey of the adult population in the U.S., made available to the author.]; pg. 120. "Home Bible study groups were the most common [special interest groups people had actually participated in]: about one person in five had participated. "
small-group movement - Bible study USA 900,000 - - - 1992 Gallagher, Winifred. Working on God. New York: Random House (1999). [Orig. source: Robert Wuthnow, Sharing the Journey: Support Groups and America's New Quest for Community (New York: The Free Press, 1994)]; pg. 79-80. "Almost two thirds of participants in the huge small-group movement, or 24% of all Americans, meet under the aegis of a religious organization and share some spiritual concern. Along with 900,0000 Bible-study groups and 800,000 adult religious classes... "
small-group movement - religious/spiritual USA - 24.00% - - 1992 Gallagher, Winifred. Working on God. New York: Random House (1999). [Orig. source: Robert Wuthnow, Sharing the Journey: Support Groups and America's New Quest for Community (New York: The Free Press, 1994)]; pg. 79-80. "Almost two thirds of participants in the huge small-group movement, or 24% of all Americans, meet under the aegis of a religious organization and share some spiritual concern. Along with 900,0000 Bible-study groups and 800,000 adult religious classes, there are 'house churches,' ex-Catholics who celebrate the Eucharist themselves, and the hevruta movement for home study of the Torah... "
small-group movement - religious/spiritual USA - 25.00% - - 1994 Gallagher, Winifred. Working on God. New York: Random House (1999). [Orig. source: Robert Wuthnow, Sharing the Journey: Support Groups and America's New Quest for Community (New York: The Free Press, 1994)]; pg. xix. "An impressive indication of this shift toward the practical, personal, and democratic is the robust growth of the small-group movement: A quarter of all Americans meet regularly with others to share spiritual concerns, seeking insights and support from peers rather than institutions and experts. "
small-group movement - secular interests USA 750,000 - - - 1992 Gallagher, Winifred. Working on God. New York: Random House (1999). [Orig. source: Robert Wuthnow, Sharing the Journey: Support Groups and America's New Quest for Community (New York: The Free Press, 1994)]; pg. 79. "Cliched accounts of 'encounter groups' and lachrymose victims in perpetual crisis belie the significance of this massive, grassroots movement. Some 750,000 of these regular gatherings concern a shared secular interest, such as books, politics, or hiking. "
small-group movement - self-help USA 500,000 - - - 1992 Gallagher, Winifred. Working on God. New York: Random House (1999). [Orig. source: Robert Wuthnow, Sharing the Journey: Support Groups and America's New Quest for Community (New York: The Free Press, 1994)]; pg. 79. "Cliched accounts of 'encounter groups' and lachrymose victims in perpetual crisis belie the significance of this massive, grassroots movement... Of the 500,000 self-help groups, the most ubiquitous is the mother of all: Alchoholics Anonymous. Others support breast-cancer survivors and single parents, crime victims and bereaved families, AIDS and Alzheimer's caretakers. "
Smith Venner world 3,500 - - 20
countries
1975 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.) The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); Chapter: European Free-Church Family; section: Other European Free Traditions; pg. 328-329. "Smith Venner... Winnipeg, MB, Canada... more popularly known as the 'friends' of Johann Oskar Smith (b. 1871), is a loosely-organized Norwegian group which emphasizes piety and living the Christian life as opposed to the emphasis place don doctrine by the Norwegian state chruch. Smith Venner spread as Norwegians migrated to other countries around th eworld. In the 1970s, some 3,500 were reported to have attended the annual meetings, representing some 20 nations. Membership in the U.S. is centered in the Northwest, with additional members spread across the western half of Canada... Membership: Not reported. "
Snohomish North America - Pacific Coast 1,200 - - - 1780 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 430-431. Table: "The Pacific Coast: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber); Includes figures for Snoqualmie
Snohomish world 1,200 - - - 1780 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 430-431. Table: "The Pacific Coast: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber); Includes figures for Snoqualmie
Sobaipuri North America - Southwestern Deserts and Mesa Lands 600 - - - 1680 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 27. Table: "Southwestern Deserts and Mesa Lands: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Sobaipuri world 600 - - - 1680 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 27. Table: "Southwestern Deserts and Mesa Lands: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Social Brethren Philippines - - 3
units
- 1990 Mead, Frank S. (revised by Samuel S. Hill), Handbook of Denominations in the United States (9th Ed.), Abingdon Press: Nashville, Tenn. (1990); pg. 225. "Recently two churches and a mission were organized in the Philippines. "
Social Brethren Philippines - - 3
units
- 1993 Mead, Frank S. (revised by Samuel S. Hill), Handbook of Denominations in the United States (10th Ed.), Abingdon Press: Nashville, Tenn. (1995). recently opened 2 churches and a mission in Philipines
Social Brethren USA 1,165 - 26
units
- 1983 Mead, Frank S. (revised by Samuel S. Hill), Handbook of Denominations in the United States (9th Ed.), Abingdon Press: Nashville, Tenn. (1990); pg. 225. "In 1983 it reported three associations, each meeting annually, a general assembly that meets biennially, 26 churches in Illinois, Michigan, and Indiana, and 1,165 members. "
Social Brethren USA 1,165 - 26
units
- 1993 Mead, Frank S. (revised by Samuel S. Hill), Handbook of Denominations in the United States (10th Ed.), Abingdon Press: Nashville, Tenn. (1995). -
Social Brethren world - - 29
units
2
countries
1990 Mead, Frank S. (revised by Samuel S. Hill), Handbook of Denominations in the United States (9th Ed.), Abingdon Press: Nashville, Tenn. (1990); pg. 225. "In 1983 it reported three associations, each meeting annually, a general assembly that meets biennially, 26 churches in Illinois, Michigan, and Indiana, and 1,165 members. Recently two churches and a mission were organized in the Philippines. "
Society for Humanistic Judaism world - - 26
units
- 1993 Wertheimer, Jack. A People Divided: Juadism in Contemporary America. New York: Basic Books (A Division of Harper Collins) (1993); pg. 79. "In 1963 a Reform rabbi, Sherwin Wine, formed a secular humanistic Jewish congregation in Farmington Hills, Michigan, to provide a setting for Jews who rejected God but sought a communal structure to meet with fellow Jews. Wine's congregation now numbers 500 families and has been augmented by 25 additional congregations affiliated with the Society for Humanistic Judaism. "
Society for Humanistic Judaism world 30,000 - - - 1993 Wertheimer, Jack. A People Divided: Juadism in Contemporary America. New York: Basic Books (A Division of Harper Collins) (1993). [Orig. source: Naomi Godfrey, "Taking the Theism out of Judaism, " Jewish Week, April 8, 1988, p. 28.]; pg. 79. "Wine's congregation now numbers 500 families and has been augmented by 25 additional congregations affiliated with the Society for Humanistic Judaism... Claiming to have an international membership of thirty thousand Jews, Humanistic Judaism seeks to reach out to Jews who are not interested in any religious observance but nonetheless identify with the Jewish people and its culture. "
Society of Evangelical Friends world 200 - - - 1807 Allen, Charles L. Meet the Methodists: An Introduction to the United Methodist Church. Nashville: Abingdon Press (1986); pg. 44. "In November 1803, the leaders of the classes met and formed the Society of Evangelical Friends, with Albright as the leader. They started annual conferences in 1807, when the group reported membership of over 200. "
Society of Independent Doukhobors Canada - - 24
units
1
country
1975 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.) The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); Chapter: European Free-Church Family; section: Other European Free Traditions; pg. 329. "Society of Independent Doukhobors... Membership: In the mid-1970s the society had 23 affiliated centers in British Columbia,Alberta, and Saskatchewan, and one center in Manitoba. "
Society of Independent Doukhobors Manitoba - - 1
unit
- 1975 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 329. "...mid-1970s... one center in Manitoba. "
Society of St. Pius V world - - 50
units
- 1988 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 91. "Society of St. Pius V... Oyster Bay Cove, NY [H.Q.]... Fr. Kelly founded a congregation of sisters in Round Top, New York, known as the Daughters of Mary, Mother of Our Savior. As of the beginning of 1988, the community had 22 [presumably monastic] members. The society also opertes two elementary schools and two high schools. The society operated under its founding name until the fall of 1987 when it adopted its present name. Membership: In 1988 the Society reported approximately 50 missions and churches under its care. "
Society of St. Pius X Canada - - 20
units
- 1988 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 91, 93. "Society of St. Pius X claims the largest number of adherents... Membership: In 1988... There were 20 congregations in Canada... "
Society of St. Pius X North America - - 140
units
- 1988 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 91, 93. "...Society of St. Pius X.. Membership: In 1988 there were approximately 120 churches, chapels, and missions... in the United States. There were 20 congregations in Canada... "
Society of St. Pius X USA 15,000 - 120
units
- 1988 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 91, 93. "Society of St. Pius X... Membership: In 1988 there were approximately 120 churches, chapels, and missions with 25 priests, 11 nuns, and 15,000 faithful affiliated with the society in the United States. "
Society of St. Pius X world 150,000 - - - 1988 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 91, 93. "One of several groups of traditionalist Roman Catholics, the Society of St. Pius X claims the largest number of adherents... Membership: In 1988 there were approximately 120 churches, chapels, and missions with 25 priests, 11 nuns, and 15,000 faithful affiliated with the society in the United States. There were 20 congregations in Canada and approximately 250 priests and 150,000 faithful worldwide. "
Society of St. Pius X world - - - - 1999 *LINK* Zuck, Jon. "Unofficial Home Page of The One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church " (last updated 21 Mar. 1999). "Notable Independent Churches having separated from this Church since 1550: Liberal Catholics... Society of St. Pius X "
Socinianism Europe - - - - 1658 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 697. "Socinianism (Christian). A sixteenth century form of the Radical Reformation, stemming from the Sienese rationalists Laelius and Faustus Socinus (Sizzini). Laelius (1525-62) forged a Unitarian creed which was developed by his nephew, Faustus (1539-1604), who, after studying and publishing in Basle settled in Poland. There he exerted a decisive influence on the already anti-Trinitarian Minor Reformed Church, which for a time bid for religious dominance in Poland. Through an academy, a press, and a communitarian settlement, Socianism spread. Public awareness of Socinian heresy brought reprisals--mob violence in Faustus' final years, suppression of academy and press and flight of ministers in 1638, and the death penalty for Socinians in 1658. "
Socinianism Europe - - - - 1700 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 697. "Socinianism (Christian)... Exile communities [outside Poland] were established in Translyvania, Germany, the Netherlands, and England. In England, Socinianism developed a significant local rootage and in the eighteenth century a Unitarian denomination developed. "
Socinianism Europe - - - - 1700 *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "SOCINIANISM: a RATIONALISTIC THEOLOGY which regards the BIBLE as REVELATION but argues that it contains nothing contrary to REASON and denies BELIEF in the SACRAMENTS of the CHURCH, the TRINITY, deity of CHRIST, ORIGINAL SIN, VICARIOUS ATONEMENT and RESURRECTION of the body. "
Soka Gakkai Australia 2,000 - 3
units
- 1998 *LINK* Ireland, Rowan. Web site: La Trobe University, Bundoora, Australia; web page: "New Religious Associations in Australia ", written January 1998. (Viewed 4 July 1999). "SGI commenced activities in Australia in 1964 and has now three centres and an estimated number of 2000 members. "
Soka Gakkai Denmark - - - - 1996 *LINK* Rothstein, Mikael. "Patterns of Diffusion and Religious Globalization: An Empirical Survey of New Religious Movements " in Temenos 32 (1996), 195-220. (Viewed online, Temenos web site, 30 Jan. 1999) "Corresponding figures, i.e. a dedicated membership of 30 to 150 in Denmark, are found in groups such as Brahma Kumaris, Elan Vital, Soka Gakkai and Sahaj Marg according to their own information. "
Soka Gakkai France 7,000 - - - 1987 Clarke, Peter B. The New Evangelists: Recruitment, Method and Aims of New Religious Movements, London: Ethnographics (1987); pg. 10 to 14. Table with following columns: Movement; Total Membership; Full-Time Members; P/T Members; Sympathizers.; For this study Clarke "approached researchers & observers in the field of new religions [& org./church reps.] to obtain their opinions & any hard... data "
Soka Gakkai Italy 14,000 - - - 1995 "LDS Prospects in Italy for the Twenty-first Century " in Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought (Spring 1996); pg. 153. -
Soka Gakkai Japan - - - - 1930 Barrett, D. Sects, 'Cults', and Alternative Religions. London, UK: Blandford (1997); pg. 156. "In 1930, two devotees of Nichiren Shoshu, Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871-1944) and Josei Toda (1900-58), founded a lay movement, Soka Kyoiku Gakkai, the Value-Creating Education Society. "
Soka Gakkai Japan - - - - 1947 *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "SOKA GAKKAI: a Japanese NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENT founded in 1930 by Tsunesaburo Makiguchi and Josei Toda as a lay association of BUDDHISTS. Active in politics the leaders were imprisoned during the Second World War for their pacifist stance. After 1947 the movement grew rapidly especially in Cities where its ADOPTION of BUDDHISM to the modern world appealed to many people. "
Soka Gakkai Japan 750,000 - - - 1958 Barrett, D. Sects, 'Cults', and Alternative Religions. London, UK: Blandford (1997); pg. 156. "During the Second World War the Japanese government demanded religious unity and insisted that evry home should have a Shinto shrine for worship of the Emperor. Nichiren Shoshu refused both demands, and Makigushi and Toda [leaders and founders of Soka Gakkai], among other leaders, were imprisoned. Makiguchi died in prison, but Toda, on his release, put all his energies into reviving the lay movement. Seeing its purpose as more universal than education, he dropped 'Kyoiku' from the name. In 1951 he announced his goal of 750,000 new members in the next seven years; he just lived to see this accomplished. "
Soka Gakkai Japan 1,000,000 - - - 1965 Rausch, David A. & Carl Hermann Voss. World Religions: Our Quest for Meaning; Trinity Press International: Valley Forge, PA (1993); pg. 111. "With over a million members by the 1960s, Soka Gakkai taught that it was the only true religion and today inspires frequent mass rallies. "
Soka Gakkai Japan 15,000,000 - - - 1969 Hutchinson, John A. Paths of Faith; New York: McGraw-Hill (1969); pg. 293. "Soka Gakkai currrently claims some 10 million to 15 million adherents, and a rapid and continuing growth. "
Soka Gakkai Japan 10,000,000 - - - 1969 Storry, Richard; Japan; New York: David White, Inc. (1969); pg. 106. "The Buddhist sect known as the Soka Gakkai embraces perhaps 10 million followers, and the number is growing. "
Soka Gakkai Japan 16,539,375 14.36% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991 reprint; 1st pub. 1984). [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.]; pg. 373. "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " Classified as Buddhist new religion (year of origin: 1930).
Soka Gakkai Japan - - - - 1979 Pitts, Forrest R. Japan; Grand Rapids, Michigan: Fideler Company (1979); pg. 75. "Since World War II, another Buddhist group, called Soka Gakkai, has gained political strength in Japan. Members of Soka Gakkai feel stronly that theirs is the only true religion... "
Soka Gakkai Japan 17,000,000 - - - 1988 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: 5/12/88 issue of GLOBAL PRAYER DIGEST); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) "PRAY FOR THE 17,000,000 SOKKA GAKKAI OF JAPAN "
Soka Gakkai Japan 6,000,000 - - - 1988 Reischauer, Edwin O. The Japanese Today: Change and Continuity; Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press (1988); pg. 214. "Soka Gakkai... claims 16 million, though 6 million would probably be a better estimate of its actual membership at any one time. "
Soka Gakkai Japan 16,000,000 - - - 1988 Reischauer, Edwin O. The Japanese Today: Change and Continuity; Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press (1988); pg. 214. "Soka Gakkai... claims 16 million, though 6 million would probably be a better estimate of its actual membership at any one time. "
Soka Gakkai Japan 10,000,000 - - - 1989 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: 9/26/89 issue of GLOBAL PRAYER DIGEST); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) 10,000,000 Japanese and 300,000 Americans. Soka Gakkai has become the largest religious organization in Japan.
Soka Gakkai Japan - - - - 1991 *LINK* Wilson, Andrew (ed). "The World Religions and their Scriptures " in World Scripture. International Religious Foundation, 1991. (viewed 9 July 1999) "Several Buddhist lay movements are offshoots of the branch of Japanese Buddhism founded by Nichiren (1222-1282) and rely upon the Lotus Sutra as their scripture. These include... S-oka Gakkai, founded by J-ozaburo Makiguchi, whose political wing, the Komeito party, is a strong force in the Japanese Diet. "
Soka Gakkai Japan 16,060,000 - - - 1992 Wilson, B. & Dobbelaere, K. A Time to Chang: The Soka Gakkai Buddhists in Britain. Oxford: Clarendon (1998); pg. 13. "In 1992 Soka Gakkai International claimed 1,260,000 members in 115 nations in addition to 8,030,000 families in Japan: Nikkei Weekly, 30/1,530 (15 Aug. 1992). "
Soka Gakkai Japan 17,000,000 - - - 1995 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: 2/9/95 issue of GLOBAL PRAYER DIGEST); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) There are 17,000,000 adherents of the Soka Gakkai faith in Japan today.
Soka Gakkai Japan 10,000,000 - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 126. "Soka Gakkai grew exponentially and became involved in Japanese politics, in the process reviving what had been marginal interest in Nichiren. Today it claims 8 to 10 million adherents in Japan and another 2 million worldwide "
Soka Gakkai Japan - 10.00% - - 1997 Barrett, D. Sects, 'Cults', and Alternative Religions. London, UK: Blandford (1997); pg. 159. "Daisaku Ikeda founded the Soka University in Japan in 1971. The movement's money has made it a highly successful and influential establishment... In its efforts for world peace and cultural reformation, Soka Gakkai also seeks political power. Just as the religious right (the 'moral majority) exerts an increasingly strong influence on the Republican Party in the USA, Soka Gakkai, although legally separate, had strong links with the third main political party in Japan, Komeito (Clean Government Party), which merged with another party in 1994 to become the Shinshinto Party. Critics claim that Soka Gakkai, through its power over its members, controls 6 million votes -- 10 per cent of the Japanese electorate. In the 1994 elections, Shinshinto gained 40 seats in the Japanese upper house of parliament. "
Soka Gakkai Japan - - - - 1998 Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe. "Religion " in The Future Now: Predicting the 21st Century. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson (1998); pg. 53. "In Japan Soko Gakkai [did]... acquire millions of members, found a political party and spread to other consumerist societies in America and Europe. "
Soka Gakkai Japan - - - - 1998 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998); pg. 285. "Today, many of Nichiren's followers in Japan belong to the Soka Gakkai, a... organization whose political arm, the Komei-to, or Clean-Government Party, has considerable strength in the National Diet. "


Soka Gakkai, continued

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