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43,941 adherent statistic citations: membership and geography data for 4,300+ religions, churches, tribes, etc.

Index

back to Shingaku, Japan

Shingaku, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Shingaku Japan - - - - 1868 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 681. "While Ishida was Shingaku's founder and tone-setter, the movement owed much of its effectiveness and longevity to the organizational skill of one of his pupils, Teshima Toan (1718-1786)... [who] aided the movement most by giving it structure. The result was a controlled extension of Shingaku throughout much of Japan, with dozens of able preachers and writers reaching thousands of Japanese citizens with a message that seemed both timely and challenging. By the middle of the nineteenth century Shingaku began to lose is cohesiveness through the spliting off of independent regional centers. Finally the policies of the Meiji government, favoring Shinto... caused the demise of the fragmented movement. The consequence of its existence, however, can be traced in a multitude of longer-range influences. "
Shingon Japan - - - - 806 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 681. "Shingon (Buddhism - Jap.; lit. 'true or mystical word,' translation of Skt. Mantra). The Japanese sect of esoteric Buddhism founded and organized by Kukai... The esoteric tradition was so popular that it spread to other sects and became an important influence on culture and popular beliefs. The origins of Shingon go back to the Buddhist version of Tantrism in India... There was no school in India directly corresponding to Shingon, but the bulk of esoteric Buddhist writings and rituals arrived in China about the eighth century A.D... however, no full-scale esoteric Buddhist sect developed in China. Kukai traveled to China in 804... and spent thirty months... brought back to Japan... the basis for his formulation of the Shingon sect... "
Shingon Japan - - - - 806 C.E. *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "SHINGON: a highly MYSTICAL and syncretistic Japanese BUDDHIST religious movement founded in 806 by KB DAISH. It incorporates the GODS and even demons from other religious TRADITIONS within its MYTHOLOGY as manifestations of the BUDDHA whose body is the entire COSMOS and is distinguished by its use of the MANDALA or diagram representing the vitality and potentiality of the UNIVERSE. "
Shingon Japan - - - - 1282 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 538. "Nichiren Buddhism has been criticized as... intolerant... Nichiren condemned other sects in the stinging phrase: Nembutsu mugen, Zen tenma, Shingon bokoku, Ritsu kokuzoku (the Nembutsu--Amida Buddhism--is hell; Zen is a devil; Shingon is the nation's ruin; and Ritsu is treason).' "
Shingon Japan 9,117,000 - 11,947
units
- 1945 Ferm, Vergilius (ed). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976; 1st ed. pub. 1945 by Philosophical Library); pg. 105. "In Japan, on the other hand, the [Mystical] School (Shingon) is the second larget Buddhist sect, having 11,947 temples and 9,117,000 adherents with the Koya Mountain as the center. "
Shingon Japan - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 229. "Mi-tsung - Chin., lit. 'School of Secrets'; Tantric school of Chinese Buddhism... This school was systematized and brought to Japan by Kukai, a Japanese monk and student of the Mi-tsung master Hui-Kuo... The school is known as Shingon in Japan, where it is one of the most important Buddhist schools. "
Shingon Japan - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 322. "Shingon school - Jap., lit. 'School of the True Word [mantra]'; school of esoteric Buddhism founded by Kukai (Kobo Daishi) 774-835... The Shingon school is still today one of the largest Buddhist schools of Japan. "
Shingon Japan 10,475,770 8.40% - - 1993 O'Brien, J. & M. Palmer. The State of Religion Atlas. Simon & Schuster: New York (1993); pg. 26-27. "Shares of Buddhist sect membership in Japan, 1981: Tendai: 30%; Nichiren: 30%; Pure Land: 18%; Shingon: 10%; Zen: 8%; Nara: 4%. " Percentages and numbers made using est. of 84% of Japan being Buddhist, total pop. of country: 124,711,551 (1993).
Shinnyo-en Japan 543,959 0.47% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991 reprint; 1st pub. 1984). [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.]; pg. 373. "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " Classified as Buddhist (year of origin: 1948). Listed as "Shinnyo-en ".
Shinreikyo Japan - - - - 1921 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996); pg. 112-113. "Kyoha Shinto: 'Sect Shinto'... In 1921... the official association of Shinto sects had 13 groups... list also included Izumo oyashiro-kyo, Jikko-kyo, Misogi-kyo, Shinshu-kyo, Shinto shuseiha and Shinri-rikyo. "
Shinreikyo Japan 266,120 0.23% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991 reprint; 1st pub. 1984). [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.]; pg. 373. "Table: Some surviving new religious orgs. in Japan "; "Membership figures, voluntarily reported..., as found in the 1979 ed. of the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook). " Classified as Shinto new religion (year of origin: 1843).
Shinreikyo Japan 100,000 - - - 1991 *LINK* Wilson, Andrew (ed). "The World Religions and their Scriptures ", subpage: "Shinreikyo " in World Scripture. International Religious Foundation, 1991. (viewed 9 July 1999) "Statistics on the size and influence of our organization: According to the Cultural Affairs Agency of the Japanese government, Shinreikyo has a membership of about 100,000. Amazingly, almost every follower has personally experienced miracles in one form or other. This is truly unprecedented in the history of humanity. "
Shinreikyo Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 136. "Sect Shinto consists of a wide range of sects with very different philosophies and practices. 13 are officially recognized, from the so-called pure sects of Shinto Honkyoku, Shinri Kyo, and Taisha Kyo to the overtly Confucian-influenced sects Shusei Ha and Teisei Kyo. "
Shinreikyo world 100,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "New Religious Movements " (University of Virginia); web page: "Shinreikyo " (viewed 31 Jan. 1999); "Created by Jeffrey K. Hadden For Sociology 497, Fall 1998; Last updated: 11/17/98 "; [Orig. source: Interview with Kazuhiko Hosokawa, Priest and Head of Shinreikyo Information Center, 5/16/98] "Size of Group: 100,000 (Interview with Kazuhiko Hosokawa) "
Shinreikyo world 100,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* web site: New Religious Movements (University of Virginia) (1998) [Orig. source: Interview with Kazuhiko Hosokawa] -
Shinshu Kyo Japan - - - - 1890 *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "SHINSHUKYO: an ESOTERIC SHINTO religious movement founded by Yoshimura Masamochi in the late nineteenth century to restore SHINTO ORTHODOXY and promote divine healing. Its best known Rites are a fire walking ceremony and bodily purification using boiling water. "
Shinshu Kyo Japan - - - - 1921 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996); pg. 112-113. "Kyoha Shinto: 'Sect Shinto'... In 1921... the official association of Shinto sects had 13 groups... list also included Izumo oyashiro-kyo, Jikko-kyo, Misogi-kyo, Shinshu-kyo, Shinto shuseiha and Shinri-rikyo. "
Shinshu Kyo Japan - - - - 1996 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996); pg. 172. "Shinshu-kyo: Kami-practice-sect. A Meiji period Shinto new religious movement founded by Yoshimura, Masamochi (1839-1915), a member of the Shinto Onakatomi family. It received formal government recognition... in 1880... In focusing attention on the national rites, devotion to the emperor and the prosperity of the country Shinshu-kyo conformed closely with the aims of the taikyo undo. Today members undergo ascetic rituals of chinka-shiki, kugatachi-shiki, misogi and other forms of abstinence and meditation as methods of purification... "
Shinshu Kyo Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 136. "Sect Shinto consists of a wide range of sects with very different philosophies and practices. 13 are officially recognized... Shinshu Kyo and Misogi Kyo stress purification rites over everything else. "
Shinto Africa 1,200 - - - 1981 Popenoe, David. Sociology (5th Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. (1983). [Source: 1981 Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 433. Table: Membership in the Major Religions of the World "
Shinto Africa 1,200 0.00% - - 1982 Robertson, Ian. Sociology (2nd ed.); New York, NY: Worth Publishers (1981 2nd edition; updated since 1977 1st ed.). [Orig. source: Encyclopaedia Britannica Book of the Year, 1982]; pg. 405. Table: "Estimated membership of the principal religions of the world "
Shinto Africa 0 0.00% - - 1995 The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1996 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 646. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1995 "
Shinto Africa 0 0.00% - - 1996 The World Almanac & Book of Facts 1998 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1997 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 654. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1996 "
Shinto Africa 200 0.00% - - 1996 *LINK* web site: "The Geography of Religion Website " (assembled by the students of Morehead State University, under Prof. Timothy C. Pitts); web page: "The Geography of Shintoism " (viewed 2 March 1999); [Orig. source: Markham, Ian S., (Editor), A World Religions Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers (1996), pp. 356-357.] table with 3 columns: "Area "; "Adherents "; "Population Percentage "
Shinto Africa 0 0.00% - - 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999). [Source: 1999 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 695. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1998 "
Shinto Asia 57,003,000 - - - 1981 Popenoe, David. Sociology (5th Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. (1983). [Source: 1981 Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 433. Table: Membership in the Major Religions of the World "
Shinto Asia 58,003,000 2.22% - - 1982 Robertson, Ian. Sociology (2nd ed.); New York, NY: Worth Publishers (1981 2nd edition; updated since 1977 1st ed.). [Orig. source: Encyclopaedia Britannica Book of the Year, 1982]; pg. 405. Table: "Estimated membership of the principal religions of the world "
Shinto Asia 2,840,000 0.08% - - 1995 The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1996 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 646. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1995 "
Shinto Asia 2,893,000 0.08% - - 1996 The World Almanac & Book of Facts 1998 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1997 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 654. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1996 "
Shinto Asia 3,220,000 0.10% - - 1996 *LINK* web site: "The Geography of Religion Website " (assembled by the students of Morehead State University, under Prof. Timothy C. Pitts); web page: "The Geography of Shintoism " (viewed 2 March 1999); [Orig. source: Markham, Ian S., (Editor), A World Religions Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers (1996), pp. 356-357.] table with 3 columns: "Area "; "Adherents "; "Population Percentage "; [Geographical regions in this table: Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, Northern America, Oceania, and Eurasia]
Shinto Asia 2,727,000 0.08% - - 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999). [Source: 1999 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 695. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1998 "
Shinto Australia 541 0.00% - - 1996 *LINK* Parliament of Australia web site; page: "Census 96: Religion " (viewed 18 Dec. 1999) Self-identification, from 1996 govt. census. [Includes 524 people who specified "Shinto " as their religion, 17 people in "Japanese religions not further defined category ", but not 46 people who specified Tenrikyo.]
Shinto Canada 445 - - - 1991 *LINK* web site: "Toronto Consultants on Religious Tolerance "; web page: "Shinto " (viewed 2 March 1999) "One source estimates 1000 followers of Shinto in North America. The Canadian Census (1991) recorded only 445 in Canada. "
Shinto Eurasia 100 0.00% - - 1996 *LINK* web site: "The Geography of Religion Website " (assembled by the students of Morehead State University, under Prof. Timothy C. Pitts); web page: "The Geography of Shintoism " (viewed 2 March 1999); [Orig. source: Markham, Ian S., (Editor), A World Religions Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers (1996), pp. 356-357.] table with 3 columns: "Area "; "Adherents "; "Population Percentage "; [Geographical regions in this table: Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, Northern America, Oceania, and Eurasia]
Shinto Europe - 0.00% - - 1981 Popenoe, David. Sociology (5th Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. (1983). [Source: 1981 Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 433. Table: Membership in the Major Religions of the World "
Shinto Europe 1,000 0.00% - - 1995 The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1996 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 646. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1995 "
Shinto Europe 1,000 0.00% - - 1996 The World Almanac & Book of Facts 1998 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1997 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 654. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1996 "
Shinto Europe 500 0.00% - - 1996 *LINK* web site: "The Geography of Religion Website " (assembled by the students of Morehead State University, under Prof. Timothy C. Pitts); web page: "The Geography of Shintoism " (viewed 2 March 1999); [Orig. source: Markham, Ian S., (Editor), A World Religions Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers (1996), pp. 356-357.] table with 3 columns: "Area "; "Adherents "; "Population Percentage "; [Geographical regions in this table: Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, Northern America, Oceania, and Eurasia]
Shinto Europe 0 0.00% - - 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999). [Source: 1999 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 695. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1998 "
Shinto Hawaii - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 2 - Americas. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 225. "Most Hawaiians are Christian, with a majority of those being Roman Catholic. Buddhists and followers of Shinto religion are the largest minorities in the state. "
Shinto Japan 18,000,000 - 16,000
units
- 1945 Ferm, Vergilius (ed). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976; 1st ed. pub. 1945 by Philosophical Library); pg. 708. "The statistical totals for all sects combined show 18,000,000 adherents, 121,000 priests and teachers, and 16,000 churches. "
Shinto Japan - - - - 1945 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998); pg. 282. "...since the American occupation following World War II, they have not been controlled by the government. In fact, it was only during the period from the Meiji Restoration of 1868 through the end of World War II that the government took any direct part in Shinto. "
Shinto Japan - - - - 1945 Stack, Peggy Fletcher. A World of Faith. USA: Signature Books (1998); pg. 45. "Shintoists... Thousands of shrines were built, honoring the various kami and the emperor. After Japan was defeated in World War II, however, the people stopped worshipping the emperor and made Shinto a religion of the people. "
Shinto Japan 77,780,320 89.42% - - 1953 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991 reprint; 1st pub. 1984). [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.]; pg. 368. Table: #s of adherents to major religious traditions "Numbers of people claimed by religious organizations as of 31 Dec. in a given year " [Note: figures consistently exceed pop. of Japan by up to 75% due to overlapping claims of Shinto & Buddhist org.]
Shinto Japan 76,844,824 83.74% - - 1958 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991 reprint; 1st pub. 1984). [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.]; pg. 368. Table: #s of adherents to major religious traditions "Numbers of people claimed by religious organizations as of 31 Dec. in a given year " [Note: figures consistently exceed pop. of Japan by up to 75% due to overlapping claims of Shinto & Buddhist org.]
Shinto Japan 80,284,640 83.49% - - 1963 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991 reprint; 1st pub. 1984). [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.]; pg. 368. Table: #s of adherents to major religious traditions "Numbers of people claimed by religious organizations as of 31 Dec. in a given year " [Note: figures consistently exceed pop. of Japan by up to 75% due to overlapping claims of Shinto & Buddhist org.]
Shinto Japan - - - - 1966 Welty, Paul Thomas. The Asians: Their Heritage and Their Destiny (Revised Edition). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. (1966); pg. 242. "Today shrines and temples exist peacefully together, representing to the Japanese mind not contradictions but only differences of function. Today in Japan a new baby may be taken to a Shinto priest for a religious service, but should he die, his funeral will be conducted by Buddhists priests. Many homes have both buddhist altars and Shinto sacred shelves. "
Shinto Japan - - - - 1966 Welty, Paul Thomas. The Asians: Their Heritage and Their Destiny (Revised Edition). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. (1966); pg. 243. "Shinto is not dead in Japan. It continues to grow and change and influence the lives of the Japanese people. "
Shinto Japan 83,458,688 82.36% - - 1968 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991 reprint; 1st pub. 1984). [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.]; pg. 368. Table: #s of adherents to major religious traditions "Numbers of people claimed by religious organizations as of 31 Dec. in a given year " [Note: figures consistently exceed pop. of Japan by up to 75% due to overlapping claims of Shinto & Buddhist org.]
Shinto Japan 68,311,816 67.00% - - 1969 Anderson, Norman (ed.). The World's Religions; Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. (1989). [1st pub. in 1950. 4th ed., completely revised, pub. 1975.] (Article: "Shinto " by Clark B. Offner.); pg. 213. "the statistics given in the annual... Religious Yearbook cannot be accepted at face value owing to the questionable &... loose methods of... estimating adherents [but] 1969 Yearbook listing 68,311,818 adherents... about 2/3 of population... "
Shinto Japan 87,414,776 80.12% - - 1973 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991 reprint; 1st pub. 1984). [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.]; pg. 368. Table: #s of adherents to major religious traditions "Numbers of people claimed by religious organizations as of 31 Dec. in a given year " [Note: figures consistently exceed pop. of Japan by up to 75% due to overlapping claims of Shinto & Buddhist org.]
Shinto Japan - - 80,000
units
- 1975 Anderson, Norman (ed.). The World's Religions; Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. (1989). [1st pub. in 1950. 4th ed., completely revised, pub. 1975.] (Article: "Shinto " by Clark B. Offner.); pg. 211. "Organizationally, the majority of Shinto shrines were soon joined together into a major, nation-wide shrine association which presently claims close to 80,000 members and a few national associations. "
Shinto Japan 98,545,704 85.56% - - 1978 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991 reprint; 1st pub. 1984). [Orig. src: Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics.]; pg. 368. Table: #s of adherents to major religious traditions "Numbers of people claimed by religious organizations as of 31 Dec. in a given year " [Note: figures consistently exceed pop. of Japan by up to 75% due to overlapping claims of Shinto & Buddhist org.]
Shinto Japan 3,800,746 3.30% - - 1979 Reid, D. "Japanese Religions " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st pub. 1984]; pg. 379. "Another survey, conducted in 1979, asked people if they professed any religious faith. Affirmative replies [were] to 33.6%. " Most who said yes identified their faith as Buddhist (78.4%). Only 3.3% identified their faith as Shinto.
Shinto Japan - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 685. "The postwar period has been a difficult time for Shinto, and in modern homes the Shinto altar has been given up more frequently than the Buddhist altar (Butsudan). But some feel that the postwar changes present Shinto with the challenge it needs to form a new and vital tradition. Obligatory financing and participation in local shrines is no longer possible, and new forms of organzing local people along the lines of voluntary organizations are being tried. Shinto has long defined a distinctively Japanese spiritual tradition, and will continue to do so, both in Japanese culture generally as well as in its influence upon other religions, notably Buddhism and the new religions. "
Shinto Japan 85,000,000 - 81,000
units
- 1983 Dolan, Jr., Edward F. & Shan Finney. The New Japan; New York: Franklin Watts (1983); pg. 50. "Today, the Shinto religion claims about 85 million followers. Although few modern Japanese believe the Shinto legends, Shinto customs are still carried on... More than 81 thousand Shinto shrines... visited by worshipers & sightseers. "
Shinto Japan 115,602,000 95.54% 90,832
units
- 1985 *LINK* [Orig. source: The International Society for Educational Information, Inc., Tokyo (1998)] "Figures on religious orgs... in 1985 as reported by religious orgs. to the Agency for Cultural Affairs are as follows: Shinto Buddhism Christianity miscellaneous: Shrines, Temples & Churches: 90,832 84,613 8,616 42,027; Priests, Clergy & Ministers 102,000 269,000 22,000 253,000; Members: 115,602,000 92,065,000 1,688,000 14,444,000 "; "The total membership of all religious organizations exceeds the total population of the nation (121 million). The number of adherents to either Shinto or Buddhism alone comes close to the national population. This results from the fact that the same person is often counted as a member by the Shinto shrine of his neighbor hood and again by the Buddhist temple with which his ancestors became affiliated. (Christian church member ship, in principle, excludes affiliation with other religious groups.) "
Shinto Japan - - 81,000
units
- 1987 Bishop, Peter & Michael Darton (editors). The Encyclopedia of World Faiths: An Illustrated Survey of the World's Living Faiths. New York: Facts on File Publications (1987); pg. 293. "...an association of Shinto shrines was formed in 1946, to which at present about 80,000 shrines belong; about 1000 shrines remain independent. "
Shinto Japan - 40.00% - - 1992 Goring, Rosemary (ed). Larousse Dictionary of Beliefs & Religions (Larousse: 1994); pg. 581-584. Table: "Population Distribution of Major Beliefs "; "Figures have been compiled from the most accurate recent available information and are in most cases correct to the nearest 1% "
Shinto Japan - 3.00% - - 1992 *LINK* web site: "A Brief Survey of Religion in Modern Japan " (1998). By Paul A. Shew, December 1, 1992. (Waseda University, Tokyo) "In independent surveys where people are asked to state their own religion, there are the approximate results: Shinto 2-3%; Buddhism 20%; Christianity 1-2%; a new religion 10%; no religion 65% "
Shinto Japan 100,000,000 - - - 1992 Wolff, Michael. Where We Stand: Can America Make it in the Global Race for Wealth, Health, and Happiness? Bantam Books: New York (1992); pg. 205. "In Japan, although Shintoism claims almost 100 million adherents and Buddhism nearly 90 million (more than the total Japanese population), polls indicate that fewer than 30% of Japanese people have any real religious beliefs. "
Shinto Japan - 27.00% - - 1992 Wolff, Michael. Where We Stand: Can America Make it in the Global Race for Wealth, Health, and Happiness? Bantam Books: New York (1992); pg. 206-207. Chart
Shinto Japan 119,474,096 95.80% - - 1993 *LINK* Library of Congress Country Studies 124,711,551 [total pop.] (1993). Shinto 95.8 percent, Buddhist 76.3 percent (most observe both Shinto and Buddhist rites), and 12 percent other religions, including 1.4 percent Christian.
Shinto Japan - 80.00% - - 1995 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: Feb. `95 issue of GLOBAL PRAYER DIGEST); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) TOTAL POPULATION IN 1995: 126,319,000. Shinto: 80 percent -- (Overlaps with Buddhist); Buddhist: 58 percent; New Religions: (mostly Buddhist or Shinto offshoots) 24 percent; Muslim: 0.2 percent; Christian: 1.5 percent.
Shinto Japan 117,378,184 94.00% 85,668
units
- 1995 *LINK* web site: "Basic Facts Christianity in Japan at a Glance " (1998). 1996, 1997, 1998 Paul Tsuchido Shew. Source: 1995 Shukyo Nenkan (Religious Yearbook), Ministry of Education, Agency for Cultural Affairs, Pg. 30-31. Table: "Statistics on Religious Organizations in Japan as of December 31, 1995 "


Shinto, continued

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