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43,941 adherent statistic citations: membership and geography data for 4,300+ religions, churches, tribes, etc.

Index

back to Shiite, Lebanon

Shiite, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Shiite Lebanon 1,370,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year; pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop.
Shiite Mauritius 8,852 0.80% - - 1993 *LINK* Library of Congress Country Studies 1,106,516 [total pop.] (1993). Hindu (49 percent), Christian (27 percent Roman Catholic, 0.5 percent Protestant), Muslim (16 percent, of which 95 percent Sunni), and other (7.5 percent).
Shiite Oman 948,750 75.00% - - 1994 Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn. Islamic Society in Practice; Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida (1994); pg. 21. Map: "Shi'ite population in the Middle East. Copyright by Diederik Vanderwalle. "
Shiite Pakistan - 20.00% - - 1992 Ovendale, Ritchie. The Longman Companion to The Middle East since 1914. London & New York: Longman (1992); pg. 222. "Shiites... make up a considerable proportion of Iraq's population, and around 20% of the population of Pakistan. "
Shiite Pakistan 12,000,000 17.00% - - 1994 Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn. Islamic Society in Practice; Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida (1994); pg. 21. Map: "Shi'ite population in the Middle East. Copyright by Diederik Vanderwalle. "
Shiite Pakistan 35,125,000 25.00% - - 1995 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 612-614. "Location: Pakistan; Population: 140.5 million... (1995 estimate) "; Pg. 614: "...some 25% of the population are Shi'ah Muslims, who are often at odds with the Sunni majority. "
Shiite Pakistan 26,700,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year; pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop.
Shiite Pakistan 26,437,060 20.00% - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Total population: 132,185,299 (July 1997 est.) Note: no national census has been conducted since 1981. Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi'a 20%), Christian, Hindu, and other 3%.
Shiite Pakistan - 25.00% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 549. "In Pakistan, some 25% of the population are Shi'ahs, belong mostly to the Ismaili and Ashariya sects. "
Shiite Pakistan: Punjab 5,500,000 - - - 1994 Halm, Heinz. Shi'a Islam: From Religion to Revolution. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers (1997). Translated from German by Allison Brown. (German version pub. 1994 in Munich by Verlag C.H. Beck); pg. ix-x. "...on the Indian subcontinent, there are larger islands of predominantly Shi'i populations in the Pakistani Punjab (approx. 5.5 million); other Shi'i populations exist in India, around Avadh (Oudh) north of the Ganges and around Hyderabad in the central Deccan peninsula, as well as the Kashmir region disputed by India and Pakistan (together approx. 23 million). "
Shiite Saudi Arabia 615,000 5.00% - - 1992 *LINK* Library of Congress Country Studies 1992: 16.9 million, of whom 12.3 million Saudi nationals, 4.6 million resident foreigners. Strict Wahhabi interpretation of Sunni Islam, the official faith of about 95 percent of Saudis. Remainder are Shia. Public worship by non-Muslims prohibited.
Shiite Saudi Arabia 250,000 - - - 1992 Ovendale, Ritchie. The Longman Companion to The Middle East since 1914. London & New York: Longman (1992); pg. 222. "There are around quarter of a milion Shiites in Saudi Arabia. "
Shiite Saudi Arabia 200,000 4.00% - - 1994 Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn. Islamic Society in Practice; Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida (1994); pg. 21. Map: "Shi'ite population in the Middle East. Copyright by Diederik Vanderwalle. "
Shiite Saudi Arabia 620,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year; pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop.
Shiite Saudi Arabia 2,400,000 15.00% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 676-677. "Location: Saudi Arabia; Population: 10 to 16 million "; Pg. 677: "Most Saudis (85%) are Sunni Muslims; the rest are Shiite. "
Shiite Syria 90,100 0.85% - - 1986 *LINK* Library of Congress Country Studies Approx. 10.6 million in 1986, incl. about 250,000 Palestinian refugees. About 13 to 15 percent of Muslims are Alawis; less than 1 percent, Shias; and remainder, Sunnis.
Shiite Syria 1,300,000 17.00% - - 1994 Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn. Islamic Society in Practice; Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida (1994); pg. 21. Map: "Shi'ite population in the Middle East. Copyright by Diederik Vanderwalle. "
Shiite Syria 1,780,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year; pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop.
Shiite Tajikistan 300,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year; pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop.
Shiite Tajikistan 297,295 5.00% - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Total population: 5,945,903. Sunni Muslim 80%, Shi'a Muslim 5%
Shiite Turkey - 14.00% - - 1988 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: Reach Out to the Muslim World, International Students, Inc. Spring/Summer 1988.); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) Total population: 51,400,000. Muslim 99.5% (Sunni Muslim 85%, Alevi Shiite, 14%) Christian 0.3 % (Chiefly confined to national and foreign minorities) Other 0.2%.
Shiite Turkey 6,000,000 15.00% - - 1994 Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn. Islamic Society in Practice; Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida (1994); pg. 21. Map: "Shi'ite population in the Middle East. Copyright by Diederik Vanderwalle. "
Shiite Turkey - Kurds - - - - 1993 Chaliand, Gerard (ed). A People Without a Country: The Kurds and Kurdistan. New York: Olive Branch Press (1993 - revised first American edition); pg. 41. "Nearly all Kurds (99%) are Muslims... Most of the Kurdish Muslims are Shafeite Sunnis. The Shiites (Qizilbash or Alawi...) number only several hundred thousand, residing mainly in Dersim, Elazig and Maras. "
Shiite United Arab Emirates 241,600 20.00% - - 1983 Tarr, David R. & Bryan R. Daves (editors). The Middle East (6th Ed.); Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Inc. (1986); pg. 223. "Population: 1,208,000. Religion: Moslem, 20% Shi'ite. "; "indigenous Emiri inhabitants account for less than one-quarter of the federation's inhabitants. " [All-Moslem, 20% Shiite figure presumably for native/citizen pop.]
Shiite United Arab Emirates - 20.00% - - 1992 Goring, Rosemary (ed). Larousse Dictionary of Beliefs & Religions (Larousse: 1994); pg. 581-584. Table: "Population Distribution of Major Beliefs "; "Figures have been compiled from the most accurate recent available information and are in most cases correct to the nearest 1% "
Shiite United Arab Emirates 475,200 17.60% - - 1993 *LINK* Library of Congress Country Studies Est. at 2.7 million in mid-1993. Foreigners (mostly male workers) were 88% of pop. Most citizens Sunni Muslims. About 60 percent of foreign population Sunnis; 20 percent Shia Muslims; 20 percent Hindus, Christians, and other.
Shiite United Arab Emirates 9,000 3.00% - - 1994 Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn. Islamic Society in Practice; Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida (1994); pg. 21. Map: "Shi'ite population in the Middle East. Copyright by Diederik Vanderwalle. "
Shiite United Arab Emirates 400,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year; pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop.
Shiite United Arab Emirates 361,969 16.00% - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Total population: 2,262,309 (July 1997 est.) note: includes 1,546,547 non-nationals (July 1997 est.). Muslim 96% (Shi'a 16%), Christian, Hindu, and other 4%.
Shiite USA - - - - 1993 *LINK* Religious Requirements & Practices of Certain Selected Groups: A Handbook for Chaplains (1993) - (online ed. - 1998); contract #: MDA903-90-C-0062 w/ Dept. of Defense; J. Gordon Melton, Project Director & James Lewis. "MEMBERSHIP: Not reported. [Editor's note: The number of Shi'a Muslims, estimated from immigration figures form predominantly Shi'a Muslim nations, is in the hundreds of thousands.] "; This refers to the number in the USA.
Shiite world 20,000,000 - - - 1957 Welles, Sam. The World's Great Religions, New York: Time Incorporated (1957); pg. 118. "Of Islam's scores of minority sects, the more than 20 million Shiites are the largest... mainly live in Iran, Iraq, Yemen and the India subcontinent... "
Shiite world 20,000,000 - - - 1958 Welles, Sam. The World's Great Religions, New York: Western Publishing Co. (1972). [11th printing; original edition: 1958]; pg. 94. "The largest minority sect, the Shiites, now some 20 million strong, hold that the succession cme through Mohammed's family... "
Shiite world - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 11). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1469. "There is... within Islam a party which considers a leader of paramount importance. This is Shiite Islam, the official religion of Persia and the religion of important communities in Iraq, India, Pakistan and elsewhere. The Shiites speak of an imam whose function as a leader is more comprehensive than that of a caliph. "
Shiite world - - - - 1975 Nyrop, Richard F., et al. Area Handbook for Egypt (3rd Ed.). Washington, D.C.: Foreign Area Studies of The American University (1976; research completed 1975); pg. 116. "The early political rivalry remained active as well. Shiism gained political dominance of Iraq, Persia (Iran), and Yemen; Shiites are also numerous in Syria and found in small numbers in most Muslim countries today. "
Shiite world 46,200,000 - - - 1976 Hopfe, Lews M. Religions of the World, Macmillan Publishing Co.: New York (1983) [3rd edition]; pg. 457. "It is estimated that approximately 14 percent of all the Muslims of the world are Shi'ites. " [Total world Muslim population previously given as one-third of a billion, on page 431.]
Shiite world - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 679. "Shi'a; Shi'ite (Arabic.; lit. 'separate or distinct party'). The branch of Islam composed of those sects that are followers of Ali and upholders of his direct succession to the office of Imam after Muhammad. " Illustration: Early Shiite branches include: Zaydiyya, Isma'iliyya (Batiniyya), Imamiyya (Twelvers). From Isma'iliyya arose Sab'iyya (Seveners), Nizariyya (or Assassins or Khojas) and Must'aliyya (Bohoras). From Seveners arose Qarmatians, Mubarakiyya and Khattabiyya. From Must'aliyya arose Tayibiyya and Hafiziyya. From Tayibiyya arose Da'udi and Sulaymani. "
Shiite world 26,000,000 - - - 1983 Berger, Gilda. Religion: A Reference First Book. New York: Franklin Watts (1983); pg. 44. "Most Moslems, over 560 million, are Sunnites. The Shiites number fewer than 26 million. "
Shiite world 70,000,000 1.67% - - 1984 Welch, Alford T. "Islam " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st published in 1984]; pg. 130. "Altogether there are well over 700 million Muslims, or about one-sixth of the world population. Shi'a Muslims, mostly in Iran and Iraq, make up about one-tenth of the total Muslim population of the world. "
Shiite world 83,200,000 2.00% - - 1985 Wright, Robin. Sacred Rage: The Crusade of Modern Islam. New York: Linden Press/Simon & Schuster (1985); pg. 21. "Of the 832 million Muslims in seventy nations--accounting for almost one-fifth of mankind--roughly 10 percent are Shia...'
Shiite world 150,000,000 - - - 1992 Ovendale, Ritchie. The Longman Companion to The Middle East since 1914. London & New York: Longman (1992); pg. 218, 222. "Islam... has between 900 million and 1,000 million adherents... "; pg. 222: "Around 15 per cent of Muslims are Shiites. Shiism is the official religion of Iran and most of that country's population is Shiite. Shiites are the largest group in Lebanon, make up a considerable proportion of Iraq's population, and around 20% of the population of Pakistan. "
Shiite world 100,000,000 - - - 1994 Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn. Islamic Society in Practice; Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida (1994); pg. 20. "The religion of Islam is divided into two great branches, the Sunni and the Shi'a, with the former branch constituting over 90% of the world community of believers. " [total world Muslim pop. given as nearly 1 billion, pg. 1]
Shiite world 110,000,000 - - - 1994 Halm, Heinz. Shi'a Islam: From Religion to Revolution. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers (1997). Translated from German by Allison Brown. (German version pub. 1994 in Munich by Verlag C.H. Beck); pg. x. "In all, there are approx. 100 million Shi'ites in the Islamic core countries, and about 110 million if the Shi'i diaspora is included, making up about 10% of all Muslims worldwide. Shi'i settlements are spread out, forming no contiguous territory, and Shi'i Muslims belong to various ethnic-linguistic groups: they are Arabs, Iranians, Turkish Azeris, Mongolian Hezara, and Indians. "
Shiite world - - - - 1994 *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "SHI'ISM... followers of MUHAMMAD'S son-in-law ALI... The Shi'a are the dominant group in Iran and Iraq. "
Shiite world 150,000,000 - - - 1994 Neusner, Jacob (ed). World Religions in America: An Introduction; Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press (1994); pg. 243-244. "The majority of the world's one billion Muslims are Asian and African...The two major groups are Sunni Muslims, who comprise about 85% of Muslims, and Shii Muslims, who account for 15% of the world's Muslim population. "
Shiite world 175,941,440 3.08% - - 1995 The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1996 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 646. "Muslims. 83% Sunni Muslims, 16% Shia Muslims (Shiites), 1% other schools. " Islam world total: 1,099,634,000. Total world population: 5,716,425,000.
Shiite world 180,212,000 3.10% - - 1996 The World Almanac & Book of Facts 1998 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1997 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 654. "Muslims. 83% Sunni Muslims, 16% Shia Muslims (Shiites), 1% other schools. " Islam world total: 1,126,325,000. Total world population: 5,716,425,000.
Shiite world 150,000,000 - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 432. Pg. 430: "Roughly 85% of the 1 billion Muslims in the world today are Sunni, although there are dozens of non-Sunni sects. "; Pg. 432: "Shiites?It is the dominant religious community in modern Iran, Lebanon, and Bahrain but accounts for less than 15% of all Muslims. Although relegated to the southern part of Iraq... Shiites constitute roughly half of the population of Iraq. "
Shiite world 117,933,000 - - - 1998 Ash, Russell. The Top 10 of Everything 1999. New York: DK Publishing (1998); pg. 77. Table: "Top 10 Organized Religious Groups in the World "; Rank: #6
Shiite world - Kurds 4,400,000 20.00% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 414-415. "Kurds: Location: Turkey; Iraq; Syria; Iran; Lebanon; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Germany; Population: 5 - 22 million; Religion: Islam "; "Population estimates for the Kurds range from 5 million to 22 million. It is difficult to get an accurate count because the Kurds live in remote mountain areas... "; "About one-fifth are Shi'ite, especially in Iran. "
Shiite Yemen - 47.00% - - 1992 Goring, Rosemary (ed). Larousse Dictionary of Beliefs & Religions (Larousse: 1994); pg. 581-584. Table: "Population Distribution of Major Beliefs "; "Figures have been compiled from the most accurate recent available information and are in most cases correct to the nearest 1% "
Shiite Yemen 3,170,000 36.00% - - 1994 Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn. Islamic Society in Practice; Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida (1994); pg. 21. Map: "Shi'ite population in the Middle East. Copyright by Diederik Vanderwalle. "
Shiite Yemen Arab Republic 3,848,000 50.00% - - 1983 Tarr, David R. & Bryan R. Daves (editors). The Middle East (6th Ed.); Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Inc. (1986); pg. 226-229. "North Yemen... Population: 7,696,000. "; "Unlike North Yemen's population, evenly divided between Shi'ites & Sunnis, South Yemen's population is vitually all Sunni. "
Shilluk Sudan - - - 1
country
1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures
Shilluk Sudan 150,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 1 - Africa. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 382-383. "Shilluk: Location: Sudan; Population: about 150,000; Religion: Animism; indigenous beliefs "; "The Shilluk are concentrated along the western banks and islands of the White Nile, especially between the Renk-Malakal reach, as well as being located on the lower section of the Sobat River. "; Pg. 383: "The complex animist religious beliefs of the Shilluk are held most devoutly... A few Shilluk have turned to Islam and Christianity, but traditional beliefs are still strongly held. "
Shiloh Apostolic Temple Pennsylvania: Philadelphia 500 - 1
unit
- 1980 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 269. "In 1980 the church had 4,500 members of which 500 were in the congregation in Philadelphia. "
Shiloh Apostolic Temple Trinidad and Tobago - - 2
units
- 1980 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 269. "In 1980... reported 23 congregations, of which 8 were in England and 2 in Trinidad. "
Shiloh Apostolic Temple United Kingdom: England - - 8
units
- 1980 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 269. "In 1980... reported 23 congregations, of which 8 were in England and 2 in Trinidad. "
Shiloh Apostolic Temple USA - - 13
units
- 1980 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 269. "In 1980... reported 23 congregations, of which 8 were in England and 2 in Trinidad. "
Shiloh Apostolic Temple world 4,500 - 23
units
3
countries
1980 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.) The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); Chapter: Pentecostal Family; section: Apostolic Pentecostals; pg. 268-269. "Shiloh Apostolic Temple... Philadelphia, PA [H.Q.]... was founded in 1953 by... Robert O. Doub, Jr., of the Apostolic Church of Christ in God... Membership: In 1980 the church had 4,500 members of which 500 were in the congregation in Philadelphia. The church reported 23 congregations, of which 8 were in England and 2 in Trinidad. "
Shin Japan 13,327,000 - 19,815
units
- 1945 Ferm, Vergilius (ed). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976; 1st ed. pub. 1945 by Philosophical Library); pg. 105. "Pure Land School [of Buddhism]:... Minor differences exist in the four Japanese sects of Jodo (8,245 temples & 3,646,000 adherents), Shin (19,815 & 13,327,000), Yuzenembutsu (357 & 153,000), and Ji (494 & 350,000). "
Shin Japan 14,245,000 - - - 1956 Hutchinson, John A. Paths of Faith; New York: McGraw-Hill (1969). [Orig. source: Morgan, Kenneth W. (ed.), The Path of the Buddha; New York: The Ronald Press Co. (1956), pg. 332-333.]; pg. 275. "Today Pure Land Buddhists number some 18,500,000 adherents. Of these, 77 percent are Shin and 16 percent are Jodo, with the rest spread over several smaller groups. "
Shin Japan - - - - 1957 Welles, Sam. The World's Great Religions, New York: Time Incorporated (1957); pg. 57. "Shin shu is the most powerful [Buddhist] sect [in Japan], counting the greatest number of temples, monks and teachers. It believes in the Amitabha Buddha and the madonna-like Kuan Yin. "
Shin Japan - - - - 1966 Welty, Paul Thomas. The Asians: Their Heritage and Their Destiny (Revised Edition). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. (1966); pg. 244. "Buddhism entered Japan as both a bearer and an aspect of Chinese culture and is fundamentally the same as in China. It is divided into various sects, of which the largest and most popular today is the Shin-shu. Shin-shu follows the Chinese type of Mahayana Buddhism and teaches salvation by faith in Amitabha Buddha. It is a ceremonial and pageant-loving sect. "
Shin Ritsu Japan 58,000 - 23
units
- 1945 Ferm, Vergilius (ed). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976; 1st ed. pub. 1945 by Philosophical Library); pg. 98. "The School belongs to the Hinayana and hardly exists in China as an independent sect. It has 23 temples and 58,000 adherents in Japan where it is called Shin Ritsu (New Disciplinary School) since it was reformed by Eison, 1201-1290... "
Shingaku Japan - - - - 1868 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 681. "Shingaku (Jap.; lit. 'heart [mind] learning'). A religious and ethical movement begun by Ishida Baigan (1685-1744) in 1729 and ocntinuing until about the time of the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Its principle appeal was to merchants living in cities, initially in Kyoto and Osaka, later in Tokyo and other major cities throughout Japan; but it also affected the peasantry and samurai and left a residue of influence in the ethics textbooks of the new public school system developed by the Meiji government. "


Shingaku, continued

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