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43,941 adherent statistic citations: membership and geography data for 4,300+ religions, churches, tribes, etc.

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Protestant Reformed Churches in America, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Protestant Reformed Churches in America USA - - 24
units
- 1998 *LINK* official web site of PRCA; web page: "Protestant Reformed Churches " (directory); (viewed 27 Feb. 1999); "Last modified, 17-Oct-1998 " counted churches on directory
Protestant Reformed Churches in America Washington - - 1
unit
- 1998 *LINK* official web site of PRCA; web page: "Protestant Reformed Churches " (directory); (viewed 27 Feb. 1999); "Last modified, 17-Oct-1998 " counted churches on directory
Protestant Reformed Churches in America Wisconsin - - 1
unit
- 1998 *LINK* official web site of PRCA; web page: "Protestant Reformed Churches " (directory); (viewed 27 Feb. 1999); "Last modified, 17-Oct-1998 " counted churches on directory
Protestant Reformed Churches in America world - - - 5
countries
1988 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 160. "Protestestant Reformed Churches in America... South Holland, IL [H.Q.]... Membership: In 1988 the Church reported 5,219 members, 27 churches... There were two congregations in Canada. Sister churches are located in Northern Ireland, Singapore, and New Zealand. There is a mission in Jamaica with seven congregations. "
Protestant Reformed Churches in America world 4,700 - 21
units
4
countries
1990 Mead, Frank S. (revised by Samuel S. Hill), Handbook of Denominations in the United States (9th Ed.), Abingdon Press: Nashville, Tenn. (1990); pg. 212-213. "Protestant Reformed Churches in America... There 4,700 members 21 churches in Michigan, Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Colorado, California, Washington, North and South Dakota, Texas, New Jersey, and Canada. Several home mission fields and two foreign fields--Jamaica and Singapore--are supported. "
Protestant Reformed Churches in America world 4,700 - 21
units
2
countries
1993 Mead, Frank S. (revised by Samuel S. Hill), Handbook of Denominations in the United States (10th Ed.), Abingdon Press: Nashville, Tenn. (1995). -
Protestant Reformed Churches in America world 6,000 - 27
units
4
countries
1998 *LINK* official web site of PRCA; web page: "The Protestant Reformed Churches in America " (introduction link); (viewed 27 Feb. 1999) "The Protestant Reformed Churches in America are a denomination of 27 churches and almost 6000 members in the US and Canada. Founded as a separate denomination of Reformed churches in 1924... " Directory: sister churches (2 in Singapore,1 in New Zealand)
pseudo-atheists world - - - - 1957 Welles, Sam. The World's Great Religions, New York: Time Incorporated (1957); pg. 8. "But [atheism] has come to apply to those, including skeptics, materialists and positivists, who do not acknowledge that the world was created by a being or beings of incomprehensibly magnified human intelligence and form, and also an uncounted number of people the world over who would consider that they fit the word's broader implications. In this connection, it is worth recalling the theory of the Catholic philosopher Jacques Maritain that many such folk are merely pseudo-atheists 'who believe that they do not believe in God but who in actual fact unconsciously believe in Him, because the God whose existence they deny is not God but something else.' "
PTL (Jim and Tammy Bakker) world 12,000,000 - - - 1985 Naisbitt, John & Patricia Aburdene. Megatrends 2000: Ten New Directions for the 1990's. New York: William Morrow and Co. (1990); pg. 279-280. "Fundamentalism's most visible strength is its effective use of the media, an outlandish, incongruous, perfect balance: the hard edge of technology in service to the high touch of religion.... Jim and Tammy Bakker's PTL cable TV network reached 12 million households. "
Pueblo North America - - - - 1995 Legay, Gilbert. Atlas of Indians of North America. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's (1995); pg. 55. "The majority of the Pueblo tribes live in northern New Mexico (Jemez, Santa Ana, Santo Domingo, Nambe, Zuni, etc.), but others, such as the Hopi, are in northern Arizona. "
Pueblo USA 52,939 - - - 1990 Utter, Jack. American Indians: Answers to Today's Questions. Lake Ann, MI: National Woodlands Publishing Co. (1993); pg. 38. Table: "Largest American Indian Tribes (as identified in the 1990 Census, through self-reporting) "
Pueblo USA 52,939 - - - 1990 *LINK* web site: "American West "; web page: "Indian Tribes - Population Rankings " (viewed 13 Feb. 1999) Table: "Native American Tribes: Population Rankings of the 30 largest tribes in the U.S. according to the 1990 census report (U.S. Department of Commerce) "; NOTE: These are tribal affiliation figures, not religious preference figures.
Pueblo USA - Southwest - - 25
units
- 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 17). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 2300. "Of all American Indians north of the Rio Grande, the Pueblo developed the most impressive civilization. Their culture had matured some time before the Spanish arrived to give them the name we now use...; an dit remained at those heights in spite of later white incursions and ever-shrinking reservations. Indeed, much of the admirable culture of other south-western tribes--the Navaho especially--was borrowed from the Pueblo... Once there were hundreds of villages, now there are only 25 (in north-west New Mexico and north-east Arizona). The villages cluster together in accordance with tribal links--for there are five separate tribes of Pueblo Indians: Hopi, Zuni, Keres, TIwa and Tewa. "
Pueblo USA - Southwest - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 17). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 2300. "Once there were hundreds of villages, now there are only 25 (in north-west New Mexico and north-east Arizona). The villages cluster together in accordance with tribal links--for there are five separate tribes of Pueblo Indians: Hopi, Zuni, Keres, Tiwa and Tewa. "
Puelche Argentina - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 702. Chapter: "South American Tribal Religions "; map: "Tribal Locations "
Punan-Penan Indonesia: Borneo - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 709. "While their numbers are small, the religions of such groups as... the Punan-Penan of Borneo... reflect, at least in part, an adaptation to a hunting-and-gathering mode of existence. "
Pure Land Buddhism Asia - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 586. "Pure Land sects. Those Buddhist sects of East Asia which emphasize aspects of Mahayana Buddhism stressing faith in Amida, meditation on and recitation of his name, and... The Pure Land sects are especially important in Japan and Korea... "
Pure Land Buddhism China - - - - 1000 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), Chapter: Taoism; pg. 184. "Buddhist teachers had already begun to trickle into China as early as the 1st century AD... They were successful in passing on the dharma... The monks... translated Buddhist texts into Chinese. Several of these... put forth the ideas of Pure Land Buddhism. With its relatively simple requirements of devotion to the Buddha Amitabha and the recitation of his name, resulting in a ticket to paradise, the Pure Land school grew quickly among the Chinese masses. By the 11th century, Taoist and Buddhist ideas had merged with folk practices to create a popular religion that survives to this day. "
Pure Land Buddhism China - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996). Chapter: Buddhism; pg. 123. "The most popular school of Buddhism in China and Japan today is commonly known as Pure Land. "
Pure Land Buddhism Japan 18,500,000 - - - 1956 Hutchinson, John A. Paths of Faith; New York: McGraw-Hill (1969). [Orig. source: Morgan, Kenneth W. (ed.), The Path of the Buddha; New York: The Ronald Press Co. (1956), pg. 332-333.]; pg. 275. "Today Pure Land Buddhists number some 18,500,000 adherents. Of these, 77 percent are Shin and 16 percent are Jodo, with the rest spread over several smaller groups. "
Pure Land Buddhism Japan - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 587. "The Pure Land sects in Japan have split into many different ecclesiastical groups, each with its own doctrinal emphases and religious traditions... The Pure Land groups have more members than any other Japanese Buddhist sects, and Pure Land devotion such as the nembutsu is practiced by many people not formally affiliated with the Pure Land sects. "
Pure Land Buddhism Japan 18,856,386 15.12% - - 1993 O'Brien, J. & M. Palmer. The State of Religion Atlas. Simon & Schuster: New York (1993); pg. 26-27. "Shares of Buddhist sect membership in Japan, 1981: Tendai: 30%; Nichiren: 30%; Pure Land: 18%; Shingon: 10%; Zen: 8%; Nara: 4%. " Percentages and numbers made using est. of 84% of Japan being Buddhist, total pop. of country: 124,711,551 (1993).
Pure Land Buddhism Japan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996). Chapter: Buddhism; pg. 123. "The most popular school of Buddhism in China and Japan today is commonly known as Pure Land. "
Pure Land Buddhism world - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 151. "From the Mahayana movement three major sectarian traditions emerged. First, the Pure Land sect, that grew out of the devotional tradition noted in the larger and smaller Sukhavativyuha-sutras. This sect believed that through devotion and faith it was possible to gain rebirth in the Purel Land of Amitabha Buddha from which the attainment of complete Buddhahood was more readily possible. This school has been most influential in China, Korea, and Japan, and prospers today. Second... the Madhyamika sect... Finally... Yogacara school... "
Puritan Massachusetts - - - - 1631 Stack, Peggy Fletcher. A World of Faith. USA: Signature Books (1998); pg. 5. "Roger Williams... sailed to America in 1631 to get away from the state-sponsored religion in England. He expected more religious freedomin America, but when he arrived in Massachusetts, the Puritans had established an official church and demanded strict obedience to it... "
Puritan United Kingdom: England - - - - 1550 C.E. *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "PURITANS: a much maligned dynamic religious movement which arose in the sixteenth century as a CALVINIST party within the CHURCH OF ENGLAND. They emphasized preaching, pastoral care and the REFORMATION of the CHURCH in terms of Biblical norms. Popular with the lower and middle classes, they emphasized education and the improvement of daily life through hard work and innovation. They were bitterly persecuted before and after the English Civil War causing many to flee to America where they played a significant role in shaping the main themes of American RELIGION. Favoring REPUBLICAN FORMS of government, they contributed to the development of modern DEMOCRACY and are credited by many historians with playing an important role in the rise of MODERN SCIENCE. "
Puritan United Kingdom: England - - - - 1563 C.E. Walker, Williston. A History of the Christian Church (3rd ed., revised by Robert T. Handy; 1st ed. 1918). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons (1970); pg. 403. "Because they desired to purify the church, these men came to be called the 'Puritans' by the early 1560's. In 1563 they attempted to get their reform program through the Convocation of the clergy of the province of Canterbury, the legislative body for most of the Church of England, but lost by a single vote. "
Puritan United Kingdom: England - - - - 1600 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 347. "Puritans. Some membes of the Church of England felt the English Reformation did not go far enough toward purging the ceremonies of the Roman Catholic Church... Later called Puritans, they were also notable for their commitment to personal regeneration, household prayers, and strict morality. Under Elizabeth, James I, and Charles I, the Puritans suffered persecution but refused to stop agitating for a more Calvinistic church. "
Puritan USA - - - - 1625 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 24. "The Pilgrims and the Puritans arrived in the 1620s to establish American Congregationalism. "
Puritan USA 700 - - - 1630 Stuber, Stanley I. How We Got Our Denominations: A Primer on Church History. New York: Association Press Revised Ed., 1959); pg. 132. "In 1630, a great emigration of Puritans to New England began under the direction of the Masachusetts Bay Company. John Winthrop, a wealthy Puritan, was made governor, and he with 700 of his kinsman settled in and around Boston. During the next ten years 20,000 others followed... "
Puritan USA 20,700 - - - 1640 Stuber, Stanley I. How We Got Our Denominations: A Primer on Church History. New York: Association Press Revised Ed., 1959); pg. 132. "In 1630, a great emigration of Puritans to New England began under the direction of the Masachusetts Bay Company. John Winthrop, a wealthy Puritan, was made governor, and he with 700 of his kinsman settled in and around Boston. During the next ten years 20,000 others followed... "
Puritan USA - 75.00% - - 1776 Ahlstrom, Sydney E. A Religious History of the American People; Yale University Press: New Haven & London (1973); pg. 124. "...most thoroughly Protestant, Reformed, and Puritan commonwealths in the world. Indeed, Puritanism provided provided the moral and religious background of fully 75 percent of the people who declared their independence in 1776. "
Puritan world - - - - 1603 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 588. "Puritans (Christian). A name applied to reformist groups discontented with the religious settlement of the Church of England by Queen Elizabeth I (1448-1603). They desired a more thorough reformation... Although many conformed to the established church, others separated from it or sought refuge in the American colonies. Puritan ethic and spirituality has been an enduring influence in English and American Protestantism. "
Pygmies Africa - - - - 1974 Hallett, Robin. Africa Since 1875. Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of Michigan Press (1974); pg. 1. "The continent's population, estimated in 1973 to number 375 million, presents an equally astonishing range of contrasts in physical type... A few thousand people of Pygmoid stock survive in the equatorial forests... "
Pygmies world 170,000 - - - 1968 Pinney, Roy. Vanishing Tribes. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1968); pg. 40-41. "The dark, lush Ituri Forest of the Pygmies lies at the center of the African continent... Intermarriage with the Bantu, as in the case of the Bushmen, is rapidly transforming the Pygmy race and way of life. Of the approximatley 170,000 Pygmoid peopls in central Africa, about 30,000 relatively unchanged Pygmies remain in their ancient land--the central Ituri Forest in the northeast corner of the former Belgian Congo--but their numbers are rapidly dwindling. "
Pygmies Zaire (Democratic Republic of Congo) 2,660,000 7.00% - - 1997 Dostert, Pierre Etienne. Africa 1997 (The World Today Series). Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Stryker-Post Publications (1997); pg. 92. Estimates of % of population in ethnic (NOT religious) backgrounds, & est. 1997 total pop.
Pygmies - traditional world 60,000 - - - 1968 Pinney, Roy. Vanishing Tribes. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1968); pg. 45. "Fewer than sixty thousand Pygmies--mainly the thirty thousand members of the dwindling Bambuti clans of the Ituri--still live their traditional life, and every day many leave the forest, drawn from their ancient hunting grounds by a new understaning of money... "
Pythagorean Greece - - - - -490 B.C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 308-309. "Pythagoreanism probably had little direct impact on Rome, but its very existence hints at a mystical substratum that may have survived into the Christian era. Pythagoras (c. 570-490? BC) was born on the Greek island of Samos, which had close commercial links to the Indian communty of Memphis, Egypt, that would have given Pythagoras access to Hindu and Egyptian knowledge. He later moved to Crotona in the Greek-controlled part of southern Italy, where he founded a religious order based on ascetic discipline and probably secret initiations... He taught reincarnation... taught that an original Monad, or One, gave birth to various duads... the order he founded probably came to an end by the middle of the 4th century BC... we don't have enough hard information to estimate his real significance on Western spiritual thought. "
Pythagorean Italy - - - - -490 B.C.E. Osborne, Richard. Philosophy for Beginners. New York, NY: Writers and Readers Publishing (1992); pg. 7. "Not content with showing the important part played by numbers in the universe, Pythagoras said: 'The soul is an immortal thing, and is transformed into other, living things--whatever comes into existence is born again in the revolutions of a certain cyle--nothing being absolutely new... All things are numbers'... Pythagoras' advances in mathematics led him to overvalue the power of numbers. He believed the dodecahedron somehow embodied the structure of the entire Universe. He elevated his discoveries in music into a cosmic theory of the harmony of the spheres. Pythagoras wasn't the last philosopher to be beguiled by the beauty and certainty of mathemtics. "
Pythagorean Italy - - - - -490 B.C.E. Osborne, Richard. Philosophy for Beginners. New York, NY: Writers and Readers Publishing (1992); pg. 8. "He [Pythagoras] also formed a Pythagorean Order, with a set of complex and seemingly arbitrary taboos which included: To abstain from beans; Not to eat from a whole loaf; Not to set on a quart measure. A member of the Order, Hippasos, was banished, not for eating, but for spilling the beans about the Order's most closely guarded secret--that the hypotenuse of this triangle was a surd--it could not be written as a ratio of whole numbers. A reminder of how close the ancient Greeks were to the world of superstition and the irrational? Or, more sinisterly, an instance of the impulse of philosophers to safeguard knowledge under the domain of a priestly caste? "
Pythagorean Italy - - - - -490 B.C.E. Osborne, Richard. Philosophy for Beginners. New York, NY: Writers and Readers Publishing (1992); pg. 6-7. "Pythagoras was a curious blend of scientist and mystic. Disliking the dictatorship of Polycrates in his native Samos, he travelled in Egypt, then settled in Italy. (By this time the Mediterranean was a Greek lake.) Here he founded a school based on his mathematico-metaphysical philosophy The Pythagoreans talked about cosmical harmony. This was based on numbers as the relations of things. For example, they discovered that halving the length of a string on a lyre produced a note one octave higher, and that all harmonies represented ratios of whole numbers. They extended this notion of harmonies to all things. Pythagoras explored the geometry of the perfect solids... He discovered the theorem that still bears his name... "
Qadiri-Rifa'i world - - - - 1999 *LINK* web site: "Naqshbandi.net "; web page: "A 30-Second Guide to Sufi Orders Found in North America " (viewed 10 Feb. 1999). [Orig. source: GNOSIS Magazine #30 (Winter 1994)] "Qadiri-Rifa'i (founder: Muhammad Ansarai [circa 1900]). This primarily Turkish order represents the merging of the Qadiri and Rifa'i orders and teaches the practices of both lineages. It migrated from Baghdad to Istanbul around the turn of the century. It is presently represented in the U.S. by Sheikh Taner Vargonen. "
Qadiriya Afghanistan - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 16-17. "Afghanistan is one of the most solidly Muslim countries in the world... There are also sufis (or dervishes), members of the mystical branch of Islam. Afghani Sufis generally belong to the Qadiri order or 'path,' the most ancient and widespread of sufi paths. "
Qadiriya Africa - - - - 1850 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 722-723. "Devotion to Sufism and militant anti-colonialism also characterized several nineteenth century African revivalists, from Usman dan Fodio of the traditional Qadiriyya to al-Hajj 'Umar Tal of the neo-Sufi Tijaniyya. "
Qadiriya Asia - Southeast - - - - 1700 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 722. "The time of greatest influence for the Sufi orders... Ottoman and Mogul empires... 1500-1800. The number of Muslims affiliated with Sufi brotherhoods during this period was certainly not less than half the population and may have been as high as 80 percent... Distant Southeast Asia withstood any wide-scale Islamization until the late sixteenth century. But it as Qadiri and Shattari masters who succeeded in penetrating the complex Hindu-Javanese belief system of the archipelago. In fact, the belated ascendancy of mystical Islam in Indonesia aptly illustrates the flexibility of the shaikhs as agents in the spread of Islam. "
Qadiriya Chechnia - - - - 1998 Gall, Carlotta & Thomas de Waal. Chechnya: Calamity in the Caucasus; New York University Press (1998); pg. 32. "Most Chechens became members of one of two Sufi orders, the Naqshbandiya or the Qadiriya... still many Naqshbands in eastern Chechnya... but they are now outnumbered by adepts of the Qadiriya, which swept through [in mid-19th century] "
Qadiriya Iraq - - - - 1166 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 447. "Reputed to be the first Sufi order, the Qadiri... Founded by the Hanbali preacher and ascetic Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani (c. 1077-1166) in 12th-century Baghdad? "
Qadiriya Mauritania - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 1 - Africa. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 296. "In Mauritania, as in much of West Africa, Islamic Sufi brotherhoods, known as tariqas, gained importance around the 13th century... The major ones are the Qadiriyya and Tijaniyya orders. The Qadiriyya brotherhood stresses Islamic learning, humility, generosity, and respect for one's neighbors. "
Qadiriya Senegal 300,000 - - - 1982 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: WORLD CHRISTIAN ENCYCLOPEDIA, A comparative survey of churches and religions in the modern world; Edited by David B. Barrett; published by Oxford University Press, 1982.); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) Islam:
Several brotherhoods are active: Qadiriya from Morocco with 300,000 members, the first to arrive
Qadiriya Senegal 304,000 - - - 1982 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site (orig. source: WORLD CHRISTIAN ENCYCLOPEDIA, A comparative survey of churches and religions in the modern world; Edited by David B. Barrett; published by Oxford University Press, 1982.); (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) Islam:
Muslims: African Sunnis (of the Malikite rite). Islamic brotherhoods active (1957): Qadiriya with 304,000 members, the missionary order of Tinjaniya with 1 million; Muridiya 423,000; 23,000 in others.
Qadiriya Sudan - - - - 1988 Bratvold, Gretchen (ed). Sudan ...in Pictures (Visual Geography Series). Minneapolis, Minnesota: Lerner Publications Co. (1988); pg. 42. "Muslims... make up about 75% of the total Sudanese population. Approximately 95% of the northern provinces consist of Arabic-speaking Muslims... Sudanese Muslims are of the Sunni--or traditional--sect... In Sudan the Qadiriya is the largest order, but it is also the least organized. "
Qadiriya Sudan - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 1 - Africa. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 402. "Sudan is now an Islamist state, and the majority of its population is indeed Muslim... Brotherhoods continue to be very important in the practice of Sudanese Islam. The most important Brotherhoods in Sudan today are the Qadiriyya (the oldest Brotherhood) and the Khatmiyya (a more modern organization which grew out of 18th century reformist movements). "
Qadiriya world - - - - 1700 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 722. "The time of greatest influence for the Sufi orders... Ottoman and Mogul empires... 1500-1800. The number of Muslims affiliated with Sufi brotherhoods during this period was certainly not less than half the population and may have been as high as 80 percent. One reason for the swelled ranks of Sufi orders was their catalytic role in the expansion of Islam. Pan-Islamic brotherhoods like the Qadiriyya and the Rifa'iyya were instrumental in winning to Islam geographic areas as disparate as Anatolia and West Africa... "
Qadiriya world - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 447. "Reputed to be the first Sufi order, the Qadiri never achieved mass popularity but remains a significant cultural force. Founded by the Hanbali preacher and ascetic Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani (c. 1077-1166) in 12th-century Baghdad, it has since spread from the Arabian peninsula to much of Africa, southern Russia, and parts of India. "
Qadiriya world - - - - 1999 *LINK* web site: "Naqshbandi.net "; web page: "A 30-Second Guide to Sufi Orders Found in North America " (viewed 10 Feb. 1999). [Orig. source: GNOSIS Magazine #30 (Winter 1994)] "Qadiri (founder: Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani [1077-1166]). Founded in Baghdad, the Qadiris were reputedly the first Sufi tariqah to be formally organized. They are particularly widespread, with some branches characterized by ecstatic dance and feats of wonderworking. Jilani is today the most revered Sufi saint. The best known Qadiri Sheikh in North America has been Bawa Muhaiyaddeen. "
Qadiyanis Pakistan - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 437. "The Ahmadiyas split into two secs: the more radical Qadiyanis (named for Ahmad's birthplace in the Punjab), now based in Pakistan, and the Lahoris, who acknowledge Ahmad as a Muslim reformer rather than a prophet? "
Qadiyanis world - - - - 1914 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 16. "...Ahmadiyya. In 1914 a split, due as much to personal antagonisms as doctrinal differences, evolved between the Qadiyani and Lahori branches of the movement, and persists to the present day. "
Qarmatians Africa - North - - - - 1021 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 434. "The Qarmatians gave rise to the Fatimid caliphs, who claimed descent from Fatima and Ali. They flourished in the 10th century in North Africa and later in Egypt?In 1021?the Fatimid caliph al-Hakim declared that he was God incarnate? "
Qarmatians Algeria - - - - 900 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 590. "The Qarmatian 'summons to truth' was carried to Yemen, where it developed centers of strength, and as far west as Algeria, where with the support of a Berber tribe it lad the foundation for the Fatimid dynasty (A.D. 909). "
Qarmatians Bahrain - - - - 900 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 590. "A second Qarmatian movement arose in Bahrein around 900 under one of Hamdan's followers, Abu Sa'id al-Jannabi, who founded a Qarmatian state there. This state organized the nomads of eastern Arabia into a powerful military force that conquered the oasis towns of that area and established a prosperous and egalitarian society. Upon the appearance of the Fatimit Mahdi in Algeria, Hamdan and his brother-in-law 'Abdan rejected Fatimid claims and withdrew their support, creating a schism in Ismailism. The Ismailis in Bahrein and western Iran also refused to recognize the Fatimid claim to the imamate. "
Qarmatians Bahrain - - - - 1077 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 590. "In 930 the Qarmatians of Bahrein committed the shocking act of looting the Ka'ba and carrying away the sacred Black Stone, which they did not return until some twenty years later. Subsequently they declined in power but lived on quietly until the end of their independence in 1077. "
Qarmatians Iraq - - - - 899 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 434. "A related sect [to Ismailis/Seveners] called Qarmatians developed in the late 9th century in Iraq. Named either for Hamdan Qarmat (d. c. 899) or from the Aramaic for 'peasants' (according to different sources), they worshiped the 'Supreme Light' and venerated the 7th Imam, taking membership from both the aristocracy and the peasant class. "
Qarmatians Iraq - - - - 900 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 590. "Qarmitians... Under the leadership of Hamdan Qarmat... it prospered in the area of Kufa, Iraq, from 877 until it was suppressed there about 900. "
Qarmatians Iraq - - - - 900 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 590. "The Qarmatian 'summons to truth' was carried to Yemen, where it developed centers of strength... "
Qarmatians Middle East - - - - 930 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 434. "By the early 10th century, the Qarmatians dominated the entire Arabian peninsula; in 930 they occupied Mecca?and smashed the Black Stone, removing the fragments to their capital at al-Ahsa and not returning them until 951. "


Qarmatians, continued

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