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43,941 adherent statistic citations: membership and geography data for 4,300+ religions, churches, tribes, etc.

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Parsis, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Parsis Oceania 1,000 0.00% - - 1995 The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1996 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 646. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1995 "
Parsis Oceania 1,000 0.00% - - 1996 The World Almanac & Book of Facts 1998 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1997 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 654. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1996 "
Parsis Pakistan 5,000 - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 16). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 2137. "Concentrated mainly in... India, where they number about 100,000, and Pakistan, where they total about 5,000, Parsees... "
Parsis Pakistan 5,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 627. "Lesser numbers [of Parsis] are found in the cities of Gujarat State, while some 5,000 Parsis live in Pakistan (mostly in Karachi). "
Parsis Pakistan - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 614. "Pakistanis are overwhelmingly Muslim in religion... There is a small Parsi (Zoroastrian) community, concentrated in Karachi. "
Parsis world 100,000 - - - 1957 Welles, Sam. The World's Great Religions, New York: Time Incorporated (1957); pg. 7. "...the Parsees, who form a tiny community, not much over a hundred thousand in size, with half their number concentrated in Bombay. They exert an influence, however, out of proportion to their size, for they are the wealthiest bankers and industralists of the new India. "
Parsis world 100,000 - - - 1958 Welles, Sam. The World's Great Religions, New York: Western Publishing Co. (1972). [11th printing; original edition: 1958]; pg. 9. "The Parsees are a tiny group of now much over a hundred thousand. "
Parsis world 100,000 - - - 1969 Hutchinson, John A. Paths of Faith; New York: McGraw-Hill (1969); pg. 299. "The Parsees of India, numbering slightly over 100,000, and the few thousand remaining Zoroastrians of Iran are the sole remaining representatives of Zoroastrianism, which is the smallest of the old's living religions. "
Parsis world 105,000 - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 16). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 2137. "Concentrated mainly in several towns of western India, where they number about 100,000, and Pakistan, where they total about 5,000, Parsees... "
Parsis world 117,000 - - - 1973 Zehavi, A.M. (editor) Handbook of the World's Religions. New York: Franklin Watts (1973); pg. 181. "Parsis or Parsees, Zoroastrian religious minority of India and Pakistan, numbering over 117,000. They are chiefly in Bombay Province, particularly in the city of Bombay. "
Parsis world 75,000 - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 560. "Parsis... Members of the small but influential Zoroastrian community that settled in western India at some point after the Islamic conquest of Iran thirteen centuries ago. The term is often used of Zoroastrians from the Indian subcontinent, who account for three fourths of the world's one hundred thousand Zoroastrians. Strictly speaking, 'Parsi' is an ethnic rather than a religious designation in India... Parsis who espouse other religious traditions, or none at all, also remain Parsis ethnically. "
Parsis world 100,000 - - - 1991 *LINK* Wilson, Andrew (ed). "The World Religions and their Scriptures " in World Scripture. International Religious Foundation, 1991. (viewed 9 July 1999) "...today Zoroastrianism exists only as a remnant. After suffering persecution and expulsion from Iran, the community of practicing Zoroastrians has dwindled to less than one hundred thousand Parsis, most of whom live in the vicinity of Bombay, India. "
Parsis world 170,000 - - - 1993 Johnstone. Operation World. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan (1993); pg. 23. World totals: "Other 0.8%. Numerous other religions. 48 million. Mainly new religious movements, also Jain 3.5 million, Parsee 170,000, and others. "
Parsis world 200,000 - - - 1994 *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "PARSEE [Parsis]: this is the name given to the followers of ZOROASTER who fled Persia in the eighth century to settle in India. Today they number about 200,000. "
Parsis world 189,000 0.00% - - 1995 The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1996 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 646. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1995 "
Parsis world 190,500 0.00% - - 1996 The World Almanac & Book of Facts 1998 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1997 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 654. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1996 "
Parsis world 120,000 - - - 1998 Guiness Book of World Records 1999. New York: Guiness Publishing Group (1998); pg. 91. "Parseism " is listed in Guiness Book of World Records as the "Most Threatened Major Religion, " with 120,000 adherents, a low birthrate, and practice of not accepting converts to their faith.
Parsis world 120,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* Nance Profiles web site; (viewed Aug. 1998; now restricted.) SIZE OF GROUP: 120,000 (On a Zoroastrianism page it says that this page's estimate of "Zoroastrianism 39%; Secularism 60%; " is false.)
Parsis world 100,000 - - - 1998 *LINK* web site: "Planet Perv " (personal web site of Pervez J. Mistry); web page: "Zoroastrianism " (viewed 1 March 1999) "The Parsis... tiny population (numbering less than 100,000 worldwide). Today, the Parsis are scattered all over the world, but their 'main operations center' continues to be Bombay, where we have our sacred temples of worship... "
Parthian Iran - - - - -247 B.C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 16). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 2143. "Originally a tribe of Iranian nomads known as the Parni, the Parthians acquired the latter designation with Greek and Roman writers by seizing the satrapy (district) of Parthava in c. 247 BC. Their leader, named Arsaces, founded a dynasty of kings known as the Arsacids. Their new kingdom was wreested from the Seleucid government, which had inherited the Middle Eastern part of the empire of Alexander the Great. The Seleucid rulers continued Alexander's policy of Hellenizing the peoples he had conquered. This policy meant the establishment of Greek political and cultural institutions, including religious cults. "
Parthian Iran - - - - -247 B.C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 16). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 2144. "A very important question concerning the Parthian attitude towards the many religions current in their empire is that of their policy towards Zoroastrianism. This native Iranian religion, which was to be vigorously supported by the Sassanians, had existed in Iran since the 6th century BC. It seems to have been accepted in a modified form by the Achaemenian rulers, whose imperial dynasty was overthrown by Alexander the Great. The defeat of this native dynasty and the Hellenizing policy of Alexander and the Seleucids seem likely to have imperilled Zoroastrianism, or at least hindered its progress. The rise to power, therefore, of an Iranian dynasty, such as the Parthian Arsacids, would appear to have been providential for Zoroastrianism. The issue, unfortunately, remains obscure, for the original native religion of the Parthians is unknown, and the position of Zoroastrianism at this time is uncertain. "
Parthian Iran - - - - -200 B.C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 16). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 2144. "There is a tradition that a Parthian king, Valakhsh or Vologases, collected together fragments of the 21 books attributed to Zoroaster, which had survived Alexander's destruction of the Iranian prophet's works. However that may be, what evidence there is seems to indicate that the Parthians inherited and maintained what has been called 'a general Mazdayasnian religious predominance'. This means, in fact, that they continued the religioius situation that existed under the Achaemenians. For under these rulers, while Zoroaster's Ahura Mazdah was worshipped and Arta, the principle of cosmic good order, was exalted, the Iranian deities Mithra and Anahita were also acknowledged, contrary to the teaching of Zoroaster, and the Magi, the ancient Persian priestly caste, extended their influence. The Parthians were Mazdah worshippes and respected the Magi; several of their monarchs incorporated references to Arta and Mithra in their names. They were also fire worshippers... "
Parthian Iran - - - - -34 B.C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 16). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 2144. "The syncretism that characterized the religion of Partha is strikingly presented in its iconography. An impressive memorial to this is the colossal tomb of Antiochus I of Commagene (69-34 BC). As the inscriptions on the giant statues show, the following identifications of Greek and Iranian gods were made: Zeus-Oromasdes (Ohrmazd, the later designation of Ahura Mazdah); Apollo-Mithras-Helios-Hermes; Artagnes (Verethragna, god of war)-Heracles-Ares. The most amazing of all instances of Parthian religious syncretism, however, is a carved slab from Hatrah. It shows as its chief figure a bearded male deity in Parthian dress, armed with a heavy sword... Semitic and Hittite weather gods... Hatrah... Cerberus who guarded the Greek underworld... Atargatis... Mithraic figure... identified with Zurvan-Ahrmiman... "
Parthian Middle East - - - - 227 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 16). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 2143. "The Parthians, although they established an empire that extended from the frontiers of Syria in the west to those of Bactria (northern Afghanistan) in the eat, are a little-known people. This obscurity seems to have resulted largely from the policy of the Sassanians who, having overthrown the Parthians in c. 227 AD, were concerned to damn or obliterate their memory. Modern research is gradually recovering information about the Parthians and their achievement in the synthesizing and dissemination of Eastern and Western cultural traditions, particularly in the matter of religion. "
Parthian Roman Empire - - - - -40 B.C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 16). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 2143. "The crushing defeat inflicted by the Parthians on the Roman army at Carrhae in 53 BC alerted the Roman Republic to the powerful enemy on the eastern frontier of their Empire. The mounted archers, with their 'Parthian shots,' now became familiar figures in Wetern literature. In 40 BC the Parthians actually invaded the Roman provinces of Asia Minor and Syria, capturing Jerusalem among other places. Though forced to withdraw, for another two centuries they remained a constant threat to Rome's empire in the east. "
Pascagoula North America - Gulf Coasts and Tidal Swamps 460 - - - 1698 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 93. Table: "Gulf Coasts and Tidal Swamps: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Pascagoula world 460 - - - 1698 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 93. Table: "Gulf Coasts and Tidal Swamps: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Pashtun Afghanistan 5,800,000 40.00% - - 1989 Bratvold, Gretchen (ed). Afghanistan ...in Pictures (Visual Geography Series). Minneapolis, Minnesota: Lerner Publications Co. (1989); pg. 40-41. "About 14.5 million people live in Afghanistan... Pathans [an alternative name for Pashtun] make up about 40% of the population and are divided into many groups. "
Pashtun Asia - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 631. "Pashtun: Alternate Names: Pushtun, Pakhtun, Pashtoon, Pathan, Afghan; Location: Southeastern Afghanistan; northwestern Pakistan; Language: Pashtu; Religion: Islam (Sunni Muslim) "; "Pashtun comprise about 60 tribes of varying size and importance, each of which occupies a particular territory. In Afghanistan where Pashtun are predominant ethnic group, the main tribes are the Durrani south of Kabul and the Ghilzay east of Kabul. "; Pg. 632: "Pashtun tribes are Sunni Muslims except for a few tribes [which are] Shi'a... the rule of Islam within Pashtun traditional culture is different from other Islamic groups. Pashtun believe they are more Pashtun than Muslim. "
Pashtun world 10,000,000 - - - 1974 Lang, Robert. The Land and People of Pakistan (Portraits of the Nations series). Philadelphia & New York: J. B. Lippincott Co. (revised edition 1974); pg. 29-31. [Pathan is an alternative word for Pashtun.] "...the Pathans, the most picturesque of all Pakistani peoples. Not all Pathans live in Pakistan; they inhabit, in fact, a kind of no-man's-land on both sides of the northwestern border between Afghanistan and Pakistan. Proud and independent, the Pathans speak their own language, Pushto, and sometimes call their land--in utter disregard of politicians and mapmakers--Pushtunistan... The Pathan peoples are of great interest to scholars because they are one of the largest tribal socities surviving today. More than 10 million Pathans live along the border. No one knows just how many of these are actually in Pakistan, for though some Pathans are settled in districts politically controlled by the Pakistan government, others live in the so-called tribal territory, a strip of land near the frontier where the Pathans are free to rule themselves by their own laws and customs. "
Pashupata Saivism India: Varanasi 10,000 - - - 650 C.E. *LINK* "Saivism: Six Schools " in Hinduism Today International (March 1994) "A seventh-century Chinese traveler, Hiuen Tsiang, wrote that 10,000 Pashupatas then occupied Varanasi. "
Paterin Europe - - - - 1050 C.E. Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994); pg. 32-33. "The word normally used [for the Bosnian Church] in Ragusan sources and in some Italian documents too--but never in Bosnia itself--was 'Patareni' or 'Patarini' (in English, 'Patarins). This term also has a rather puzzling history. First used in 11th century Milan to describe a fiercely puritanical reformist movement in the Catholic Church, it had become transferred by the end of that century to other campaigners, including heretical ones, against the established Church. In the late 12th century it was being sued as a virtual synonym for heresies which aimed at a superior kind of purity..., such as the Waldensians and Cathars, and in the 13th century 'Patarin' was the usual word for the Cathars of northern Italy... It first appears in connection with Bosnia in a letter from the Archbishop of Split to the Pope in 1200... "
Path of the Heart Movement Australia - - 3
units
- 1998 *LINK* Ireland, Rowan. Web site: La Trobe University, Bundoora, Australia; web page: "New Religious Associations in Australia ", written January 1998. (Viewed 4 July 1999). "The Path of the Heart Movement now has three centres in Australia and four worldwide. "
Path of the Heart Movement world - - 4
units
- 1998 *LINK* Ireland, Rowan. Web site: La Trobe University, Bundoora, Australia; web page: "New Religious Associations in Australia ", written January 1998. (Viewed 4 July 1999). "Path of the Heart Movement (Formerly the Glee Club): The Path of the Heart Movement considers itself a vehicle to disseminate the teachings of the 'Elder Brothers of Humanity'. The movement originated in Rosebud, Australia in 1986, but it was not until 1991 that teachings began in earnest. In 1990 at Rosebud, Victoria while preparing to write an updated version of Thomas A 'Kempis's classic of spiritual literature 'The Imitation of Christ' a telepathic message on 'Brotherhood' was received unexpectedly.... The Path of the Heart Movement now has three centres in Australia and four worldwide. "
Pawnee North America 10,000 - - - 1870 Legay, Gilbert. Atlas of Indians of North America. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's (1995); pg. 49. "Pawnee... Numbering about 10,000 in 1870, 1,149 were counted in 1970. "
Pawnee North America 1,149 - - - 1970 Legay, Gilbert. Atlas of Indians of North America. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's (1995); pg. 49. "Pawnee... Numbering about 10,000 in 1870, 1,149 were counted in 1970. "
Pawnee North America - Northern Great Plains 10,000 - - - 1780 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 288. Table: "Northern Great Plains: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Pawnee world 10,000 - - - 1780 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 288. Table: "Northern Great Plains: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Pear Cambodia 1,000 - - - 1981 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 539-540. Chapter about Mountain Mon-Khmer Groups: "The Pear numbered about 1,000 in 1981. Also known as the 'Bahr' or 'Pohr,' they live in southwest Cambodia. "; Pg. 540: The people of the hill tribes continue the traditional beliefs and practices of their ancestors... Among the Pearic tribal groups, each village has two important sorcerers whose main duty is to control the weather. By so doing, they protect the community from natural calamities and aid in the timely development of the crops. "; Pg. 544: "Most tribal groups now practice wet rice cultivation rather than horticulture and frequently intermarry with Khmer. Most Chong and Pear, for example, are not assimilated into Cambodian society. "
Pearic Asia - Southeast 10,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 539-540. "The Pearic group is made up of numerous smaller tribes totaling about 10,000 people. The Pear live in north central and Western Cambodia. The Chong live in the Cardamom Mountains in Battambang Province in northwest Cambodia and in neighboring Thailand. The Saoch live in southern Cambodia. The Samre live in northwestern Cambodia, and the Suoi live in Cambodia. "
Pecos North America - Southwestern Deserts and Mesa Lands 2,500 - - - 1540 C.E. Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 27. Table: "Southwestern Deserts and Mesa Lands: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Pecos world 2,500 - - - 1540 C.E. Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 27. Table: "Southwestern Deserts and Mesa Lands: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Peculiar People United Kingdom: England - - 1
unit
1
country
1838 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 16). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 2157. "Peculiar People: This evangelical denomination derives its name from several texts in the Authorized Version of the Bible, notably from 1 Peter 2.9: 'But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people...' In this older usage, 'peculiar' means 'special', not 'odd'... Also sometimes known at first as the 'Plumstead Peculiars', the sect was founded in 1838 by William Bridges. Its teachings were spread, especially in Essex, by John Banyard. "
Peculiar People United Kingdom: England - - - - 1900 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 16). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 2157. "The Peculiar People held - and, to a limited extend, still hold - beliefs which distinguish them from most of the Protesteant bodies. In particular, their unconditional acceptance of the divine inspiration of every word of the Bible (not in itself unique) led them to interpret literally the injunction in James... 'Is any among you sick? Let him call for the elders of the church, and let them pray over him, anounting him with oil in the name of the Lord; and the prayer of faith will save the sick man...' In this respet, the Peculiar People were nearer to Roman Catholic than to Protestant practice, but in other ways they resembled the 'enthusiastic' branches of evangelical Christianity... women... wore small black bonnets; the men wore dark clothes and... did not grow moustaches. No musical instrument was used in their worship, but hymns were sung with great fervour... The Peculiar People's Hymn Book is one of Christendom's most remarkable hymnals. It contains 1058 hymns... "
Peculiar People United Kingdom: England 300 - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 16). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 2157. "One outstanding figure in the history of the Peculiar People was Bishop William Heddle, who as born in 1846 and went south to Essex, from his native Orkney... Heddle became so powerful and tireless a leader of the Peculiar People that eventually they elected him their bishop... He... lived until 1948, when he was almost 102. Since Bishop Heddle's death, most of the Peculiar People have joined with other denominations in the Union of Evangelical Churches, and their distinctive practices... have fallen out of use. Some of the original congregations, however, and some of the older numbers--numbering a few hundred in all--preserve, in remote Essex villages, the special character of the denomination. "
Pelagianism world - - - - 400 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 326. "Pelagianism. Pelagius, a British monk of the 4th and 5th centuries, taught that humanity was originally perfect and not tainted by original sin as a result of Adam's fall. Therefore, while baptism makes Christians of infants and entitles them to the kingdom of heaven, it isn't required in order to wipe away original sin. Pelagius was opposed by Augustine, his contemporary, who, in his inimitable pessimistic fashion, believed in original sin and in death as the penalty for sin. "
Pelagianism world - - - - 415 C.E. *LINK* Web site: "TrueBranch Ministry "; web page: "The Unholy Alliance " (viewed 3 July 1999). By Dan S., a 'new-creation Christian'; Written in 1985. Revised 1995, 1997. "Pelagianism: Early in the Fifth century, an English lawyer and moralist, Pelagius sought to reform the Roman Catholic Church in Europe... Pelagius taught that man did not inherit Adam's propensity toward sin, possessed free will... According to Pelagius, man was autonomous, unhindered, and free to choose for or against God... He and his followers became the life-long theological antagonists of Augustine, Bishop of Hippo (354-430 AD)... "
Pelagianism world - - - - 418 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 564. "Pelagianism (Christian). The doctrine, advanced by British (Irish?) theologian and moralist Pelagius (active in Rome and then in Palestine from 382 to 418), that human nature, as a good creation of God, though susceptible to the example of Adamic sin, retains the possibility of sinlessness, if it is tutored and strengthened by the Mosaic law and by the life and redeeming work of Christ. It was condemned as heterodox in a series of fourth and fifth century church councils. "
Pelagianism world - - - - 420 C.E. *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "PELAGIANISM: the teachings of the British Monk PELAGIUS and his school concerning the relationship between divine GRACE and the FREE WILL. Pelagius seems to have denied the doctrine of ORIGINAL SIN arguing that it denied the FREEDOM of the WILL. AUGUSTINE OF HIPPO attacked Pelagius...; PELAGIUS (360-420): British MONK and 'Father' of PELAGIANISM whose works were attacked by AUGUSTINE because he denied ORIGINAL SIN. "
Pelebegu Indonesia - Karo 285,000 57.00% - - 1990 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 101-102. "Assuming the percentages given in the 1930 colonial census are still accurate, one can break the total down as follows: 1.65 million Toba, living around Lake Toba, on Samosir Island, & in the highlands to the south; 500,000 Karo to the northwest of the lake "; "Pebegu, the indigenous animist religion, is strongest among the Karo, claiming 57% as adherents (though many of these describe themselves as 'secular', i.e, with a rather uncertain grasp of their religion. "
Pelebegu Indonesia: Nias 3,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 584-585. "Niasans: Location: Indonesia (island of Nias); Population: 500,000 "; Pg. 585: "A few thousand Niasans register themselves as adherents of Pelebegu (used first by non-Niasans, evidently from the Karo Batak perbegu) or Molohe adu (the Niasan expression), both meaning 'worshipping the ancestral spirits.' Before iconoclastic capaigns early in the century, the people took reverent care of the wooden statues of the adu ancestral spirits, filling shrines and the public rooms of their houses with them and making daily offerings to them... "
Pemon Venezuela 1,600 - - - 1935 Furst, Peter T. "'I Am Black Jaguar!': Magical Spells and Shamanism of the Pemon of Southern Venezuela " in South and Meso-American Native Spirituality, ed. by Gary H. Gossen. New York: Crossroad Publishing Co. (1997); pg. 396-397. "...as the Pemon of Venezuela as a whole underwent a sharp rise in population over the past 40 years, from a low of around sixteen hundred in the 1930s to about four thousand in 1970... Conversions... to new religions... have certainly not succeeded in obliterating all vestiges of Pemon shamanism: indeed, for the most part they represent a synthesis between the old and the new. "
Pemon Venezuela 4,000 - - - 1970 Furst, Peter T. "'I Am Black Jaguar!': Magical Spells and Shamanism of the Pemon of Southern Venezuela " in South and Meso-American Native Spirituality, ed. by Gary H. Gossen. New York: Crossroad Publishing Co. (1997); pg. 396-397. "...as the Pemon of Venezuela as a whole underwent a sharp rise in population over the past 40 years, from a low of around sixteen hundred in the 1930s to about four thousand in 1970... Conversions... to new religions... have certainly not succeeded in obliterating all vestiges of Pemon shamanism: indeed, for the most part they represent a synthesis between the old and the new. "
Pemon Venezuela - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 2 - Americas. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 364-366. "Pemon: Alternate names: Arecuna, Kamarakoto, Taurepan; Location: Venezuela; Population: Unknown; Religion: Indigenous beliefs mingled w/ Christian elements "; Pg. 365: "Though the Pemon have been relatively spared the influence of the modern nation-state, as not enough of anything valuable has been found [in their territory] to attact wholesale colonization, the presence of missions has left is mark. Most of the Amerindian thoughts & consciousness came to be mixed to a lesser or higher degree with Christian elements. Chichikrai is the name for Jesus Christ in 3 syncretistic Christian Amerindian cults: Hallelujah, Chochiman, & San Miguel. These cults have the nature of a spiritual movement... in 1985 at the AVEC Congress on Bilingual Education [it] was declared that the Amerindians have a natural right to uphold their traditional beliefs, & that Jesus Christ & the New Testament are only additions to that indigenous religion. "
Pemon world 1,600 - - 1
country
1935 Furst, Peter T. "'I Am Black Jaguar!': Magical Spells and Shamanism of the Pemon of Southern Venezuela " in South and Meso-American Native Spirituality, ed. by Gary H. Gossen. New York: Crossroad Publishing Co. (1997); pg. 396-397. "...as the Pemon of Venezuela as a whole underwent a sharp rise in population over the past 40 years, from a low of around sixteen hundred in the 1930s to about four thousand in 1970... Conversions... to new religions... have certainly not succeeded in obliterating all vestiges of Pemon shamanism: indeed, for the most part they represent a synthesis between the old and the new. "
Pemon world 4,000 - - 1
country
1970 Furst, Peter T. "'I Am Black Jaguar!': Magical Spells and Shamanism of the Pemon of Southern Venezuela " in South and Meso-American Native Spirituality, ed. by Gary H. Gossen. New York: Crossroad Publishing Co. (1997); pg. 396-397. "...as the Pemon of Venezuela as a whole underwent a sharp rise in population over the past 40 years, from a low of around sixteen hundred in the 1930s to about four thousand in 1970... Conversions... to new religions... have certainly not succeeded in obliterating all vestiges of Pemon shamanism: indeed, for the most part they represent a synthesis between the old and the new. "
Penan Malaysia 10,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 634-635. "Penan: Location: Malaysia (Sarawak state); Population: 10,000; Language: Penan; Religion: Animism; Christianity "; "The Penan are a subgroup of the Orang Ulu in the state o Sarawak. They are among the last of the nomadic hunter-gatherers living in the world's tropical rain forests today, and have been described as the true aborigines of the island of Borneo. "; Pg. 635: "Some Penan were converted to Christianity through the efforts of the Borneo Evangelical Mission, while the rest remain animist, believing in a supreme god called Bungan, and that nature itself has a soul... "
Peniel Mission California: Los Angeles - - 1
unit
- 1886 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.) The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); Chapter: Holiness Family; section: 19th Century Holiness; pg. 214. "Peniel Missions (defunct)... founded by T. P. Ferguson and his wife... in Los Angeles in 1886. "
Peniel Mission world - - 1
unit
1
country
1886 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.) The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); Chapter: Holiness Family; section: 19th Century Holiness; pg. 214. "Peniel Missions (defunct)... founded by T. P. Ferguson and his wife... in Los Angeles in 1886. "
Peniel Mission world - - - 2
countries
1900 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.) The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); Chapter: Holiness Family; section: 19th Century Holiness; pg. 214. "Peniel Missions (defunct)... By 1900 work had spread north along the West Coast and in Alaska, Hawaii, and Egypt. In 1949 responsibility for the Egyptian mission was assumed by the National Holiness Missionary Society, currently known as the World Gospel Mission, located in Winona Lake, Indiana. "
Peniel Mission world 0 - - - 1991 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.) The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); Chapter: Holiness Family; section: 19th Century Holiness; pg. 214. "Peniel Missions (defunct)... founded by T. P. Ferguson and his wife... in Los Angeles in 1886. "
Peninsula Bible Church California 2,000 - 1
unit
- 1992 *LINK* Thumma, Scott. web site: "Megachurches in the U.S. " (viewed Aug. 20, 1999; data collected 1992; last updated Aug. 19, 1999). Center for Social & Religious Research, Hartford Seminary. Table; "size " is avg. weekly attendance. Study finding all U.S megachurches.; in Palo Alto, CA.
Pennacook North America - Eastern Woodlands 2,000 - - - 1600 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 200. Table: "Eastern Woodlands: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Pennacook world 2,000 - - - 1600 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 200. Table: "Eastern Woodlands: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Pensacola North America - Gulf Coasts and Tidal Swamps 160 - - - 1726 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 93. Table: "Gulf Coasts and Tidal Swamps: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber); "Pensacola (1726): 160 (?) "


Pensacola, continued

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