Adherents.com


43,941 adherent statistic citations: membership and geography data for 4,300+ religions, churches, tribes, etc.

Index

back to Shinto, world

Shinto, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Shinto world 3,000,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* web site: Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance (viewed circa Nov. 1998) [Original sources: J.W. Wright, Editor, The Universal Almanac, 1996, Andrews & McMeel, Kansas City. Greg H. Parsons, Executive Director, "U.S. Center for World Mission, " Pasadena, CA; quoted in Zondervan News Service, 1997-FEB-21.] Table: "Number of Adherents of World Religions "
Shinto - clergy Japan 102,000 0.08% - - 1985 *LINK* [Orig. source: The International Society for Educational Information, Inc., Tokyo (1998)] "Figures... 1985 as reported by religious orgs. to the Agency for Cultural Affairs are as follows: Shinto Buddhism Christianity miscellaneous: Priests, Clergy & Ministers 102,000 269,000 22,000 253,000... total pop...121 mil. "
Shinto - clergy Japan 20,000 - - - 1996 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996); pg. 172. "There are about 20,000 Shinto priests in Japan, the majority of whom serve more than one shrine and supplement their income by other employment... "
Shinto - government shrines Japan - - 209
units
- 1945 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996); pg. 88. "Kansha: 'Government shrines'. A category of shrines identified as important by the Meiji government in 1871/2. Kansha were differentiated from shosha, general or miscellaneous shrines. In 1945 there were 209 kansha shrines and 109,824 shosha, of which over 105,000 were small 'village' or 'unranked' shrines. The kansha/shosha distinction was abolished in 1945 when Shinto was disestablished. "
Shinto - independent shrines Japan - - 1,000
units
- 1987 Bishop, Peter & Michael Darton (editors). The Encyclopedia of World Faiths: An Illustrated Survey of the World's Living Faiths. New York: Facts on File Publications (1987); pg. 293. "...an association of Shinto shrines was formed in 1946, to which at present about 80,000 shrines belong; about 1000 shrines remain independent. "
Shinto - Popular Japan - - - - 1996 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996); pg. 123. "Minkan Shinko: 'Folk religion; 'Folk beliefs'. An academic category used to analyse the ocmplex interrelationships within Japanese religion. Minkan shinko may be defined as a developing substrate of folk-religious beliefs in Japan which incorporates elements from, yet transcends official distinctions between, 'Buddhism', 'Shinto', 'Taoism', 'Confucianism', 'Christianity' etc., and which manifests most powerfully today in the world-views and practices of the 'new religions'. It has been argued (notably by Hori, Ichiro) that folk religion, which Hori also calls 'popular Shinto' represents the true, indigenous and persistent character of 'Japanese religion.' "
Shinto - Popular Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 135-136. "The principal configurations of Shinto in modern times are Koshitsu, or State Shinto; Jinja, or Shrine Shinto; Kyoba, or Sect Shinto; and Minkan, or Popular Shinto... After Japan surrendered in 1945... Shrine Shinto continued to be practiced on a private level under the so-called Shinto Directive imposed by the victorious Allies... Although Shrine Shinto did not exist as a religious organization until after 1868, it is associated with the ancient forms of nature worship... Following the war, shrines were removed from government control and became dependent on support by the people. "
Shinto - Sect Japan - - - - 1921 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996); pg. . "Kyoha Shinto: 'Sect Shinto'. An administrative category applied to certain religious groups. It emerged as a result of Meiji government legislation in 1876 designed to give all kinds of independent religious movements, some of which focused on a particular kami, a legal status... In 1921 the Kyoha Shinto Rengokai, the official association of Shinto sects had 13 groups, into which were forcibly incorporated many smaller groups which regrouped after 1945. The 13 sects included revelatory 'new' religious movements... such as Tenrikyo, Kurozumi-kyo and Konko-kyo together with sects which had begun as shrine-supporting networks... (e.g. Shinto Taisei-kyo, Ontake-kyo, Shinto Taikyo). Omoto-kyo which is sometimes listed as one of the 13 came under the auspices of Fuso-kyo. The list also included Izumo oyashiro-kyo, Jikko-kyo, Misogi-kyo, Shinshu-kyo, Shinto shuseiha and Shinri-rikyo. "
Shinto - Sect Japan 17,000,000 - - - 1939 Welty, Paul Thomas. The Asians: Their Heritage and Their Destiny (Revised Edition). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. (1966); pg. 243. "Prior to the war there were numerous Shinto sects and subsects with a total of about 17 million members. Although all the sects tech certain common doctrines, such as ritual purity and divinity in nature, they differ in their emphasis upon such things as the tradition of ancient Shinto, Confucian elements, worship of sacred mountains, purification, and faith healing. "
Shinto - Sect Japan 18,000,000 - - - 1983 Hopfe, Lews M. Religions of the World, Macmillan Publishing Co.: New York (1983) [3rd edition]; pg. 281. "The adherents to these religions [Sectarian Shinto sects] are presently thought to number over 18 million; however statistics regarding religion are always suspect, and this is especially true in Japan... "
Shinto - Sect Japan - - - - 1996 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996); pg. 112-113. "Kyoha Shinto: 'Sect Shinto'. An administrative category applied to certain religious groups... Numerous other sects [other than the official 13 of 1921] in modern Japan classified as 'sect Shinto' developed from or were classified under the thirteen recognised prewar sects and there are around fifty 'new sect shinto' organisations which began after 1945. In 1970 Tenri-kyo repudiated its Shinto identity. Kyoha shinto is also referred to as Shuha shinto. "
Shinto - Sect Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 135-136. "The principal configurations of Shinto in modern times are Koshitsu, or State Shinto; Jinja, or Shrine Shinto; Kyoba, or Sect Shinto; and Minkan, or Popular Shinto... Sect Shinto consists of a wide range of sects with very different philosophies and practices. 13 are officially recognized, from the so-called pure sects of Shinto Honkyoku, Shinri Kyo, and Taisha Kyo to the overtly Confucian-influenced sects Shusei Ha and Teisei Kyo. Hundreds of subsects were either subsumed by these or continue to thrive quietly alongside them. "
Shinto - Sect Japan - - - - 1998 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998); pg. 282. "There are 13 mainstream Shinto sects and numerous sub-sects in Japan today, but since the American occupation following World War II, they have not been controlled by the government. "
Shinto - shosha shrines Japan - - 109,824
units
- 1945 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996); pg. 88. "Kansha: 'Government shrines'. A category of shrines identified as important by the Meiji government in 1871/2. Kansha were differentiated from shosha, general or miscellaneous shrines. In 1945 there were 209 kansha shrines and 109,824 shosha, of which over 105,000 were small 'village' or 'unranked' shrines. The kansha/shosha distinction was abolished in 1945 when Shinto was disestablished. "
Shinto - Shrine Japan - - 98,966
units
- 1994 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996); pg. 75-76. "Jinja Honcho: Usually translated into English as 'The Association of Shinto Shrines' or 'The Shrine Association', Jinja Honcho is the present co-ordinating or governing body for most of 'shrine Shinto'... More than 80% of shrines remain part of this national network. In 1993-4 the official Yearkbook of Religions (shukyo nenkan) gave the following statistics for incorporated shrines and individuals affiliated with Jinja Honcho... Shrines - 79,173... 'Kyoshi' (a loose term for 'clergy'...) - 20,336... 'Believers' - 82,631,196... It should be remembered that most of Jinja Honcho's 'Shinto' believers will also be among the 88 million or so who identify themselves in surveys as 'Buddhist' believers in a total population of ca.120 million. "
Shinto - Shrine Japan - - - - 1996 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996); pg. 77-78. "Jinja shinto: 'Shrine Shinto'. One of a number of modern academic terms used in both the adminstration and analysis of Shinto... In the Shinto Directive it was one of the synonyms of 'state Shinto'. It has been defined by the Jinjo Honcho as 'the traditional religious practices carried on in shrines throughout Japan's history, as well as the attitudes to life which support these practices'... It is probably advisable to reserve the term 'shrine shinto' for the form of Shinto which has existed since 1945 in Japan in which shrines are on the same constitutional footing as all other religious institutions... In this sense, 'shrine Shinto' means the beliefs and practices currently associated with the shrines, particularly those who look to the Jinja Honcho for guidance. "
Shinto - Shrine Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 135-136. "The principal configurations of Shinto in modern times are Koshitsu, or State Shinto; Jinja, or Shrine Shinto; Kyoba, or Sect Shinto; and Minkan, or Popular Shinto. "
Shinto - State Japan - - - - 1888 Welty, Paul Thomas. The Asians: Their Heritage and Their Destiny (Revised Edition). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. (1966); pg. 242. "In 1882 Shinto was divided into Shrine Shinto, often referred to as State Shinto, and Sect Shinto, the traditional native religion. State Shinto was the official cult sponsored by the government for the purpose of inspiring in the Japanese single-minded obedience and loyalty to the emperor and, through him, to the state. Although it was placed above all other beliefs in Japan, officially it was declared not to be a religion. This distinction was somewhat artificial, because the same deities were worshipped and the same shrines honored in both sects; the division between the two Shintos was more political than religious. "
Shinto - State Japan - - - - 1938 Welles, Sam. The World's Great Religions, New York: Time Incorporated (1957); pg. 8. "In the period before the war in the Pacific it became customary to distinguish between religious and state Shinto... State Shinto, a nationalistic cult, focused on the divinity of the emperor. Most Japanese contended that state Shinto was essentially an expression of patriotism rather than a form of worship. The emperor or high officials would visit the shrine at Ise to report to Amaterasu, the sun goddess who, in terms of official mythology, was the great-great-grandmother of Jimmu Tenno, founder in the 7th Century B.C. of the imperial line. It was held that they were doing no more than discharging a duty of office which any Buddhist, Confucianist or even Christian might perform without disloyalty to his faith. "
Shinto - State Japan - - - - 1945 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996); pg. 100. "Kokka shinto: A Japanese term used to translate the English 'state Shinto'. Unlike for example shuha shinto which was an administrative term used by the Japanese authorities to define and control certain Japanese religious groups, kokka shinto was a concept defined retrospectively and applied by the Occupation authorities in the Shinto Directive of 1945 to the post-Meiji religious system in Japan. In the Directive, state Shinto is defined as 'that branch of Shinto (Kokka Shinto or Jinja Shinto) which by official acts of the Japanese Government has been differentiated from the religion of sect Shinto and has been classified as a non-religious cult commonly known as State Shinto, National Shinto, or Shrine Shinto'. It is clear that there was no single term equivalent to 'State Shinto' at the time of the Directive... the term kokka shinto should be applied with caution; it does not adequately capture the Meiji - 1945 religious situation...'
Shinto - State Japan - - - - 1945 Welty, Paul Thomas. The Asians: Their Heritage and Their Destiny (Revised Edition). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. (1966); pg. 243. "State or Shrine Shinto, abolished in December 1945, is attempting to become Sect Shinto, a religion with an ethical content and an organized priesthood. Most of its individual shrines are now incorporated as religious bodies, and thousands of them have formed an association with headquarters in Tokyo. Shrine Shinto is also giving a good deal of attention to social work of all kinds. "
Shinto - State Japan - - - - 1996 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996); pg. 188. "State Shinto: An analytical concept used since 1946 in Shinto studies in at least three different ways. (1) According to some Shinto theologians State Shinto (kokka shinto) was a relatively short-lived phenomenon which began in 1900 with the etablishment of a Shrine Office (Jinja kyoku)... and ended completely under the Occupation in 1945. (2) Other scholars mean by 'State Shinto' the 77 years of overt state sponsorship of Shinto from 1868 to 1945... (3) Even more broadly, the term State Shinto may be used to mean an ideology which promotes Shinto as integral to the state an natural to Japanese people of whatever religion, i.e. Shinto nationalism, a view which originated within the National Learning movmenet, flourished from 1868-1945, persists today and is reflected in unofficial government sponsorship of Shinto and may be rekindled in the future. "
Shinto - State Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 135-136. "The principal configurations of Shinto in modern times are Koshitsu, or State Shinto; Jinja, or Shrine Shinto; Kyoba, or Sect Shinto; and Minkan, or Popular Shinto... Following the Imperial Restoration of 1868, Buddhism was denounced, Shinto was made the official state religion, and the emperor was worshiped as a god. This State Shinto had obvious consequences in building popular support for the Japanese war effort... After Japan surrendered in 1945, Shinto lost its role as state religion... "
Shinto - Taisha shrines Japan - - 65
units
- 1945 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996); pg. 194. "Taisha: 'Grand Shrine'. One of the shrine-title (shago). In 'Japanese' reading O-yashiro. From 1871-2 taisha referred to a sub-category of the 209 kansha (governmental) shrines. By 1945 there were 65 shrines thus classified as 'taisha' type, though the only shrine which actually had Taisha as part of its name was the Izumo Taisha or Izumo O-yashiro. "
Shinto - Taisha shrines Japan - - 78
units
- 1996 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996); pg. 194. "Taisha: 'Grand Shrine'... By 1945 there were 65 shrines thus classified as 'taisha' type... Since the war the Jinja Honcho has allowed a dozen other major shrines within its jurisdiction to take the name -Taisha... In addition there is the Fushimi-Inari-Taisha, which is not affiliated to Jinja Honcho. "
Shinto Honkyoku Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 136. "Sect Shinto consists of a wide range of sects with very different philosophies and practices. 13 are officially recognized, from the so-called pure sects of Shinto Honkyoku, Shinri Kyo, and Taisha Kyo to the overtly Confucian-influenced sects Shusei Ha and Teisei Kyo. "
Shinto Taikyo Japan - - - - 1921 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996); pg. 112-113. "Kyoha Shinto: 'Sect Shinto'... In 1921... the official association of Shinto sects had 13 groups... included... sects which had begun as shrine-supporting networks formed by shrine administrators (e.g. Shinto Taisei-kyo, Ontake-kyo, Shinto Taikyo).... "
Shinto Taikyo Japan - - - - 1996 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996); pg. 177. "Shinto Taikyo: 'Great Teachings of Shinto'. One of the 13 groups of 'sect Shinto'... An organization with no single founder, it was etablished in 1873 by pro-Shinto Meiji administrators as the 'Temple of the Great Teaching' (Taikyo-in) to organise the missionary activities of the 'Great Prompulgation Campaign'... After the second world war Shinto Taikyo reformed its teachings to emphasise a way of peace founded on respect for the emperor... It was recognised as a shukyo hojin in 1951. In deference to its origins Shinto Taikyo is regarded as the representative of all the sect Shinto groups. "
Shinto Taisei-kyo Japan - - - - 1882 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996); pg. 178. "Shinto taisei-kyo: 'Accomplishment of the Way of the Kami'. A religious group founded by Hirayama, Seisai or Shosai (1815-1890), a high-ranking member of the last Tokugawa government... After the collapse of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1868 he turned to ascetic religious practices including standing under a cold waterfall. Shinto taisei-kyo advocated service to the nation and conduct pleasing to the kami, and was recognised as a Shinto sect in 1882. "
Shinto Taisei-kyo Japan - - - - 1921 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996); pg. 112-113. "Kyoha Shinto: 'Sect Shinto'... In 1921... the official association of Shinto sects had 13 groups... included... sects which had begun as shrine-supporting networks formed by shrine administrators (e.g. Shinto Taisei-kyo [Taisha Kyo], Ontake-kyo, Shinto Taikyo).... "
Shinto Taisei-kyo Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 136. "Sect Shinto consists of a wide range of sects with very different philosophies and practices. 13 are officially recognized, from the so-called pure sects of Shinto Honkyoku, Shinri Kyo, and Taisha Kyo [Taisei-kyo] to the overtly Confucian-influenced sects Shusei Ha and Teisei Kyo. "
Shira Gabon - - - 1
country
1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures
Shona Mozambique - - - - 1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures
Shona world - - - 2
countries
1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures; "Zimbabwe, Mozambique "
Shona Zimbabwe - - - - 1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures
Shona Zimbabwe - 80.00% - - 1995 Haskins, Jim & Joann Biondi. From Afar to Zulu: A Dictionary of African Cultures. New York: Walker Publishing Co. (1995); pg. 136. "Although most of the Ndebele now live in Zimbabwe, they are a minority... Their numbers equal only 14% of the population, whereas the Shona represent 80%. "
Shoshone North America 4,500 - - - 1845 Legay, Gilbert. Atlas of Indians of North America. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's (1995); pg. 67. "Shoshone... Numbering about 4,500 in 1845... "
Shoshone USA 9,215 - - - 1990 Utter, Jack. American Indians: Answers to Today's Questions. Lake Ann, MI: National Woodlands Publishing Co. (1993); pg. 38. Table: "Largest American Indian Tribes (as identified in the 1990 Census, through self-reporting) "
Shoshone USA 9,215 - - - 1990 *LINK* web site: "American West "; web page: "Indian Tribes - Population Rankings " (viewed 13 Feb. 1999) Table: "Native American Tribes: Population Rankings of the 30 largest tribes in the U.S. according to the 1990 census report (U.S. Department of Commerce) "; NOTE: These are tribal affiliation figures, not religious preference figures.
Shoshone Wyoming 5,000 - - - 1995 Legay, Gilbert. Atlas of Indians of North America. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's (1995); pg. 67. "Shoshone... Numbering about 4,500 in 1845, the Shoshone are about 5,000 in Wyoming today, although they share the reservation with some Arapahoe. "
Shoshoni - Western North America - Great Basin 2,500 - - - 1845 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 389. Table: "The Great Basin: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber); "Shoshoni, Western (1845): 2,500 "; Pg. 384: "Both the Northern and Western Shoshoni belong to the same dialectice group of the immense Shoshonean linguistic family, but their culture greatly differ. The Northern Shoshoni, who at some remote period spread out to the Great Basin on the north and east, possessed the cultures of the Rocky Mountains and the Great Plains. The Western Shoshoni never changed the way of life they had for centuries, perhaps for thousands of years. Indeed, dwelling in the arid reaches of the interior Great Basin few changes were possible. "
Shoshoni - Western world 2,500 - - - 1845 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 389. Table: "The Great Basin: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber); "Shoshoni, Western (1845): 2,500 "; Pg. 384: "Both the Northern and Western Shoshoni belong to the same dialectice group of the immense Shoshonean linguistic family, but their culture greatly differ. The Northern Shoshoni, who at some remote period spread out to the Great Basin on the north and east, possessed the cultures of the Rocky Mountains and the Great Plains. The Western Shoshoni never changed the way of life they had for centuries, perhaps for thousands of years. Indeed, dwelling in the arid reaches of the interior Great Basin few changes were possible. "
Shugendo Japan - - - 1
country
1988 *LINK* Takafumi,Iida. "Folk Religion Among the Koreans in Japan The Shamanism of the 'Korean Temples' " in Japanese Journal of Religious Studies June-September 1988 15/2-3. (Viewed on JJRS web site, 30 Jan. 1999) "There are also some [Koreans residents of Japan] who are involved in Shugendo organizations. Shugendo is a traditional syncretistic Japanese mountain religion which emphasizes practicing religious austerities in the mountains, and actively participate in ascetic practices in the mountains or under waterfalls. People who have become simbang through cultivating shugen practices have created their own unique folk religion temples. These are [among] the many so-called 'Korean temples' found in the mountains near Osaka. "
Shugendo Japan - - - - 1996 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996); pg. 184. "Shugendo: The traditional religious system followed by orders of mountain-based magico-religious ascetics called yamabushi. Shugendo incorporated Buddhist, Taoist and kami-based beliefs and practices. It was severely damaged by shinbutsu bunri from 1868 but survives in some parts of Japan. "
Shusei Ha Japan - - - - 1375 C.E. *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "SHUSHI SCHOOL: the ORTHODOX School of JAPANESE CONFUCIANISM introduced by ZEN monks in the fourteenth century and adopted by the Tokagawa Shogunate as the official system of Japanese morality. "
Shusei Ha Japan - - - - 1921 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996); pg. 112-113. "Kyoha Shinto: 'Sect Shinto'... In 1921... the official association of Shinto sects had 13 groups... list also included Izumo oyashiro-kyo, Jikko-kyo, Misogi-kyo, Shinshu-kyo, Shinto shuseiha and Shinri-rikyo. "
Shusei Ha Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 136. "Sect Shinto consists of a wide range of sects with very different philosophies and practices. 13 are officially recognized, from the so-called pure sects of Shinto Honkyoku, Shinri Kyo, and Taisha Kyo to the overtly Confucian-influenced sects Shusei Ha and Teisei Kyo. "
Sibyl Roman Empire - - - - 405 C.E. *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "SIBYLLINE ORACLES: a collection of PROPHECIES not to be confused with the PSEUDO-SIBYLLINE ORACLES. They were supposedly made by a PROPHETESS called Sibyl, and eventually gathered together in Rome where they were consulted in times of crisis, until their destruction in 405. "
Sicarii Israel - - - - 6 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), Chapter: Judaism; pg. 266. "Zealots: Sect founded in AD 6 by Judah the Galilean protesting Roman rule and taxes. The Zealots believed in violence as a legitimate tool against the occupying Romans and their Jewish collaborators. The terrorist fringe of Zealots, who carried concealed daggers and committed political assassinations, were called Sicarii by the Romans. "
Sidang Injil Borneo Malaysia: Sarawak 50,000 - - - 1979 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: OPERATION WORLD, 1979); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) "As a result of this work of God, the SIB Church has over 50,000 members among more than 10 peoples, a national-led Bible School, outreach to the coastal towns and a vigorous missionary outreach programme. "; [Apparently (see home page "SIB " stands for Sidang Injil Borneo, or "Borneo Evangelist Mission "]
Siddha Yoga California: Oakland - - 1
unit
- 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 319-320. "...American religious movements even thought their teachings... are traditionally Hindu. The following are some better-known examples of these missionaries and their movements... Others... Swami Muktananda (b. 1908) teaches Siddha Yoga and travels between his Indian center in Ganeshpuri and his American center in Oakland. "
Siddha Yoga India - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 319-320. "Swami Muktananda (b. 1908) teaches Siddha Yoga and travels between his Indian center in Ganeshpuri and his American center in Oakland. "
Siddha Yoga Dham Switzerland 50 - - - 1987 Clarke, Peter B. The New Evangelists: Recruitment, Method and Aims of New Religious Movements, London: Ethnographics (1987); pg. 10 to 14. Table with following columns: Movement; Total Membership; Full-Time Members; P/T Members; Sympathizers.; For this study Clarke "approached researchers & observers in the field of new religions [& org./church reps.] to obtain their opinions & any hard... data "
Sikhism Afghanistan - - 10
units
- 1993 O'Brien, J. & M. Palmer. The State of Religion Atlas. Simon & Schuster: New York (1993); pg. 30-31. Map: Number of Sikh gurdwaras ( "a gurdwara is both a place of worship and community centre ")
Sikhism Africa 36,000 0.00% - - 1995 The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1996 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 646. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1995 "
Sikhism Africa 37,000 0.00% - - 1996 The World Almanac & Book of Facts 1998 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1997 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 654. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1996 "
Sikhism Africa 26,000 0.00% - - 1996 *LINK* web site: "The Geography of Religion Website " (assembled by the students of Morehead State University, under Prof. Timothy C. Pitts); web page: "The Geography of Sikhism " (viewed 2 March 1999); [Orig. source: Markham, Ian S., (Editor), A World Religions Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers (1996), pp. 356-357.] table with 3 columns: "Area "; "Adherents "; "Population Percentage "
Sikhism Africa 53,000 0.01% - - 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999). [Source: 1999 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 695. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1998 "
Sikhism Alberta 12,700 0.50% - - 1991 Gall, Timothy L. & Susan Bevan Gall (editors). Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Canadian Provinces. Detroit: U.X.L. (1997), [Source: Canadian Census]; pg. 6. "In 1991, 48.4% of the population, or about 1,232,000 people, was Protestant... Alberta also had... 20,400 Buddhists, 12,700 Sikhs, 10,200 Hindus, and 10,200 Jews... "
Sikhism Alberta 13,600 0.54% - - 1991 *LINK* web site: "Statistics Canada "; web page: "Population, by religion, 1991 Census " (viewed 9 Jan. 1999); Source: Statistics Canada, Catalogue no. 93-319-XPB. table: "Population, by religion, 1991 Census "
Sikhism Asia 18,130,000 0.52% - - 1995 The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1996 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 646. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1995 "
Sikhism Asia 18,465,000 0.53% - - 1996 The World Almanac & Book of Facts 1998 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1997 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 654. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1996 "
Sikhism Asia 18,272,000 0.60% - - 1996 *LINK* web site: "The Geography of Religion Website " (assembled by the students of Morehead State University, under Prof. Timothy C. Pitts); web page: "The Geography of Sikhism " (viewed 2 March 1999); [Orig. source: Markham, Ian S., (Editor), A World Religions Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers (1996), pp. 356-357.] table with 3 columns: "Area "; "Adherents "; "Population Percentage "; [Geographical regions in this table: Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, Northern America, Oceania, and Eurasia]
Sikhism Asia 21,531,000 0.60% - - 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999). [Source: 1999 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 695. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1998 "
Sikhism Australia - - 13
units
- 1993 O'Brien, J. & M. Palmer. The State of Religion Atlas. Simon & Schuster: New York (1993); pg. 30-31. Map: Number of Sikh gurdwaras ( "a gurdwara is both a place of worship and community centre ")


Sikhism, continued

Search Adherents.com

Custom Search
comments powered by Disqus

Collection and organization of data © 23 April 2007 by Adherents.com.   Site created by custom apps written in C++.  
Research supported by East Haven University.
Books * Videos * Music * Posters

We are always striving to increase the accuracy and usefulness of our website. We are happy to hear from you. Please submit questions, suggestions, comments, corrections, etc. to: webmaster@adherents.com.