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back to Shinto, Japan

Shinto, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Shinto Japan 117,670,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year; pg. 781-783. Table; "Many Japanese practice both Shintoism and Buddhism, " so many people are double-counted
Shinto Japan - - - - 1996 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996); pg. 173-174. "Shinto: A Sino-Japanese term meaning simply 'gods' or 'spirits'... There is little consensus on the meaning of Shinto by Western or Japanese scholars and in fact the term 'Shinto' has taken on a rather misleading aura of solidity and concreteness in Western writings that it has not enjoyed in Japan... Some scholars suggest we talk about type of Shinto such as popular Shinto, folk Shinto, domestic Shinto, sectarian Shinto, imperial household Shinto, shrine Shinto, state Shinto, new Shinto religions, etc. rather than regard Shinto as a single entity. This approach can be helpful but begs the question of what is meant by 'Shinto' in each case, particularly since each category incorporates... Buddhist, Confucian, Taoist, folk religious and other elements. "
Shinto Japan 112,000,000 93.33% - - 1996 Halverson, Dean C. (ed.) The Compact Guide to World Religions; Colorado Springs, Colorado: International Students Inc. (1996). [Publisher is an Evangelical missionary organization.]; pg. 206. "Only about 1.5 million of the 120 million Japanese declare themselves Christians. But 112 million adhere to Shinto. Many Japanese see themselves as followers of several religions, for 93 million are also Buddhists! "
Shinto Japan - - 100,000
units
- 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 135. "Government-approved [Shinto] shrines alone number about 100,000, divided into 12 categories. "
Shinto Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 135-136. "The principal configurations of Shinto in modern times are Koshitsu, or State Shinto; Jinja, or Shrine Shinto; Kyoba, or Sect Shinto; and Minkan, or Popular Shinto. "
Shinto Japan 105,615,544 84.00% - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) observe both Shinto and Buddhist 84%, other 16% (including Christian 0.7%); Total population: 125,732,794.
Shinto Japan - 80.00% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "; "There is considerable overlapping " between Shinto and Buddhism.
Shinto Japan - - - - 1998 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998); pg. 281. "Polls asking Japanese in which religion they believe consistently yield results that total well over 100 percent -- most say they are followers of both Shinto and Budhism. Ask a Japanese how many gods there are, and the answer may be one or one thousand. Ask about the nature of the kamisama, or deities, that are worshipped, and a confused silence may result. There is no Japanese equivalent of the Bible or Koran, unless one counts the Kojiki (Record of Ancient Matters), which describes the mythological origins of the Japanese; even the most ardent ultranationalist does not accept the eighth-century chronicles as divine writ, however. "
Shinto Japan - - - - 1998 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998); pg. 281. "A basic understanding of the Japanese religious sensibility must begin with Shinto -- not a 'national religion' in any current official sense (although it was once zealously nationalistic), but rather one that influences virtually ever aspect of Japanese culture and society. It is hard to give a simple definition of Shinto.. since it is not a systematized set of beliefs... The term shinto was not even invented until after the introduction of Buddhism, a date traditionally given as AD 552, and then only as a way of contrasting the native beliefs and the imported faith. In general, it can be said that Shinto shares with many other animistic beliefs the truth that all natural objects and phenomena possess a spiritual side. It is this animism, mixed with ancestor worship... that characterizes Shinto, then. "
Shinto Japan 100,000,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* web page: "The International Shinto Foundation Statement of Purpose " (viewed 1 March 1999). "Nearly 100 million Japanese identify with Shinto and its philosophy and culture have an immense influence on the nation's eonomic and sociological behavior. "
Shinto Japan - 94.00% - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "Basic Facts Christianity in Japan at a Glance " (1998). 1996, 1997, 1998 Paul Tsuchido Shew Table: "Statistical Variences of Religion Affiliation in Japan: Official Membership Statistics vs. Independent Survey Results " Official org. reporting, Shinto 94.%; survey of religious preference: 2-3%.
Shinto Japan - 3.00% - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "Basic Facts Christianity in Japan at a Glance " (1998). 1996, 1997, 1998 Paul Tsuchido Shew Table: "Statistical Variences of Religion Affiliation in Japan: Official Membership Statistics vs. Independent Survey Results " Official org. reporting, Shinto 94.%; survey of religious preference: 2-3%.
Shinto Japan - - - - 1999 *LINK* Japan Information Network website; "Religion and Customs " page. (Viewed 6 Oct. 1999) "Shinto no longer receives any official encouragement or privileges, though it still plays an important ceremonial role in many aspects of Japanese life. Shinto exists side by side with and sometimes overlaps in the popular mind with Buddhism. Many Japanese today go through Shinto rites when they marry and Buddhist funeral rites when they die. "
Shinto Japan - - - - 2001 Zuckerman, Phil. "Atheism: Contemporary Rates and Patterns ", chapter in The Cambridge Companion to Atheism, ed. by Michael Martin, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK (2005) "According to Demerath (2001:138), 64% do not believe in God and 55% do not believe in Buddha, however a very strong majority have engaged in some form or Shinto, Buddhist, or Japanese folk/cultural ritual, such as visiting a shrine or temple on the previous New Year's Day. "
Shinto Korea - - - - 1935 Belke, Thomas J. Juche: A Christian Study of North Korea's State Religion. Bartlesville, OK: Living Sacrifice Books Co. (1999); pg. 139. "Meanwhile, the Japanese were looking for a way to break the power of the Korean churches--and they found it. Since the beginning of Japan's occupation, the Japanese had required Koreans to bow before their Shinto shrines as a political statement of allegiance to Japan's emperor. However, this also had a spiritual significance. These Shinto shrines commemorated the spiritual union between the Japanese sun goddess, Amaterasu Omikami, and the Japanese emperor-god. This meaning clearly marked both the goddess and emperor as pagan deities and the associated shrines as religious idols. Thus, any Korean who bowed before a Shinto shrine was engaging in an act of worship. "
Shinto Korea - - - - 1937 Belke, Thomas J. Juche: A Christian Study of North Korea's State Religion. Bartlesville, OK: Living Sacrifice Books Co. (1999); pg. 140. "Although the Japanese had made Shinto worship a high priority in Korea, in 1937 they began to systematically enforce mandatory Shinto idolatry for all Koreans. For example, all students at Christian schools were orderred to worship at Shinto shrines. The Roman Catholic, Methodist, and Holiness denominations submitted to the Japanese directive in the face of Japan'ss brutal enforcement measures. They rationalized their acquiescence to Shintoism by calling the blatant idolatry a 'cultural ritte.' The Presbyterians were an exception. Rather than submitting, their denomination's leaders opted to close all of their Christian schools. "
Shinto Korea - - - - 1941 Belke, Thomas J. Juche: A Christian Study of North Korea's State Religion. Bartlesville, OK: Living Sacrifice Books Co. (1999); pg. 141. "The Japanese further increased their persecution of Korean Christians by pressing the people to participate in other Shinto rituals. Korean Christians were induced to renounce faith in Jesus Christ and receive Shinto baptism. As the situation continued to decline, most foreign missionaries left the country. By late 1941, the Japanese were quite convinced that the power of their sun goddess was far greater than this Christian God. Thus, from a spiritual viewpoint, the Japanese initiation of war against the United States was motivated--at least in part--by the belief that they were invincible because of their Shinto gods. "
Shinto Latin America 1,000 0.00% - - 1995 The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1996 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 646. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1995 "
Shinto Latin America 1,000 0.00% - - 1996 The World Almanac & Book of Facts 1998 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1997 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 654. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1996 "
Shinto Latin America 500 0.00% - - 1996 *LINK* web site: "The Geography of Religion Website " (assembled by the students of Morehead State University, under Prof. Timothy C. Pitts); web page: "The Geography of Shintoism " (viewed 2 March 1999); [Orig. source: Markham, Ian S., (Editor), A World Religions Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers (1996), pp. 356-357.] table with 3 columns: "Area "; "Adherents "; "Population Percentage "
Shinto Latin America 7,000 0.00% - - 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999). [Source: 1999 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 695. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1998 "
Shinto Micronesia, Federated States of: Yap - - - - 1968 Pinney, Roy. Vanishing Tribes. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1968); pg. 234-238. "...population of Yap... about 5,800 (1961)... "; Pg. 237: "Roman Catholc missionaries, active since the days of the Spanish, have succeeded in converting about half the inhabitants. Most of the other half have retained their ancient beliefs, though a few have espoused the Shintoism or Buddhism advocated by the Japanese. "
Shinto North America - 0.00% - - 1900 *LINK* web site: "Monday Morning Reality Check "; web page: "North America: Decline & Fall of World Religions " (viewed 25 Feb. 1999), written by Justin D. Long. Table: "North America: Decline & Fall of World Religions, 1900-2025 "; "North America, defined by the U.N. to include Bermuda, Canada, Greenland, St. Pierre & Miquelon & U.S. "; listed in table as: "Shintoists "
Shinto North America - 0.00% - - 1925 *LINK* web site: "Monday Morning Reality Check "; web page: "North America: Decline & Fall of World Religions " (viewed 25 Feb. 1999), written by Justin D. Long. Table: "North America: Decline & Fall of World Religions, 1900-2025 "; "North America, defined by the U.N. to include Bermuda, Canada, Greenland, St. Pierre & Miquelon & U.S. "; listed in table as: "Shintoists "
Shinto North America - 0.00% - - 1950 *LINK* web site: "Monday Morning Reality Check "; web page: "North America: Decline & Fall of World Religions " (viewed 25 Feb. 1999), written by Justin D. Long. Table: "North America: Decline & Fall of World Religions, 1900-2025 "; "North America, defined by the U.N. to include Bermuda, Canada, Greenland, St. Pierre & Miquelon & U.S. "; listed in table as: "Shintoists "
Shinto North America - 0.00% - - 1975 *LINK* web site: "Monday Morning Reality Check "; web page: "North America: Decline & Fall of World Religions " (viewed 25 Feb. 1999), written by Justin D. Long. Table: "North America: Decline & Fall of World Religions, 1900-2025 "; "North America, defined by the U.N. to include Bermuda, Canada, Greenland, St. Pierre & Miquelon & U.S. "; listed in table as: "Shintoists "
Shinto North America 60,000 - - - 1981 Popenoe, David. Sociology (5th Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. (1983). [Source: 1981 Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 433. Table: Membership in the Major Religions of the World "; North America in this table "includes Central America and West Indies. "
Shinto North America 60,000 0.02% - - 1982 Robertson, Ian. Sociology (2nd ed.); New York, NY: Worth Publishers (1981 2nd edition; updated since 1977 1st ed.). [Orig. source: Encyclopaedia Britannica Book of the Year, 1982]; pg. 405. Table: "Estimated membership of the principal religions of the world "
Shinto North America 1,000 0.00% - - 1995 The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1996 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 646. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1995 "
Shinto North America 1,500 0.00% - - 1996 The World Almanac & Book of Facts 1998 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1997 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 654. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1996 "
Shinto North America 1,000 0.00% - - 1996 *LINK* web site: "The Geography of Religion Website " (assembled by the students of Morehead State University, under Prof. Timothy C. Pitts); web page: "The Geography of Shintoism " (viewed 2 March 1999); [Orig. source: Markham, Ian S., (Editor), A World Religions Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers (1996), pp. 356-357.] table with 3 columns: "Area "; "Adherents "; "Population Percentage "
Shinto North America 55,000 0.02% - - 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999). [Source: 1999 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 695. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1998 "
Shinto North America 1,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* web site: Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance "One source estimates 1000 followers of Shinto in North America. "
Shinto North America - 0.00% - - 2000 *LINK* web site: "Monday Morning Reality Check "; web page: "North America: Decline & Fall of World Religions " (viewed 25 Feb. 1999), written by Justin D. Long. Table: "North America: Decline & Fall of World Religions, 1900-2025 "; "North America, defined by the U.N. to include Bermuda, Canada, Greenland, St. Pierre & Miquelon & U.S. "; listed in table as: "Shintoists "; [Year 2000 projection made circa 1997]
Shinto North America - 0.00% - - 2025 *LINK* web site: "Monday Morning Reality Check "; web page: "North America: Decline & Fall of World Religions " (viewed 25 Feb. 1999), written by Justin D. Long. Table: "North America: Decline & Fall of World Religions, 1900-2025 "; "North America, defined by the U.N. to include Bermuda, Canada, Greenland, St. Pierre & Miquelon & U.S. "; listed in table as: "Shintoists "; [Year 2025 projection made circa 1997]
Shinto Oceania - 0.00% - - 1981 Popenoe, David. Sociology (5th Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. (1983). [Source: 1981 Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 433. Table: Membership in the Major Religions of the World "; Oceania: "Includes Australia, New Zealand, and South Pacific Islands "
Shinto Oceania 1,000 0.00% - - 1995 The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1996 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 646. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1995 "
Shinto Oceania 1,000 0.00% - - 1996 The World Almanac & Book of Facts 1998 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1997 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 654. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1996 "
Shinto Oceania 500 0.00% - - 1996 *LINK* web site: "The Geography of Religion Website " (assembled by the students of Morehead State University, under Prof. Timothy C. Pitts); web page: "The Geography of Shintoism " (viewed 2 March 1999); [Orig. source: Markham, Ian S., (Editor), A World Religions Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers (1996), pp. 356-357.] table with 3 columns: "Area "; "Adherents "; "Population Percentage "
Shinto Oceania 0 0.00% - - 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999). [Source: 1999 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 695. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1998 "
Shinto South America 90,000 - - - 1981 Popenoe, David. Sociology (5th Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. (1983). [Source: 1981 Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 433. Table: Membership in the Major Religions of the World "
Shinto South America 90,000 0.04% - - 1982 Robertson, Ian. Sociology (2nd ed.); New York, NY: Worth Publishers (1981 2nd edition; updated since 1977 1st ed.). [Orig. source: Encyclopaedia Britannica Book of the Year, 1982]; pg. 405. Table: "Estimated membership of the principal religions of the world "
Shinto USA 6,000 - - - 1990 Kosmin, B. & S. Lachman. One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society; Harmony Books: New York (1993); pg. 15-17. Table 1-2: Self-Described Adherence of U.S. Adult Population 1990. Phone survey w/ 113,000 people; by Graduate School of City U. of New York.
Shinto USA - - 3
units
- 1994 *LINK* "Is Buddha Awakening U.S.? " in Hinduism Today International (July 1994) "But today, there are 3 Shinto shrines in America. " [NOTE: It is probably not completely accurate to equate "3 Shinto shrines " with 3 "congregations. " There are probably other, neo-Shinto groups which meet in the U.S., but which do not have "shrines "]
Shinto USA 1,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* web site: Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance (viewed circa Nov. 1998); "last updated October 1998 " Table: "'Other Than Christian' Organizations "; "Some of the following data were estimated from North American figures: "
Shinto world 65,000,000 - - - 1975 Wallechinsky, David & Irving Wallace; The People's Almanac; Garden City, NY: Doubleday (1975); pg. 1268. List of "Major World Religions ": "Today there are about 65 million followers of Shintoism, many of whom are also practicing Buddhists. "
Shinto world 57,154,200 - - - 1981 Popenoe, David. Sociology (5th Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. (1983). [Source: 1981 Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 433. Table: Membership in the Major Religions of the World "
Shinto world 58,154,200 1.29% - - 1982 Robertson, Ian. Sociology (2nd ed.); New York, NY: Worth Publishers (1981 2nd edition; updated since 1977 1st ed.). [Orig. source: Encyclopaedia Britannica Book of the Year, 1982]; pg. 405. Table: "Estimated membership of the principal religions of the world "
Shinto world 57,154,200 1.24% - - 1982 *LINK* Web site: "Urantia Book Fellowship Archives "; web page: "An Introduction to Shinto " [subtitle: "The Religion of Nature Worship, Emperor Worship, and Purity "] (viewed 11 April 1999). Written by Meredith Sprunger. "In Japan a person may in good conscience be a Buddhist, a Confucian, and a member of a Shinto sect at the same time. Today (1982) Shintoism reports 57,154,200 members. " [Approx. 1982 world pop.: 4.6 billion.]
Shinto world - - - - 1983 Oxtoby, Willard G. The Meaning of Other Faiths. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press (1983); pg. 39. "The remaining candidates [for a list of world religions, after Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Sikhism, Taoism, Confucianism] are Shinto, the indigenous non-Buddhist heritage of Japan; Jainism...; and Zoroastrianism... "
Shinto world 60,000,000 - - - 1987 Bishop, Peter & Michael Darton (editors). The Encyclopedia of World Faiths: An Illustrated Survey of the World's Living Faiths. New York: Facts on File Publications (1987); pg. 293. "The number of believers in Shinto is thought to be about 60 million. "
Shinto world 84,000,000 - - - 1990 Carlisle, Richard (editor), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Mankind vol. 19, Marshall Cavendish: Freeport, NY (1990); pg. 2494. -
Shinto world 5,000,000 - - - 1990 Naisbitt, John & Patricia Aburdene. Megatrends 2000: Ten New Directions for the 1990's. New York: William Morrow and Co. (1990); pg. 270. "At the dawn of the third millennium there are unmistakable signs of a worldwide multidenominational religious revival... Shinto neighborhood festivals have been revived in Japan, along with life cycle rituals and returning to the local pagoda. A Shinto priest known as 'the miracle of Japan' has won 5 million followers in Japan, the United States, and Brazil, where 80 percent of converts are non-Japanese. "
Shinto world 3,336,000 - - - 1993 *LINK* web site: "Wholesome Words: Worldwide Missions " by Stephen Ross, "First Edition, 1998 "; [original sources: The World Factbook 1997 (CIA, 1998)] Table: "Major religions of the world (1993 est.) "
Shinto world 2,844,000 0.05% - - 1995 The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1996 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 646. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1995 "
Shinto world 2,897,500 0.05% - - 1996 The World Almanac & Book of Facts 1998 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1997 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 654. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1996 "
Shinto world 3,222,800 0.10% - - 1996 *LINK* web site: "The Geography of Religion Website " (assembled by the students of Morehead State University, under Prof. Timothy C. Pitts); web page: "The Geography of Shintoism " (viewed 2 March 1999); [Orig. source: Markham, Ian S., (Editor), A World Religions Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers (1996), pp. 356-357.] table with 3 columns: "Area "; "Adherents "; "Population Percentage "
Shinto world 2,844,000 - - - 1997 Ash, Russell. The Top 10 of Everything, DK Publishing, Inc.: New York (1997); pg. 160-161. List: "Top 10 Organized Religions in the World "; (Rank: 10)
Shinto world 2,800,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* "Top 10 Organized Religions in the World " in Christian Science Monitor, Aug. 4, 1998, page B2. Table, with 2 columns: Religion, Members: "Christianity, 1.9 billion; Islam 1.1 billion; Hinduism, 781 mil.; Buddhism, 324 mil.; Sikhism, 19 mil.; Judaism, 14 mil.; Baha'ism, 6.1 mil.; Confucianism, 5.3 mil.; Jainism, 4.9 mil.; Shintoism, 2.8 mil. "
Shinto world 2,789,000 0.05% - - 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999). [Source: 1999 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 695. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1998 "
Shinto world 30,000,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "All Faiths Press "; web page: "Shinto " (viewed 27 Feb. 1999) "Estimated at 30 million, mostly in Japan. Most are also Buddhists. "
Shinto world 3,222,800 - - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "Mike Croghan's Religion Page "; web page: "Shinto " (viewed 27 Feb. 1999; viewed & URL updated 1 July 1999) Table: "Table of Faiths "
Shinto world 3,200,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* web site: Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance Estimates of the number of adherents are hopelessly unreliable. Some sources give numbers in the range of 2.8 to 3.2 million. One states that 40% of Japanese adults follow Shinto; that would account for about 50 million adherents.
Shinto world 50,000,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* web site: Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance 50 million. Estimates of the number of adherents are hopelessly unreliable. Some sources give numbers in the range of 2.8 to 3.2 million.
Shinto world 107,000,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* web site: Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance Estimates of the number of adherents are hopelessly unreliable. Some sources give numbers in the range of 2.8 to 3.2 million. Others state that about 86% of Japanese adults follow a combination of Shinto and Buddhism, [i.e.] 107 million.


Shinto, continued

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