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43,941 adherent statistic citations: membership and geography data for 4,300+ religions, churches, tribes, etc.

Index

back to Maori, New Zealand

Maori, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Maori Religion New Zealand - - - - 1768 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 13). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1731. "The significance of Maori religion and magic lies in its social context. Kinship was the most important organizing force in prehistoric maori society. It was the basis for the family group (whanau), whose members, ranging through three or four generations, formed a residential unit. A number of whanau, with common ancestry, comprised a hapu, which controlled a definite stretch of tribal territory, with its own fishing and forest rights, and owning such valuable objects as canoes. Finally, each individual was a member of one of about 50 tribes, all of whose members acknowledged descent from a common ancestor... "
Maori Religion New Zealand - 100.00% - - 1769 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 13). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1730. "By the time Captain Cook first visited New Zealand in 1769, the tribes had evolved a sophisticated seasonal economy within the limited productive area. Traditional Maori religion can be seen as the means whereby the people perceived and came to terms with the varied environment of sea coast, forest, swamp, tussock flat and mountain that they encountered in New Zealand. They believed in a pantheon of numerous gods, which some scholars have divided into four groups. It is still sometimes claimed that at the head was a Supreme Being, Io... "
Maori Religion New Zealand - - - - 1840 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 13). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1732. "Christianity destroyed these traditional Maori beliefs, though this did not occur quickly... The first Christian sermon was preached... [in] 1814... It was nine years before the first Maori was baptized -- a girl about to marry a European; eleven before the next and death-bed conversion. No substantial progress was made until the eighteen-thirties. After that, Maori attitudes changed relatively quickly. The traditional social order was destroyed, and with it the complex and all-embracing nature of Maori religion. After the British annexation of 1840, conversion was very rapid. "
Maori Religion New Zealand - - - - 1870 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 13). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1732. "Rather similar reactions to Christianity also occurred later in the 19th century, during and after the Maori Wars (1856-70), when the profound Maori-European antagonism over land took a particularly bitter form. "
Maori Religion New Zealand - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 13). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1733. "It is not surprising that so much Maori traditional ideology is now consigned to history. As J. E. Ritchie said in The Making of a Maori (1963): 'Only sickness and death, violence, and serious accident, waken responses from the past world of supernatural completeness, and then only for a few.' These 'responses' are most evident among the older people in rural areas where, for example, certain tapu practices in relation to eating and washing still persist. But tapu observances remain strict at funeral ceremonies and probably the great majority of Maoris, even among town dwellers, still wish to be buried at their ancestral homes... although traditional Maori religion has been destroyed as a comprehensive system of belief, its vestiges affect the present character of Maori psychology, and contribute to the make-up of the specifically Maori urbanized culture evolving with its European counterpart in New Zealand. "
Maori Religion New Zealand 846 0.02% - - 1996 *LINK* web site: "VisionNet Census " (created by a Protestant group); (viewed 9 Jan. 1999); original source: Statistics New Zealand Data taken from New Zealand national censuses, based on self-identification, down to denominational level. Total 1996 NZ population: 3,616,633. Listed in table as "Maori religion - not further defined " Other categories listed separately are Ratana and Ringatu, which are specific neo-Maori religious groups.
Mapuche Argentina 200,000 - - - 1997 *LINK* Gamming, Jenny. They have a flag-but no country " in Swedish Expressen, 17 Aug. 1997. (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site. Translated by SSF/Goran Hansson. "There are 1.7 million Mapuche Indians. Most of them live in Chile, but at least 200,000 live in Argentina. "
Mapuche Argentina 200,000 - - - 1999 *LINK* Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site; web page: "Mapuche " (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). "The number of the Mapuche is approximately 1.5 million, constituting over 10% of the total population in Chile and 200,0000 in Argentina. "
Mapuche Chile 500,000 - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 706-707. "While the Quechua are in no danger of being forced from their highland bastion, the half million Mapuche, surrounded by white Chileans, recently suffered military atrocities at the hands of national troops and could conceivably be subjected to intense politial and economic pressures which could disperse them geographically and end their way of life. "
Mapuche Chile - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 702. Chapter: "South American Tribal Religions "; map: "Tribal Locations "
Mapuche Chile 1,500,000 - - - 1997 *LINK* Gamming, Jenny. They have a flag-but no country " in Swedish Expressen, 17 Aug. 1997. (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site. Translated by SSF/Goran Hansson. "There are 1.7 million Mapuche Indians. Most of them live in Chile, but at least 200,000 live in Argentina. "
Mapuche Chile 800,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 2 - Americas. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 50-51. "Araucanians: Location: Chile, Argentina; Population: About 800,000; Religion: Roman Catholicism mingled with indigenous religious beliefs "; "The main group of Araucanians that still remain in Chile today are the Mapuche, numbering about 800,000 people. Initially the Mapuche lived between the Itata and Tolten rivers, while the Huilliche or southern Araucanians lived between the Tolten and the island of Chile... Some 400,000 Mapuche have had to migrate to the cities and now live the life of poor, urban workers. "
Mapuche Chile - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 2 - Americas. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 103. "Location: Chile; Religion: Roman Catholicism...; some Protestantism; some indigenous religions "; "Many of the surviving Indians have also been converted to Catholicism. Some Mapuche Indians continue to practice their own religion. Their beliefs include worship of the creator Ngenechen and the destroyer Wakufu. "
Mapuche Chile - 10.00% - - 1999 *LINK* Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site; web page: "Mapuche " (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). "The number of the Mapuche is approximately 1.5 million, constituting over 10% of the total population in Chile and 200,0000 in Argentina. "
Mapuche South America 800,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 2 - Americas. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 50-51. "Araucanians: Location: Chile, Argentina; Population: About 800,000; Religion: Roman Catholicism mingled with indigenous religious beliefs "; "main group of Araucanians that still remain in Chile today are the Mapuche, numbering about 800,000 "; "...Mapuche believe in the forces of creation (Ngenechen) & destruction (Wakufu) & the ultimate balance between them. When the Spaniads arrived they were perceived as an expression of Wakufu. [Spaniards] drove the Mapuch from their lands & forced them to pay tribute to the Spanish crown... Jesuit missions were established early on during the Spanish colonial period, even as far south as Chiloe, and Roman Catholicism has coexisted alongside the original religious beliefs of the Araucanians, in some cases mingling with them... "
Mapuche world 1,700,000 - - - 1997 *LINK* Gamming, Jenny. They have a flag-but no country " in Swedish Expressen, 17 Aug. 1997. (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site. Translated by SSF/Goran Hansson. "There are 1.7 million Mapuche Indians. Most of them live in Chile, but at least 200,000 live in Argentina. The Mapuche Indians has lost large portions of their ancestral lands. The living conditions are characterised by poverty, alcoholism, decease, illiteracy and the destruction of the environment. "
Mapuche world 1,500,000 - - 2
countries
1999 *LINK* Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site; web page: "Mapuche " (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). "The area of the Mapuche People is of half of the area known today as Chile and Argentina... The number of the Mapuche is approximately 1.5 million, constituting over 10% of the total population in Chile and 200,0000 in Argentina. The Mapuche nation constitutes one of the largest indigenous societies in South America. "
Mapuche - reservation-dwelling Chile 500,000 - - - 1997 Faron, Louis C. "The Mapuche of Chile: Their Religious Beliefs and Rituals " in South and Meso-American Native Spirituality, ed. by Gary H. Gossen. New York: Crossroad Publishing Co. (1997); pg. 352. "Even though their lives are difficult, the Mapuche have survived, and their numbers have greatly increased to more than one-half million on reservations in an area of southern middel Chile about... "
Mapuche - reservation-dwelling world 250,000 - - - 1964 Willner, Dorothy. Book review of Hawks of the Sun: Mapuche Morality and Its Ritual Attributes by L. C. Faron, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press (1964). In Social Forces (Dec. 1965, vol. 44, no. 2); pg. 260. "The book is the second Faron has devoted to the reservation-dwelling Mapuche or Araucanian Indian of southern central Chile, estimated as numbering almost 250,000. "
Mapuche - reservation-dwelling world 250,000 - - - 1993 Carmody, Denise Lardner & John Tully Carmody, Native American Religion: An Introduction, Paulist Press: New York, NY (1993); pg. 258. "presently about 250,000 " in reservations in Chile; NOTE: adherent figure is really an estimate of tribe pop., regardless of which religion individuals practice. In earlier periods, all tribe practiced tribal religion, but not necessarily true today.
Mapuche - reservation-dwelling world 500,000 - - 1
country
1997 Faron, Louis C. "The Mapuche of Chile: Their Religious Beliefs and Rituals " in South and Meso-American Native Spirituality, ed. by Gary H. Gossen. New York: Crossroad Publishing Co. (1997); pg. 352. "Even though their lives are difficult, the Mapuche have survived, and their numbers have greatly increased to more than one-half million on reservations in an area of southern middle Chile about... "
Mar Thoma Church India - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 460. "Mar Thoma Church. A church combining Reformation elements with its heritage from the Syrian Orthodox Church from which it separated in the nineteenth century. This church claims continuity with the first century church supposedly founded in India by the apostle Thomas. While remaining basically Syrian Orthodox, the vernacular texts (English or Maylayam) and rites have undergone periodic revision and accomodation to Protestant models... "
Mar Thoma Church India: Kerala 500,000 - - - 1999 *LINK* Web site: "Syro-Malabar Catholic Mission "; web page: "Church History " (viewed 23 July 1999). "Note: The figures given above are approximate, worked out from various sources. The exact numbers are not readily available. " Table: "Christian Denominations in Kerala "; "Other Christians [other than Catholics]: Syrian Orthodox (Methran Kakshi) -1,100,000; Jacobite Syrian Orthodox (Bava Kakshi) - 1,000,000; Independent Jacobites (Thozhiyur) - 9,000; Marthomites - 500,000; St. Thomas Evangelical & Others - 10,000; Church of the East (Nestorians/Surais) - 100,000; Church of South India (CSI) and other Protestants - 700,000 "
Mar Thoma Church USA 30,000 - 65
units
- 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999). [Orig. sources: 1999 Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches; World Almanac research]; pg. 692. Table: "Membership of Religious Groups in U.S. "; Based on reports from officials by each group. Figs. inclusive; refer to all "members ". Listed as Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Ch. Diocese of N.A. and Europe
Marakwet Kenya - - - 1
country
1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures
Marantha Christian Churches Canada - - 1
unit
- 1988 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 289. "In 1988... There was one Canadian center... "
Marantha Christian Churches USA 5,000 - 150
units
- 1988 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 289. "In 1988, the churches reported 5,000 members, 150 churches (campus outreach locations), and 300 ministers in the U.S. "
Marantha Christian Churches world 7,000 - 168
units
19
countries
1988 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.) The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); Chapter: Pentecostal Family; section: Latter Rain Pentecostals; pg. 289. "Marantha Christian Churches... Gainseville, FL [H.Q.]... began in 1972 as a campus ministry. Its founders were Bob Weiner, a former youth pastor for the Assemblies of God, and his wife, Rose Weiner... IN 1985, Marantha began a satellite TV network show as a televised prayer meeting in which 60 churches, tied together for the broadcast, pray for specific requests phoned in by viewers. Membership: In 1988, the churches reported 5,000 members, 150 churches (campus outreach locations), and 300 ministers in the U.S. There was one Canadian center, work in 17 foreign countries, and 7,000 members worldwide. "
Marcionites world - - - - 155 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 301-302. "Not strictly a Gnostic but sharing much of their pessimistic attitude toward the body and the physical world, Marcion of Sinope (c. 80-155) believed that Jesus was radically different from the Jewish tradition that preceded him and that the Gospels had been altered to conceal this. He rejected those Gospels along with the entire Old Testament and reedited the Epistles of Paul and the Gospel of Luke to prove that Jesus taught a God of love rather than fear, quie distinct from the Old Testament God, whom Marcion considered an inferior being. Marcion was denounced as a heretic, but the rapid growth of the Marcionites led the church to establish a canonical set of New Testament texts, consisting of four Gospels, 21 Epistles, the Acts of the Apostles, and Revelation. "
Mari Russia 670,900 - - - 1989 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 247-249. "Maris: Location: Russia (Middle Volga River region); Population: 670,900 (1989) "; "Of all the peoples of the Middle Volga region, and arguably in all of Russia, the Maris have been the most successful at retaining their native religion while at the same time resisting the pressures of Islamization. Not only has the adherence to native religious traditions deeply influenced Mari folklore and cultural life in general, but it has also remained an important factor in Mari history, and, in the current period, in Mari politics as well. In any case, most Maris were converted to Eastern Orthodoxy during the 1st half of the 18th cen., & today roughly two-thirds of religious Maris are Orthodox Christians. [670,900 would be a measure of ethnic Maris, not adherents of the Mari religion.]
Mari Russia: Mari 337,500 45.00% - - 1999 *LINK* Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site; web page: "Mari " (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). "Mari is an autonomous republic in the Russian Federation. It borders to the Chuvash Republic, the Republic of Tatarstan and the Republic of Udmurtia... The population of Mari is approximately 750,000. 43% of the ethnic Maris living in the former Soviet Union, reside in their own republic. Most Maris live in neighbouring areas. In the Mari Republic, Russians are the second largest population group, representing 48% of the total, Tatars 6% and Chuvash 1%. [100% - 48% Russian - 6% Tatar - 1% Chuvash = 45% Mari in Mari Republic.] Languages: The language in Mari is Volga Finnic, a branch of the Finno-Ugric of the Uralic family of languages. Organisations: The Mari are represented by Mari Ushem, the National Movement, in order to seek support for the preservation and development of its national culture and identity. "
Mari world 784,884 - - - 1999 *LINK* Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site; web page: "Mari " (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). "Mari is an autonomous republic in the Russian Federation. It borders to the Chuvash Republic, the Republic of Tatarstan and the Republic of Udmurtia... The population of Mari is approximately 750,000. 43% of the ethnic Maris living in the former Soviet Union, reside in their own republic. Most Maris live in neighbouring areas. In the Mari Republic, Russians are the second largest population group, representing 48% of the total, Tatars 6% and Chuvash 1%. " [100% - 48% Russian - 6% Tatar - 1% Chuvash = 45% Mari in Mari Republic. 45% of 750,000 = 337,500. 337,000/.43 = 784,884 total Mari in world.]
Mari traditional religion Russia - Maris - - - - 1989 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 247-249. "Maris: Location: Russia (Middle Volga River region); Population: 670,900 (1989) "; "Of all peoples of the Middle Volga region, & arguably [all Russia]... Maris have been the most successful at retaining their native religion while at the same time resisting the pressures of Islamization. Not only has the adherence to native religious traditions deeply influenced Mari folklore and cultural life in general... many communities have both formally & informally retained their native religion... termed chi marla vera (the genuine Mari faith)... vast majority of Eastern Maris... have remained staunch adherents... in recent times, native Mari religion has become a political force through the creation of a political organization for the adherents of the chi marla vera. This organization, called Osh Mari Chi Mari, seeks to legitimize Mari native religion &, against the protests of the Russian Orthodox Church, revitalize it. "
Mariavite Old Catholic Church, Province of North America Europe 29,350 - 2
units
- 1984 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 78-79. "Mariavite Old Catholic Church, Province of North America... By 1984, the church claimed 358,503 members, 48 clergy, and 157 parishes in the United States as well as an additional 29,350 members in two congregations in Paris, France and West Germany. "
Mariavite Old Catholic Church, Province of North America France - - 1
unit
- 1984 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 78-79. "Mariavite Old Catholic Church, Province of North America... By 1984, the church claimed 358,503 members, 48 clergy, and 157 parishes in the United States as well as an additional 29,350 members in two congregations in Paris, France and West Germany. "
Mariavite Old Catholic Church, Province of North America Germany, West - - 1
unit
- 1984 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 78-79. "Mariavite Old Catholic Church, Province of North America... By 1984, the church claimed 358,503 members, 48 clergy, and 157 parishes in the United States as well as an additional 29,350 members in two congregations in Paris, France and West Germany. "
Mariavite Old Catholic Church, Province of North America North America 349,999 - 175
units
- 1980 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 78-79. "Mariavite Old Catholic Church, Province of North America... it claimed, by 1980, to have 301,009 members in 117 churches served by 25 clergy in the U.S. An additional 48,990 members were claimed for the 58 churches in Canada... "
Mariavite Old Catholic Church, Province of North America North America 358,176 - - - 1990 Mead, Frank S. (revised by Samuel S. Hill), Handbook of Denominations in the United States (9th Ed.), Abingdon Press: Nashville, Tenn. (1990); pg. 174. "The Mariavite Old Catholic Church numbers... 48 priests, 30 Religious Sisters, 10 Religious Brothers, and 358,176 adherents in the ecclesiastic province of North America. It directs missionary work in Austria, France, and West Germany. "
Mariavite Old Catholic Church, Province of North America North America 358,176 - - - 1993 Mead, Frank S. (revised by Samuel S. Hill), Handbook of Denominations in the United States (10th Ed.), Abingdon Press: Nashville, Tenn. (1995). -
Mariavite Old Catholic Church, Province of North America USA 301,009 - 117
units
- 1980 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 78-79. "Mariavite Old Catholic Church, Province of North America... The Mariavite Old Catholic Church has reported a spectacular rate of growth. From its modest beginnings (it reported only 487 members, in eight centers and 32 clergy in 1972), it claimed, by 1980, to have 301,009 members in 117 churches served by 25 clergy in the U.S... "
Mariavite Old Catholic Church, Province of North America USA 358,503 - 157
units
- 1984 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 78-79. "Mariavite Old Catholic Church, Province of North America... By 1984, the church claimed 358,503 members, 48 clergy, and 157 parishes in the United States... "
Mariavite Old Catholic Church, Province of North America world 487 - 8
units
- 1972 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 78-79. "Mariavite Old Catholic Church, Province of North America... From its modest beginnings (it reported only 487 members, in eight centers and 32 clergy in 1972)... "
Mariavite Old Catholic Church, Province of North America world 350,309 - 177
units
- 1980 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 78-79. "Mariavite Old Catholic Church, Province of North America... The Mariavite Old Catholic Church was incorporated in 1972 as the American Orthodox Catholic Church (changed in 1973 to the Archdiocese of the Old Catholic Church in America and Canada). It assumed its present name in 1974. The founder of the church is the Robert R. J. M. Zaborowski who claims apostolic lineage from the Mariavite Old Catholic Church headquartered at Plock, Poland... The Mariavite Old Catholic Church has reported a spectacular rate of growth. From its modest beginnings (it reported only 487 members, in eight centers and 32 clergy in 1972), it claimed, by 1980, to have 301,009 members in 117 churches served by 25 clergy in the U.S. An additional 48,990 members were claimed for the 58 churches in Canada and several hundred members were claimed for churches in France and West Germany. "
Mariavite Old Catholic Church, Province of North America world - - - - 1991 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 78-79. "Mariavite Old Catholic Church, Province of North America... Remarks: A number of factors have raised doubt about the accuracy of the facts and figures reported by the Mariavite Old Catholic Church. In spite of its reported growth from 1972 to 1975, observers have been unable to locate any of the congregations affiliated with the church except in the small chapel in Archbishop Zaborowski's residence in Wyandotte, Michigan. Zaborowski has consistently refused to share with inquirers the name and address of of any of the claimed parishes or their priests. Doubts have also been raised about Archbishop Zaborowski's ordination and consecration. During the early 1970s he circulated copies of his ordination (1968) & consecration (1972) certificates... More recently, Zaborowski has circulated a different set of certificates... The signatures on the two ordination certificates do not resemble each other in the least... "
Maricopa North America - Southwestern Deserts and Mesa Lands 2,000 - - - 1680 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 27. Table: "Southwestern Deserts and Mesa Lands: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Maricopa world 2,000 - - - 1680 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 27. Table: "Southwestern Deserts and Mesa Lands: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Mariners Church California 2,000 - 1
unit
- 1992 *LINK* Thumma, Scott. web site: "Megachurches in the U.S. " (viewed Aug. 20, 1999; data collected 1992; last updated Aug. 19, 1999). Center for Social & Religious Research, Hartford Seminary. Table; "size " is avg. weekly attendance. Study finding all U.S megachurches.; Indep. cong. in Newport Beach, CA.
Mariners Church California - - - - 1998 Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe. "Religion " in The Future Now: Predicting the 21st Century. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson (1998); pg. 53. "In Newport, California, 'Mariners Southcoast Church' organizes therapy sessions that undercut the shrinks. All the vices of worldly contamination speckle the great radical Christian movement of contemporary America of which Mariners forms part: the Next Church movement, in which some forecasters perceive a model for the future of religion. "
Marka Mali - - - - 1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures
Marka Niger - - - - 1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures
Marka world - - - 2
countries
1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures; "Mali, Niger "
Markham-Waterloo Conference Canada 1,169 - 11
units
- 1998 *LINK* Mennonite World Conference web site. Directory 1998. Web page: "USA/Canada: Mennonite & Brethren in Christ Churches " CANADA... Markham-Waterloo Conference; Members: 1,169; Congregations: 11
Marmas Bangladesh - - - - 1989 Brown, Susan. Pakistan and Bangladesh (series: People and Places). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett Press (1989); pg. 25. "Followers of Buddha: In the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh live several groups of people who follow the Buddhist religion. They originally came from Burma and still look like people of that country. The four main groups are called Chakmas, Marmas, Tripuras, and Mros. Each group speaks a different language. "
Maroon Suriname 43,642 10.00% - - 1999 Beatty, Noelle Blackmer. Suriname (series: Major World Nations). Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers (1999); pg. 57. "Descendants of the African slaves who escaped to the forest and fought the Dutch for their freedom make up about 10% of the total population of Suriname. The communities created by the escaped slaves are called Maroon societies. Such groups also exist in other areas of South America, but six tribes of Suriname form the largest Maroon population in existence. "; Pg. 60: "The Maroon societies, like the Indians, accept medical care and education from Christian missionaries, but most still follow their ancestral African religions. The river people of Suriname wear an obeah, or charm, in the form of a bracelet or necklace of shells, fiber, or grass, to protect themselves from danger. "
Marranos Europe - - - - 1475 C.E. Jacobs, Louis. Oxford Concise Companion to the Jewish Religion. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press (1999); pg. 146. "Marranos: The Jews of Spain and Portugal from the fifteenth century who submitted to baptism under threat of death or persecution, and many of whom kept Jewish observances in the secrecy of their homes. The Hebrew for Jews forced to convert to another religion is anusim ('those who were forced'). Marranos means 'swine' in Spanish and is a term of opprobrium obviously resented by Jews even though this name is used in the history books. "
Marranos Netherlands - - - - 1750 Jacobs, Louis. Oxford Concise Companion to the Jewish Religion. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press (1999); pg. 146. "Marranos: The Jews of Spain and Portugal from the fifteenth century who submitted to baptism under threat of death or persecution, and many of whom kept Jewish observances in the secrecy of their homes... Many of the anusim later took up residence in Amsterdam where they formed a large proportion of the Jewish community. "
Marranos Portugal - - - - 1917 Ross, Dan. Acts of Faith: A Journey to the Fringes of Jewish Identity. New York: St. Martin's Press (1982); pg. 26. "It is hard to believe that Marranos still exist, hundreds of years after they were driven underground by the Inquisition. It was considered a miracle when they were discovered early this century. No one had suspected that thousands of Marranos were still practicing a rudimental Judaism in the remote towns and villages of northest Portugal... " [The year 1917 mentioned on pg. 27.]
Marranos Portugal - - 34
units
- 1925 Ross, Dan. Acts of Faith: A Journey to the Fringes of Jewish Identity. New York: St. Martin's Press (1982); pg. 26-27. "The discover [1917] thrilled the entire Jewish world. Funds poured in from other countries to help the Marranos return to mainstream Judaism. A magnificent synagogue was built in Oporto, northern Portugal's largest city. Marrano children learned to read Hebrew and sing Jewish songs. Men of all ages were circumcised. Public congregations were opened in the provinces... At the height of this 'renaissance' Marranos from thirty-four different villages were said to be participating. "
Marranos Portugal - - 1
unit
- 1982 Ross, Dan. Acts of Faith: A Journey to the Fringes of Jewish Identity. New York: St. Martin's Press (1982); pg. 27. "The Marrano renaissance mysteriously vanished as suddenly as it had begun... Today, not a single public Jewish community remains in northern Portugal. Oporto's synagogue stands empty... In the villages Marranos did not survive disclosure of their secret. Of the 34 villages in which they had been found, only one still has an active community: Belmonte, where the Marranos regrouped as a semi-secret cult. "
Marranos Portugal: Belmonte 600 15.00% - - 1982 Ross, Dan. Acts of Faith: A Journey to the Fringes of Jewish Identity. New York: St. Martin's Press (1982); pg. 43-44. "Belmonte is the only place in Portugal where the ancient division between the Old and New Christian [ "New Christian " = Marrano] remains a central fact of life. Of Belmonte's approximately four thousand residents, five to six hundred are New Christians. That is their own estimate. Belmonte's Old Christians are as likely as not to shrug their shoulders and say, 'Oh, every other house is Jewish.' "
Marranos Portugal: Belmonte - - - - 1982 Ross, Dan. Acts of Faith: A Journey to the Fringes of Jewish Identity. New York: St. Martin's Press (1982); pg. 26. "The 'Jew' In the cafe had been baptized a Catholic. He was married in Belmonte's Catholic church. When he dies, they will hold his funeral there. He is not circumcised. He eats pork. And he keeps his religion absolutely private. Not a single non-Jew has ever seen the lamp-lighting ceremony which takes place in his home every Friday night. Nor have they seen him fast on Yom Kippur or eat unleavened bread on Passover. Along with hundreds of others in Belmonte, he is a Marrano--one of the last surviving secret Jews. "
Marranos Portugal: Belmonte - - 1
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- 1982 Ross, Dan. Acts of Faith: A Journey to the Fringes of Jewish Identity. New York: St. Martin's Press (1982); pg. 27. "The Marrano renaissance mysteriously vanished as suddenly as it had begun... Today, not a single public Jewish community remains in northern Portugal. Oporto's synagogue stands empty... In the villages Marranos did not survive disclosure of their secret. Of the 34 villages in which they had been found, only one still has an active community: Belmonte, where the Marranos regrouped as a semi-secret cult. "
Marranos Spain - - - - 1550 C.E. Keefe, Eugene K., et al. Area Handbook for Spain (1st Ed.). Washington, D.C.: Foreign Area Studies of The American University (1976; research completed 1975); pg. 132. "The Catholic King's edict of 1492 expelled all Jews who did not convert. Though many fled Spain and some who remained actually did convert to Catholocism, others adhered in secret to their own faith. Persecution, both officially and at the hands of the Inquisition and in ordinary social intercourse--manifested, for example, in the derisive term Marranos--persisted until the 18th and 19th centuries, when Jews were granted full rights of citizenship. "
Marranos Spain - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 462. "Marranos. Those Jews who, due to persecution by Roman Catholicism in Spain, beginning in 1391, outwardly adopted Christianity while covertly practicing Judaism. Their alleged Judaizing activities led to the establishment of the Spanish Inquisition, while the influence of unconverted Jews upon the Marranos was the officla reason for the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492. Small, isolated communities of Marranos exist today. "
Martinist Order France - - - - 1895 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 13). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1747. "The Martinist Order which the French occultist Papus took over in the 1890s lacked any genuine initiatory connections with the original Order. " [Original, from late 1700s: the Martinist Ordre des Chevalier-Macons, Elus-Cohens de l'Univers]


Martinist Order, continued

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