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Index

back to Samaritan, Palestine

Samaritan, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Samaritan world 450,000 - - - 100 C.E. Ross, Dan. Acts of Faith: A Journey to the Fringes of Jewish Identity. New York: St. Martin's Press (1982). [Orig. source: Alan D. Crown, "The Samaritan Diaspora to the End of the Byzantine Era, " Australian Journal of Biblical Archeology 2 (1974-75): 107-23.]; pg. 105. "In Roman times, three hundred thousand Samaritans are estimated to have lived in Palestine and perhaps half that many outside it. The Samaritan diaspora stretched from Sicily to Persia. The major cities of Italy and the eastern Medittanean all contained Samaritan communities: Rome, Salonica, Constantinople, Damascus, and especially Alexandria where they numbered in the tens of thousands. "
Samaritan world 152 - - - 1900 Ross, Dan. Acts of Faith: A Journey to the Fringes of Jewish Identity. New York: St. Martin's Press (1982); pg. 108. "For more than two thousand years they had only married among themselves. Innocuous enough in ancient times when Samaritans numbered in the hundreds of thousands, this practice had obvious drawbacks for a community of 152 individuals--their population at the beginning of this century. "
Samaritan world - - 2
units
2
countries
1966 Ross, Dan. Acts of Faith: A Journey to the Fringes of Jewish Identity. New York: St. Martin's Press (1982); pg. 112. "The second great event... was the Israeli capture of Nablus in 1967. Before the Six Day War, the two Samaritan communities had been separated by an international border. Holon's Samaritans were only allowed to visit Nablus on Passover. Even that pilgrimage had been forbidden in the early years after 1948. Later, it was subject to Jordanian whims. "
Samaritan world - - 2
units
1
country
1968 Ross, Dan. Acts of Faith: A Journey to the Fringes of Jewish Identity. New York: St. Martin's Press (1982); pg. 112. "The second great event... was the Israeli capture of Nablus in 1967. Before the Six Day War, the two Samaritan communities had been separated by an international border. Holon's Samaritans were only allowed to visit Nablus on Passover. Even that pilgrimage had been forbidden in the early years after 1948. Later, it was subject to Jordanian whims. "
Samaritan world 500 - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 647. "Samaritans. Descendants of the original inhabitants of biblical Samaria, estroyed in 722 B.C., who claim to be a remnant of the northern tribes of Israel. More than half of the few hundred survivors of this grop live in the city of Nablus, close to their sacred mountain, Gerizim, on the West Bank of the Jordan. "
Samaritan world 500 - - 1
country
1982 Ross, Dan. Acts of Faith: A Journey to the Fringes of Jewish Identity. New York: St. Martin's Press (1982); pg. 99. In Israel, "in what is now the city of Nablus on the West Bank of the Jordan River, the tiny sect of Samaritans has survived since biblical times... They have lived as an independent people for more than two thousand years: as neither Moslems, Christians, nor Jews. Five hundred Samaritans survive today... About half of them still live in Nablus; the other half live in the Tel Aviv suburb Holon. "
Samaritan - attendance Israel 500 - - - 500 C.E. Ross, Dan. Acts of Faith: A Journey to the Fringes of Jewish Identity. New York: St. Martin's Press (1982); pg. 99, 115. Pg. 99: "Five hundred Samaritans survive today... "; pg. 115: "There are no 'secular' Samaritans, either. 'We have one hundred percent synagogue attendance,' Benny [Tsedaka] said. 'If someone doesn't show up we all run to his house to find out what's wrong.' "
Samaritan Army Illinois: Chicago - - - - 1913 McKinley, Edward H. Marching to Glory: The History of the Salvation Army in the United States of America, 1880-1980. San Francisco: Harper & Row (1980); pg. 115. "1913... A.E. Kimball... wrote [about] 'present difficulty we have in connection with so many Armies.'... Chicago produced the Redeemer's Army, the Christian Army, and the Samaritan, Saved, and Volunteer Rescue Armies. These agencies, which used uniforms, flags, and brass bands wherever they could muster them, caused great confusion to the public, who naturally mistook them for The Salvation Army... "
Samaritan Army Maryland: Baltimore - - - - 1915 McKinley, Edward H. Marching to Glory: The History of the Salvation Army in the United States of America, 1880-1980. San Francisco: Harper & Row (1980); pg. 115. "In December 1913, Brigadier A.E. Kimball... wrote in despair to the national chief secretary, pleading for 'some way out of the present difficulty we have in connection with so many Armies.'... In Baltimore there were... the Samaritan Army, the American Gospel Band, and the Salvation Army Church (not connected with The Salvation Army), all operating in the year 1915. "
Samavesam of Telugu Baptist Churches India 475,639 - 893
units
- 1998 *LINK* Baptist World Alliance web site; page: "BWA Statistics " (viewed 31 March 1999). "Figures are for BWA affiliated conventions/unions only (no independents included). "; Table with 3 columns: Country, "Churches ", & "Members "; "1997/1998 Totals "
Sami Europe - - - - 1690 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 12). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1605. "Today we would probably not use the word witchcraft to describe the Lapp [Sami] religion; but it accurately reflects the attitude of the period, when pagan cults and sorcery were held to be synonymous. The Lapps were extensively converted towards the end of the 17th century, and the change from pagan to Christian belief is reflected in certain of their legends... "
Sami Europe - - - - 1850 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 12). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1605. "Lapland "; Illustration caption: "Stallo, the stupid giant of Lapp legend, may reflect the Lapps' opinion of their dominating neighbours. Among this small, hardy race, spread across the far north of Europe from Russia to the Atlantic coast, pagan practices survived alongside Christianity until well into the 19th century. "
Sami Finland 3,500 - - - 1992 Peddicord, Kathleen (ed). The World's Best: The Ultimate Book for the International Traveler. Baltimore, MD: Agora, Inc. (1992); pg. 191. "Finnish Lapland, the largest and most northerly of Finland's provinces, occupies one-third of the area of Finland and lies entirely above the Arctic Circle... About 3,500 Sami, or Lapps, live in the northernmost parishes: Utsjoki, Enontekio, Inari, and Sodankylo. Until the seventh century, Lapps inhabited all of Finland. After the arrival of the Finns from the Volga, they retreated to the north, where they continue their traditional ways. "
Sami Finland 4,000 - - - 1997 McNair, Sylvia. Finland ( "Enchantment of the World Second Series "). New York: Children's Press (1997); pg. 78. "More than 40,000 Sami live in the Arctic Circle in Norway, Sweden, and part of Russia, including about 4,000 in Finland... Today they are struggling to maintain their own language and culture as the outside world creeps into their lands. "
Sami Finland 4,400 - - - 1997 McNair, Sylvia. Finland ( "Enchantment of the World Second Series "). New York: Children's Press (1997); pg. 80. "The few small minority groups who have lived here for generations differ from the majority more by language or religion than by ties to other lands. They include about 4,400 Sami in the north... "
Sami Finland 4,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 345-346. [NOTE: This is an ethnic/cultural group, NOT a distinct religion] "It is thought that between 30,000 and 35,000 live in Norway, 10,000 in Sweden, 3,000 to 4,000 in Finland, and 1,000 to 2,000 in Russia. "; "Over the course of time, all of the Sami have been converted to Christianity... Today most Sami practice the dominant Lutheran religion of the Nordic countries in which they live. "
Sami Norway - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 12). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1605. "The ancient Norwegians, believing that the Lapps were skilled in sorcery, were in the habit of visiting them secretly to learn their art: indeed their medieval kings were obliged to prohibit journeys to Finmakr for the purpose. (Finmark is the most northerly province of Norway, where many Lapps live.) "
Sami Norway 35,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 345-346. [NOTE: This is an ethnic/cultural group, NOT a distinct religion] "It is thought that between 30,000 and 35,000 live in Norway, 10,000 in Sweden, 3,000 to 4,000 in Finland, and 1,000 to 2,000 in Russia. "; "Over the course of time, all of the Sami have been converted to Christianity... Today most Sami practice the dominant Lutheran religion of the Nordic countries in which they live. "
Sami Russia 2,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 345-346. [NOTE: This is an ethnic/cultural group, NOT a distinct religion] "It is thought that between 30,000 and 35,000 live in Norway, 10,000 in Sweden, 3,000 to 4,000 in Finland, and 1,000 to 2,000 in Russia. "; "Over the course of time, all of the Sami have been converted to Christianity... Today most Sami practice the dominant Lutheran religion of the Nordic countries in which they live. "
Sami Scandinavia - - - - 1910 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 12). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1608. "Christian missionaries first went among the Lapps in the 13th century. But as late as the early 1900s it is recorded that a Lapp fisherman, disappointed with his catch, struck out at the local idol with his oar and knocked its head off -- an interesting case of missionary activity subverting belief in the local divinity, without destroying it. "
Sami Sweden 15,000 0.18% - - 1987 Bjener, Tamiko; MaryLee Knowlton, et al. Sweden (series: Children of the World). Milwaukee: Gareth Stevens Publishing (1987); pg. 50. "...Sweden's 8,500,000 people... Most Swedish Lapps speak their native language and Swedish. About 15,000 of the 40,000 Lapps live in Sweden. They refer to themselves as Sami... "; Pg. 52: "The Sami are proud of their heritage and traditions. Though smaller than most Swedes, they are strong and independent. The Sami population varies in lifestyle and dialect, costume, and present day religion... Most of the Sami are Christian, but many remember the old religious ways. "
Sami Sweden 10,000 - - - 1992 Peddicord, Kathleen (ed). The World's Best: The Ultimate Book for the International Traveler. Baltimore, MD: Agora, Inc. (1992); pg. 190. "Norrland, the Swedish word for Swedish Lapland, covers half the area of Sweden. One-quarter of the country is above the Arctic Circle, and 10,000 Lapps live here. "
Sami Sweden 10,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 345-346. [NOTE: This is an ethnic/cultural group, NOT a distinct religion] "It is thought that between 30,000 and 35,000 live in Norway, 10,000 in Sweden, 3,000 to 4,000 in Finland, and 1,000 to 2,000 in Russia. "; "Over the course of time, all of the Sami have been converted to Christianity... Today most Sami practice the dominant Lutheran religion of the Nordic countries in which they live. "
Sami world 30,000 - - - 1968 Pinney, Roy. Vanishing Tribes. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1968); pg. 97. "Reindeer... outnumber the Lapp population--some 400,000 reindeer to 30,000 Lapps... "
Sami world 40,000 - - - 1987 Bjener, Tamiko; MaryLee Knowlton, et al. Sweden (series: Children of the World). Milwaukee: Gareth Stevens Publishing (1987); pg. 50. "Most Swedish Lapps speak their native language and Swedish. About 15,000 of the 40,000 Lapps live in Sweden. "
Sami world 40,000 - - 4
countries
1997 McNair, Sylvia. Finland ( "Enchantment of the World Second Series "). New York: Children's Press (1997); pg. 78. "More than 40,000 Sami live in the Arctic Circle in Norway, Sweden, and part of Russia, including about 4,000 in Finland. "
Sami world 50,000 - - 4
countries
1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 345-346. [NOTE: This is an ethnic/cultural group, NOT a distinct religion] "Officially, the number of Sami is estimated at between 44,000 and 50,000. "; "Over the course of time, all of the Sami have been converted to Christianity... Today most Sami practice the dominant Lutheran religion of the Nordic countries in which they live. "
Sammatiya Buddhism world - - - - -230 B.C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 129. "The Hinayana enumerates the traditions of 18 schools that developed out of the original community... the Vatsiputriyas (also called Pudgalavadins) separated themselves from the Sthaviras around 240 B.C.E. The Vatsiputriya had 4 subdivisions: Dharmottariya, Bhadrayaniya, Sammatiya, and Sannagarika (or Sandagiriya). "
San Miguel Venezuela - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 2 - Americas. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 364-365. "Pemon: Alternate names: Arecuna, Kamarakoto, Taurepan; Location: Venezuela; Population: Unknown; Religion: Indigenous beliefs mingled with Christian elements "; Pg. 365: "...Pemon have been relatively spared the influence of the modern nation-state... [but] presence of missions has left is mark. Most of the Amerindian thoughts & consciousness came to be mixed to a lesser or higher degree with Christian elements. Chichikrai is the name for Jesus Christ in 3 syncretistic Christian Amerindian cults: Hallelujah, Chochiman, & San Miguel. These cults have the nature of a spiritual movement... Cult saints, like Maria Leonza, a female saint of Amerindian origin whose role is a healing and protecting one, sometimes can hardly be discerned from another local saint, the Virgin of the Valley, who is actually a Maria... in the Catholic sense. "
San Poel Haiti - - - - 1976 Davis, Wade. The Serpent and the Rainbow. New York: Simon & Schuster (1985); pg. 211-212. "Haitian anthropologist... Michel Laguerre... 1976 [met] peasants who had been invited to join secret societies, [but later] converted to Protestantism & hence were willing to talk. There were... secret societies in all parts of the country, & each one maintained control of a specified territory. Names varied from region to region but included Zobop, Bizango, Vlinblindingue, San Poel, Mandingue, &... Macandal... quasi-political arm of the vodoun society charged above all with the protection of the community... "
San-chieh Buddhism China 0 - - - 845 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 300. "San-chieh school - (Chin. lit., 'School of Three Stages'); school of Buddhism during the Sui and T'an periods. The name of this school, founded by Hsin-hsing (540-94), comes from its division of the overall duration of the Buddhist teaching into 3 stages... the School of Three Stages was officially banned in the year 600 but in fact ceased to exist only after 845. "
Sanatan Dhuram Maha Barbados - - 1
unit
- 1998 *LINK* tourism page: "Fun Barbados " Barbados Religion page: church listing. "Currently there are around 60 Anglican churches that can be found on the island and over the years many other denominations have joined and can be found list below. "
Sanctified Church of Christ USA 1,000 - 7
units
- 1971 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.) The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); Chapter: Holiness Family; section: 20th Century Holiness; pg. 221. "Sanctified Church of Christ... Columbus, GA... was formed in 1937 at Columbus, Georgia, by a group of former members of the Methodist Episcopal Church... Membership: Not reported. In the early 1970s there were 7 congregations spread across the deep south. There were approx. 1,000 members. "
Sandemanian USA - - 6
units
- 1776 Finke, Roger & Rodney Stark. The Churching of America, 1776-1990. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press (1992; 3rd printing 1997); [Orig. source: Paullin (1932)]; pg. 25. Table 2.1: "Numbers of Congregations per Denomination, 1776 "
Sandy Creek Baptists North Carolina - - - - 1758 Armstrong, O.K. & Marjorie Armstrong. The Baptists in America. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co. (1979) [revised 2nd edition; originally published in 1967 under the title The Indomitable Baptists]; pg. 96. "By 1762, the Philadelphia Baptist Association had grown to 29 churches with more than 4,000 members... Following the pattern set by this first co-operating group of Baptist churches, other groups formed themselves into associations for united efforts and mutual benefit. The second such association was made by congregations of the Charleston, South Carolina, area, grouping about the Old First Baptist Church. Next came the Sandy Creek Baptists in North Carolina in 1758 and Ketockton Baptist Association in Virginia in 1766. "
Sandy Creek Baptists USA - - - - 1770 Armstrong, O.K. & Marjorie Armstrong. The Baptists in America. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co. (1979) [revised 2nd edition; originally published in 1967 under the title The Indomitable Baptists]; pg. 96. "Discussing the influence of those who went out from old Sandy Creek, the contemporary historian, Morgan Edwards, with some pardonable exaggeration declared: 'All the Separate Baptists sprang hence: not only eastward towards the sea, but westward towards the great river Mississippi, but northward to Virginia and southward to South Carolina and Georgia...' "
Sandy Creek Baptists USA - - - - 1770 Armstrong, O.K. & Marjorie Armstrong. The Baptists in America. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co. (1979) [revised 2nd edition; originally published in 1967 under the title The Indomitable Baptists]; pg. 96. "The Sandy Creek churches were known as Separate Baptists, and in 1770 they had grown strong enough to divide into three associations, one each in Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. "
Sandy Creek Baptists USA - - 42
units
- 1855 Leonard, Bill J. God's Last and Only Hope: The Fragmentation of the Southern Baptist Convention. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdman's Publishing Co. (1990); pg. 33. "A group of Separate Baptists under the leadership of Shubal Stearns and Daniel Marshall formed the Sandy Creek Baptist Church, Sandy Creek, North Carolina. That congregation became the mother church of over forty churches in the region. " [A subgroup within the Southern Baptist tradition.]
Sanga Congo, Republic of the (Brazzaville) - - - 1
country
1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures
Sannagarika Buddhism world - - - - -230 B.C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 129. "The Hinayana enumerates the traditions of 18 schools that developed out of the original community... the Vatsiputriyas (also called Pudgalavadins) separated themselves from the Sthaviras around 240 B.C.E. The Vatsiputriya had 4 subdivisions: Dharmottariya, Bhadrayaniya, Sammatiya, and Sannagarika (or Sandagiriya). "
Sanno Ichijitsu Shinto Japan - - - - 1943 Bocking, Brian. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Surrey, England: Curzon (1996); pg. 153. "Sanno ichijitsu shinto: Also known as Tendai Shinto, Hie Shinto, Sanno Shinto. A tradition of ritual, cosmology and art which developed within the esoteric Tendai tradition based at Mt. Hiei, whose guadian deity sanno... was regarded as a manifestation or avatar of Shakyamuni Buddha... Twenty-one shrines on Mt. Hiei are considered to be gongen of various bosatsu and buddhas. The main proponent of Sanno-ichijitsu-shinto was the Edo period monk Tenkai (Jigen Daishi, 1536-1643) who built the Nikko Toshugu to enshrine Tokugawa, Ieyasu according to Sanno ichijitsu rites. "
Sanron China - - - - 550 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 303-304. "San-lun school - Chin., lit. 'School of Three Treatises'; Chinese form of the Indian Madhyamak. The name refers to the three written works fundamental for the school... These were translated into Chinese and provided with commentary by Kumarajiva in the 5th century... Seng-lang... delimited the San-lun school from the Satyasiddhi school and can thus be regarded as its actual founder. In the 6th century the most important representatives... Fa-lang and Chi-tsang and under them the San-lun school experienced a major upsurge. "
Sanron Japan - - - - 624 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996). Chapter: Buddhism; pg. 122. "By the Nara period (710-94), six schools had been brought over from China: Sanron and Jojitsu (both established in 624), Hosso (654), Kusha (658), Kegon (736), and Ritsu (754); Jojitsu, Kusha, and Ritsu were Hinayana, the other three Mahayana. Of the six, only Hosso, Kegon, and Ritsu have survived in modern Japan, and these have only historical significance and slight membership. "
Sanron Japan - - - - 625 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 305. "Sanron school from Jap. sanron, 'three treatises'; the Japanese form of the Chinese San-lun school, which in turn comes from the Indian Madhyamaka. This school was brought to Japan by the Korean monk Ekwan in the year 625 and further spread there by two of his students. These two set in motion two currents within the Sanron school (Jojitsu school). The Sanron in Japan was never an independently organized school; its teachings were studied by followers of all Buddhist schools... The Sanron school was a major influence on Prince Shotoku (574-622), who unified Japan. "
Sanron Japan - - - - 650 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 303-304. "San-lun school - Chin., lit. 'School of Three Treatises'... In the 7th century it was brought to Japan by Ekwan, a Korean student of Chi-tsang's. After the appearance of the Fa-hsiang school, the San-lun school decreased in importance. "
Sanron Japan - - - - 784 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 524. "The six Nara Buddhist schools. Six scholarly disciplines were pursuied by a small number of monks at designated home temples in Nara. They were extensions of Chinese scholarship... Kusha... Jojitsu... Sanron (Chin.: San-lun, Three Treatises) school. The Mahayana Madhyamika (Middle Path) philosophy of emptiness committed to a systematic negation of any positon by exposing the antinomies innate to 'realist' thinking, thereby endorsing the nonduality of samsara and nirvana as well as other opposites and encouraging a freedom based on nongrasping (of anything as absolute)... Hosso... Kegon... Ritsu... "
Santal Asia - South 4,000,000 - - - 1981 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 667, 669. "Santals: Alternate Name: Hor ko; Hor hopon ko; Manjhi; Location: India; Bangladesh; Population: Over 4 million (1981 census); Language: Santali; Religion: Native Santal religion with influences of Hinduism "; Pg. 669: "Christian missionary efforts among the Santals began during the 19th century, and just under 3% of Santals are now Christian. "
Santal Bangladesh 65,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 667, 669. "Some 65,000 [Santals] live in northeastern Bangladesh, and a few thousand are found in the terai of Nepal. "
Santal Nepal 4,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 667, 669. "Some 65,000 [Santals] live in northeastern Bangladesh, and a few thousand are found in the terai of Nepal. "
Santal religion Asia - South - - - - 1981 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 667, 669. "Santals: Alternate Name: Hor ko; Hor hopon ko; Manjhi; Location: India; Bangladesh; Population: Over 4 million (1981 census); Language: Santali; Religion: Native Santal religion with influences of Hinduism "; Pg. 669: "Christian missionary efforts among the Santals began during the 19th century, and just under 3% of Santals are now Christian. "
Santal religion Asia - South - Santals 3,880,000 97.00% - - 1981 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 667, 669. "Santals: Alternate Name: Hor ko; Hor hopon ko; Manjhi; Location: India; Bangladesh; Population: Over 4 million (1981 census); Language: Santali; Religion: Native Santal religion with influences of Hinduism "; Pg. 669: "Christian missionary efforts among the Santals began during the 19th century, and just under 3% of Santals are now Christian. "
Santal religion India - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 707. "South Asian Tribal Religions... Tribes speaking Munda languages and extending over parts of Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, and Orissa include the Santal, Ho, Gadaba, Bondo, and Saora. "
Santal religion world 3,880,000 - - - 1981 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 667, 669. "Santals: Alternate Name: Hor ko; Hor hopon ko; Manjhi; Location: India; Bangladesh; Population: Over 4 million (1981 census); Language: Santali; Religion: Native Santal religion with influences of Hinduism "; Pg. 669: "Christian missionary efforts among the Santals began during the 19th century, and just under 3% of Santals are now Christian. "
Santeria Cuba - - - - 1993 Brandon, George. Santeria from Africa to the New World: Dead Sell Memories. Bloomington and Indiana: Indiana University Press (1993); pg. 2. "...Yoruba-based religious forms that exist in the Caribbean, in Central & South America... Santeria is the Cuban variant of this tradition. Shango in Trinidad and on Grenada, Xango and Candomble in Brazil, and Kele on St. Lucia are other examples... "
Santeria Cuba - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 358. "But in the Caribbean and South America, where slave owners were mainly Catholic, the religion of the slaves retained much more of their African ancestral beliefs, concealed by or integrated with those of the slavemasters. The most widespread and influential of these religions--sometimes called diasporan in reference to the forced Diaspora of the Jews from their homeland--are Vodou in Haiti, Candomble in Brazil, and Santeria in Cuba. "
Santeria Cuba - - - - 1997 Baker, Christopher P. Cuba Handbook. Chico, California: Moon Publications, Inc. (1997); pg. 104. "Santeria, or saint worship, has been deeply entrenched in Cuban culture for 300 years... a fusion of Catholicism with the Lucumi religion of the African Yoruba tribes... Cubans are superstitious people. It's said that if you scratch a Cuban, Catholic or non-, you find a santeria beleiver underneath. Almost every home has a statue of a santeria god and a glass of water to appease the spirits of the dead. Even Fidel Castro... is said to be a believer... "
Santeria Cuba 3,000,000 - - - 1998 "Cuba's Next Revolution " in Christianity Today (Jan. 12, 1998); pg. 23. "...as many as 3 million Cubans may be involved [in Cuba]... Santeria has spread throughout he Caribbean and to the United States, where there are an estimated 800,000 devotees of different nationalities. "
Santeria Cuba - 70.00% - - 1998 "Cuba's Real Religion " in Newsweek (Jan. 19, 1998); pg. 42. "Experts estimate that 70 percent of Cubans practice Santeria, whether through an occasional offering or a rigorous practice. "
Santeria Cuba - 70.00% - - 1998 "Face-off in Cuba " in Christian Century (Jan. 28, 1998); pg. 76. "As many as 70 percent of the population embrace the practice and beliefs of Santeria, including many who also continue to remain loyal to Christianity. "
Santeria Cuba - - - - 1998 Davis, Rod. American Voudou: Journey Into A Hidden World. Denton, Texas: University of North Texas Press (1998); pg. 9. "In different areas, voudou has different rituals and doctrines, running a sectarian range roughly comparable to that from Judaism through Protestantism to Catholicism. In Haiti, the religion metamorphosed into vodun or vaudoux; in Cuba, santeria, in Brazil, candomble; in Trinidad, Shango Baptist; in Mexico, curanderismo; in Jamaica, obeah. In the American South, it became voodoo and, in the most extreme caricature, hoodoo... "
Santeria Cuba - - - - 1998 Stack, Peggy Fletcher. A World of Faith. USA: Signature Books (1998); pg. 53. "Yorubas... Beginning in the seventeenth century, Yorubas were brough to America as slaves. In Cuba their religion mixed with Catholicism. Orishas were viewed as saints and the new faith was called Santeria... "
Santeria Cuba - - - - 1999 *LINK* web site: "World News Megastories "; section: "Santeria: Cuba's mysterious Third Force "; web page: "Numbers are hard to pin down " (viewed 5 July 1999). "In terms of sheer numbers of active adherents, how does santeria compare to mainstream Catholicism? Pascal Fletcher: Very difficult to judge in statistical or numerical terms. I'm not even sure if it's possible to make a completely detailed study or if any has been made... Some of the other strains or forms of Afro-Cuban religions have different origins - but I think you'll find they're pretty prevalent, they're quite widepsread and people if they don't actually adhere completely, they are certainly aware of them and respect them and in single families you can often find one member who practises or relates to that area. So quite widespread I think. "
Santeria Cuba - - - - 1999 *LINK* web site: "World News Megastories "; section: "Santeria: Cuba's mysterious Third Force "; web page: "Santeria: the mix and match religion " (viewed 5 July 1999). "In terms of people's actual religious beliefs, how important is Catholicism comapred to taditional religion like santeria? Pascal Fletcher: Well again we have considerable overlapping, it's not for nothing that santeria is called a synthetic religion or a synthetic cult because it consists of a blending of belief in ancient African deities brought over by the slaves under Spanish rule, a blending of that with Catholicism, or certainly with some of the images and saints of Catholicism. "
Santeria Florida 70,000 - - - 1994 Long, Robert Emmet (ed.). Religious Cults in America (The Reference Shelf: Volume 66 Number 4), New York: The H. W. Wilson Co. (1994). [Orig. source: Bob Cohn and David A. Kaplan, from Newsweek (72 N. 9, 1992)]; pg. 148, 136. "Santeria's practices, followed by 70,000 members in south Florida alone... "
Santeria Florida 60,000 - - - 1995 Gaustad, Edwin S. Church and State in America (series: Religion in American Life). New York: Oxford University Press (1999); pg. 133. "After the rise of the Castro regime in Cuba during the late 1950s, many adherents of Santeria sought greater religious freedom by fleeing to Florida, with large numbers setling in the town of Hialeah. In the 1990s Santeria membership in South Florida was estimated to be between 50,000 and 60,000. "


Santeria, continued

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