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43,941 adherent statistic citations: membership and geography data for 4,300+ religions, churches, tribes, etc.

Index

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Mandean, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Mandean Europe 0 0.00% - - 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999). [Source: 1999 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 695. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1998 "
Mandean Iraq - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 13). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1721. "It has been established that Mani was familiar with the views of the Mandeans, a baptist sect still existing in Iraq, most probably originating from Palestine... "
Mandean Iraq - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 388-389. "Mandaeans: This 2nd-century Gnostic Christian sect, with Judaic and Persian elements, still survives today around the Tigris River in Iraq. Known as Disciples of St. John the Baptist, or St. John's Christians because of their preservation of legends about John, members call themselves Sabians ('Baptists'), perhaps because a sect of Sabaeans is tolerated in the Quran. "
Mandean Latin America 0 0.00% - - 1995 The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1996 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 646. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1995 "
Mandean Latin America 0 0.00% - - 1996 The World Almanac & Book of Facts 1998 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1997 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 654. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1996 "
Mandean Latin America 0 0.00% - - 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999). [Source: 1999 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 695. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1998 "
Mandean North America 0 0.00% - - 1995 The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1996 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 646. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1995 "
Mandean North America 0 0.00% - - 1996 The World Almanac & Book of Facts 1998 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1997 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 654. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1996 "
Mandean North America 0 0.00% - - 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999). [Source: 1999 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 695. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1998 "
Mandean Oceania 0 0.00% - - 1995 The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1996 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 646. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1995 "
Mandean Oceania 0 0.00% - - 1996 The World Almanac & Book of Facts 1998 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1997 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 654. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1996 "
Mandean Oceania 0 0.00% - - 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999). [Source: 1999 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 695. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1998 "
Mandean world 2,000 - - - 1945 Ferm, Vergilius (ed). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976; 1st ed. pub. 1945 by Philosophical Library); pg. 675. "Sabaism: The beliefs of a semi-Christian sect of Babylonia, mentioned in the Koran... as Sabeites... also called Sabians or Mandeans, and survive as a small sect of 2000, holding John the baptist as the true prophet. "
Mandean world - - - 2
countries
1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 457. "Mandeans. Semitic, Gnostic religious group (with adherents today in Iraq and Iran). "
Mandean world 15,000 - - - 1982 Eerdman, William B., Eerdman's Handbook to the World's Religions. Lion Publishing (1982): Herts, England; pg. 110. "The 15,000 or more Mandaeans who live in southern Iraq and Iran are the sole surviving remnants of ancient Gnosticism. "
Mandean world 44,000 0.00% - - 1995 The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1996 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 646. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1995 "
Mandean world 45,000 0.00% - - 1996 The World Almanac & Book of Facts 1998 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1997 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 654. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1996 "
Mandean world 38,000 0.00% - - 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999). [Source: 1999 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 695. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1998 "
Mandingo Gambia 574,000 41.00% - - 1997 Dostert, Pierre Etienne. Africa 1997 (The World Today Series). Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Stryker-Post Publications (1997); pg. 44. Estimates of % of population in ethnic (NOT religious) backgrounds, & est. 1997 total pop.
Mandingue Haiti - - - - 1976 Davis, Wade. The Serpent and the Rainbow. New York: Simon & Schuster (1985); pg. 211-212. "Haitian anthropologist... Michel Laguerre... 1976 [met] peasants who had been invited to join secret societies, [but later] converted to Protestantism & hence were willing to talk. There were... secret societies in all parts of the country, & each one maintained control of a specified territory. Names varied from region to region but included Zobop, Bizango, Vlinblindingue, San Poel, Mandingue, &... Macandal... quasi-political arm of the vodoun society charged above all with the protection of the community... "
Mandjia Central African Republic - - - 1
country
1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures
Mandyako Guinea-Bissau - - - 1
country
1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures
Mandyako Guinea-Bissau 182,000 14.00% - - 1997 Dostert, Pierre Etienne. Africa 1997 (The World Today Series). Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Stryker-Post Publications (1997); pg. 52. Estimates of % of population in ethnic (NOT religious) backgrounds, & est. 1997 total pop.
Manggarai Indonesia: Flores 400,000 28.57% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 478-479. "Manggarai: Location: Indonesia (island of Flores); Population: 400,000; Language: Manggarai; Bahasa Indonesia; Religion: Roman Catholic majority; traditional animism "; "The mountainous island of Flores... Inhabiting the western third of the island, the Manggarai are the largest single ethnic group, numbering 400,000 out of the total Flores population of 1.4 million. "; "The island of Flores as a whole is 85% Catholic, an anomaly in the world's largest Muslim country. " [NOTE: This statistic is of Manggarai as an ethnic group, not a count of how many practice traditional Manggarai religion.]
Manichaeism Asia - - - - 1200 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 13). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1724. "In the East, especially outside the Roman Empire, [Manicheism] flourished in spite of persecutions and remained for a thousand years one of the main religions of Asia. "
Manichaeism Babylonia - - - - 240 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 13). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1721. "Manicheism was a gnostic, dualistic religion, founded by a Babylonian prince of Persian origin named Mani, who was born in 216 AD. According to the Fihrist of the Arabic author An Nadim, when Mani was 12 years old God sent an angel called at-Taum (twin) to him, ordering him to leave the ascetic sect to which his father belonged. When Mani was 24, this same angel appeared to him and told him that now the time had come to appear in public and proclaim hisown doctrine.... "
Manichaeism Bosnia - - - - 1450 C.E. Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press (1994); pg. 32. "Fifteenth-century Catholic authors did sometimes refer to the 'Manichaeans' in Bosnia, but that term seems to have been a self-consciously archaizing label used by historically-minded writers who wanted to dignify their works with the terms used in early Christian history. "
Manichaeism China - - - - 1350 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally published as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 804. "In the mid-fourteenth century several White Lotus groups rebelled against Mongol rule in the name of both Maitreya and the Manichean King of Light. "
Manichaeism China 0 - - - 1350 C.E. *LINK* web site: "Encyclopedia of the Orient "; web page: "Manichaeism " (viewed 26 Jan. 1999) "Spread out over most of the known world of the 1st millennium AD, from Spain to China. Manichaeism disappeared from the West in 10th century, and from China in the 14th century. During the Roman Empire, Manichaeism got a strong position in North Africa... For 80 years, from 762, Manichaeism was the state religion of a Turkic people (Uighurs). "
Manichaeism India - - - - 260 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 13). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1721. "Mani considered Buddha, Zoroaster and Jesus as his predecessors. He visited northwestern India and during his missionary trips in the Persian Empire, favoured by King Shapur I, he must have become thoroughly familiar with the Iranian religion. "
Manichaeism Iran - - - - 250 C.E. *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "MANICHAEISM: a RELIGION which thrived during third century in Persia founded by MANI... "
Manichaeism Iran - - - - 274 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 13). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1721. "Mani considered Buddha, Zoroaster and Jesus as his predecessors. He visited northwestern India and during his missionary trips in the Persian Empire, favoured by King Shapur I, he must have become thoroughly familiar with the Iranian religion. If he died in prison (possibly in 274 AD) owing to the hostility of the official magians (fire-priests) who influenced King Bahram I, this does not mean that he did not integrate Iranian religious concepts into his system. "
Manichaeism Syria - - - - 250 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 13). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1721. "Christianity in Edessa, however, was not exclusively encratitic. Before the sect of Encratites, Jewish Christianity had come to the city, possibly from Jerusalem (see Ebionites). These Jewish Christians called themselves Nazorees or Nazarenes, as the Syrian Christians did later on. The Manichean Kephalaia preserves a debate on Mani with a Nazoree about the problem of whether God... "
Manichaeism West, The - - - - 600 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 13). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1724. "Manicheism spread in the West, where the young St. Augustine was attracted to the sect, until it was completely suppressed by the combined forces of Church and State in c 600 AD. "
Manichaeism West, The - - - - 600 C.E. Cohen, Daniel. Cults. Brookfield, Connecticut: Millbrook Press (1994); pg. 59-61. "Neither Judaism nor Christianity developed or existed in a religious vacuum. There were other highly influential sects and movements... Most influential were the Manichaeans. Manichaeism developed into a sophisticated body of religious thought that was both influenced by Christianity & attractive to many Christians... The Manichaeans were not devil worshipers or followers of the principle of evil. Actually they were generally more ascetic & rigid than Christians of the time... Manichaeism was declared a dangerous heresy, and... [was] persecuted with ruthless vigor. As far as most official histories are concerned, the belief was wiped out in the West in about the 6th century. But many think that Manichaean beliefs continued to flourish underground for centuries, perhaps even to the present day. "
Manichaeism West, The 0 - - - 950 C.E. *LINK* web site: "Encyclopedia of the Orient "; web page: "Manichaeism " (viewed 26 Jan. 1999) "Spread out over most of the known world of the 1st millennium AD, from Spain to China. Manichaeism disappeared from the West in 10th century, and from China in the 14th century. During the Roman Empire, Manichaeism got a strong position in North Africa... For 80 years, from 762, Manichaeism was the state religion of a Turkic people (Uighurs). "
Manichaeism world - - - - 276 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 325-326. "Manichaeism or Manichaeanism. Mani (or Manes, 216-76), a Mesopotamian ecstatic, taught a dualistic philosophy with signs of an Iranian Gnostic influence and elements of Jewish and Buddhist belief... Mani called himself 'an apostle of Jesus Christ' and the sect had a Christian-styled clergy, baptism with oil, and a eucharistic meal, yet they were not specifically Christian heretics. They were, however, loathed and feared by most religions and governments throughout their zone of influence, which stretched from Western Asia to Eastern Europe. "
Manichaeism world - - - - 400 C.E. Walker, Williston. A History of the Christian Church (3rd ed., revised by Robert T. Handy; 1st ed. 1918). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons (1970); pg. 98-99. "Two other forces of importance arose in the religious world. The first was Neo-Platonism... Far otherwise was it with a second movement, that of Manichaeism. Its founder, Mani, was born in Persia in 216, began his preaching in Babylon in 242, & was martyred in 277... Manichaeism was also exceedingly syncretistic; indeed, Mani's aim was the foundation of a world religion & community, which would overcome the spacial limitations of previous religious traditions. He incorporated elements from Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, Judaism & Christianity, recognizing each as a preparatory step in the universal message he proclaimed... In Manichaeism Christianity had a real rival. Its spread was rapid in the empire, & it absorbed not only many of the followers of Mithraism, but the remnants of Christian-gnostic sects... Its great growth was to be in the 4th & 5th centuries, & its influence was to be felt till the late Middle Ages through sects which were heirs of its teachings, like the Cathari. "
Manichaeism world - - - - 1200 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 457. "Manicheism. A syncretistic religion inspired by the Babylonian prophet Mani (A.D. 216-277), who incorporated elements of Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, Gnosticism, and Christianity... Manichee churches won adherents in Mediterranean lands and in Asia and India until the thirteench century, though frequently outlawed and attacked... "
Manichaeism world 0 - - - 1250 C.E. *LINK* web site: Infoplease.com Encyclopedia; web page/encyclopedia entry: "Manichaeism " (viewed 26 Jan. 1999). "...Mani came forward (c.240) as the inspired prophet of a new religion... Manichaeism spread rapidly, and it was soon disseminated throughout the Roman Empire and into China... Little is heard of the Manichees in the West after the 6th century... The sect survived in the East, notably in Chinese Turkistan (Xinjiang), until about the 13th century. "
Manichaeism world 0 - - - 1450 C.E. *LINK* web page: "Manichaeism " by Thayer Watkins, San Jose State University Economics Department. (viewed 26 Jan. 1999). "Mani's death did not end the religion but did drive it underground. It survived for several centuries. It penetrated the West and Augustine, later to become Saint Augustine, was for nine years a Manichaean. The Turkish tribe, the Uighurs, converted to Manichaeism. The Bogomils in Bulgaria and the Cathars in northern Italy and southern France were probably Manichaeans. Manichaeism probably survived until the 15th century. "
Manichaeism world 1 - - - 2000 *LINK* web site: "The Neo-Manichaean Church " (viewed 11 Jan. 2000) "This is the preliminary home page for the Neo-Manichaean Church. We represent a revival of the ancient teachings of the prophet Mani, who established a religion which spread across Europe and Asia and lasted for centuries despite horrible persecution. We believe that Manichaeanism was closer to the truth than the corrupted religions which attacked it, and should be updated and revived as a living faith to solve the problems of the modern world. "
Manipur Baptist Convention India 134,594 - 1,294
units
- 1998 *LINK* Baptist World Alliance web site; page: "BWA Statistics " (viewed 31 March 1999). "Figures are for BWA affiliated conventions/unions only (no independents included). "; Table with 3 columns: Country, "Churches ", & "Members "; "1997/1998 Totals "
Mankind United California - - - - 1934 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 13). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1725. "The socio-religious movement called Mankind United was the creation of Aurthur L. Bell, an American businessman. Although little is known of his earlier career, Bell claimed to have been born in New Hampshire in 1900, to have grown up in poverty and to have completed only four years of school. Emigrating to California in his teens... became a Christian Scientist practitioner... married, at the age of 34, a fellow Christian Scientist -- a wealthy woman... Financially supported by his wife, Bell conceived the movement and at his own expense published the text, Mankind United, (1934). In its 313 repetitious pages, Bell sough to answer the ancient questions of why the world is dominated by war, poverty, greed and hate, when so many long for it to be otherwise; and how it might be changed so that everyone could live in economic abundance and happiness under the Golden Rule of Christ... "
Mankind United California 250,000 - - - 1939 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 13). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1726. "At the height of... popularity, in 1938-39, frequent mass meetings were held throughout California, and it is estimated that upwards of a quarter of a million West Coast citizens read the book, registered themselves, and attended at least a few meetings. "
Mankind United California - - - - 1939 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 13). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1726. "Already by 1939 the Federal Government had infiltrated the movement and Bell had begun to retrench by discontinuing sale of the book and by calling for the close screening of members of Mankind United. As support for the policies of the American government increased, membership declined, & in response Bell instituted a series of measures designed to commit the remaining followers... "
Mankind United California 850 - - - 1943 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 13). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. . "In the face of declining membership and government prosecution, Bell adopted a bold but logical strategy to save and consolidate his movement. Late in 1943, he announced to the membership the 'literally unheard-of opportunity' to become 'student ministers' in 'training schools' for those who would form the foundation of the forthcoming Universal Service Corporation. Incorporating a new organization, Christ's Church of the Golden Rule, Bell pressed his followers to give over all their worldy goods to the Church & to begin work in one of the large number of businesses he was in the process of acquiring. Under two years later, by the summer of 1945, he had assembled more than 3.5 million dollars worth of property in California, including a number of office buildings, hotels, ranches, laundries, garages & the like. Bell's following, however, was now down to about 850 persons, so that only part of these vast new holdings were run by members as Utopian 'Laboratories of Abundant Living'. "
Mankind United California 350 - - - 1951 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 13). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1726. "Late in 1945, the Attorney General of California began to receive complaints from members who wanted their worldly possessions returned. The state initiated bankruptcy proceedings, but Bell, in order to retain some control, countered by throwing Christ's Church into voluntary bankruptcy. There followed a protracted process of court-ordered sales of property for the purpose of settling several hundred claims. In late 1951, all claims had been settled, leaving the organization with a few properties and some 300 die-hard loyalists. " [ "Christ's Church of the Golden Rule " was the name adopted by Mankind United in 1943, and has no apparent connection to the French Huguenot "Church of the Golden Rule "]
Mankind United California 90 - - - 1956 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 13). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1726. "In these later years, Bell's followers say him less and less. Finally, in December 1951, he made an announcement to the faithful remnant. The Sponsors had decided that the majority of mankind was so selfish as to be unworthy of salvation and would, in any case, eventually destroy itself in wars. They had therefor eexplored possibilities for the colonization of other planets... Those who remained faithful would also be transported to the new planet, although the automatic machinery would effect this transition only 'during the brief instant immediately preceding one's so-called death'. Following the announcement of this final communication, Bell disappeared from the view of members and public alike. Members grew few and old, operating a few remaining businesses, among which was a laundry and a motel. By 1956, less than a hundred members remained faithful and the end of Mankind United was reached. "
Mankind United world 250,000 - - 1
country
1939 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 13). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1725. "Equipped with his wife's money, an ideology and an attractive physical presence Bell set out to build a movement. It was to have an active history of only 17 years (1934-51)... From the middle to the late '30s, California, deep in the depression, was overrun with salvationist schemes. In this highly competitive but permissive market, Bell introduced Mankind United. Membership involved merely the purchase of the book, a promise to pass it on to friends, and a willingness to listen and vote during the forthcoming 30-day programme... At the height of the movement's popularity, in 1938-39, frequent mass meetings were held throughout California, and it is estimated that upwards of a quarter of a million West Coast citizens read the book, registered themselves, and attended at least a few meetings. "
Mankind United - core California 30,000 - - - 1939 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 13). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1726. "...height of... popularity, in 1938-39... Bell encouraged the formation of local clubs dedicated to promoting the book, and while this was not obligatory such clubs nonetheless flourished. As they grew in numbers, Bell organized them into an elaborate bureaucracy of dedicated workes. As many as 30,000 were actively engaged in the goal of registering 200 million 'educated and religious people' -- precisely the people, Bell said, whom the Money Changers most urgenly wanted to annihilate. The bulk of the membership was drawn from the working and lower 'white-collar' classes, was primarily between the ages of 40 and 60 and had completed some secondary education. Females slightly outnumbered males... "
Manso North America - Southwestern Deserts and Mesa Lands 1,000 - - - 1668 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 27. Table: "Southwestern Deserts and Mesa Lands: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Manso world 1,000 - - - 1668 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 27. Table: "Southwestern Deserts and Mesa Lands: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Mantrayana world - - - - 700 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 459. "Mantrayana Buddhist school of the seventh and eight centuries which emphasized the magical efficacy of esoteric words or syllables to produce rainfall, repel evil spirits, communicate with a deity, or achieve Buddhahood. "
Manus Papua New Guinea 2,000 - - - 1968 Pinney, Roy. Vanishing Tribes. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1968); pg. 253. "The Admirality Islands are situated off the northeastern coast of New Guinea... On the Admiralities live a tribe who have made perhaps the most drasti changes in the shortest time of any primitive peoples. A unique opportunity to observe the details of their whilwind transition was furnished by the studies of Margaret Mead and Reo Fortune, conducted in 1928-1929. Dr. Mead recorded her observations of the Manus, a people numbering approximately two thousand, in her book Growing Up in New Guinea, not a classic in social anthropology. "
Manuvu' Philippines: Mindoro 30,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 486. "Manuvu' (upland Bagobo): Location: Philippines (island of Mindoro); Population: About 30,000 (1970s); Language: Manuvu'/Bagobo; Religion: Indigenous beliefs "; "The Manuvu' are one of the many Mindanao groups to whom Visayans, Spanish, and Moros apply the name Bagobo (anthropologists specify the Manuvu' as the 'Upland Bagobo'). "; Pg. 487: "According to Manuvu' belief, there are two parallel universes, one good and the other bad, each divided into a skyworld, an earthworld, and an underworld. While the bad universe is only vaguely delineated, the good universe's skyworld consists of nine layers, at the topmost of which resides Manama, the supreme deity... "
Mao-shan p'ai China - - - - 550 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 221. "Mao-shan p'ai - Chin., lit. 'School of Mount Mao'; one of the talisman schools (fu-lu p'ai) of religious Taoism (tao-chiao). The Mount Mao movement was founded in the 6th century by T'ao Hung-ching and is basedo n the teachings of the brothers Mao (2nd century), whom T'ao venerated... The Mao-shan movement flourished during the Sui and T'ang dynasties and in the 13th century was absorbed by the Way of Right Unity (cheng-i tao). "
Maohi French Polynesia 133,000 70.00% - - 1999 *LINK* Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organisation web site; web page: "Maohi " (Viewed 16 Aug. 1999). "French Polynesia consists of the island of Tahiti and 117 other islands and atolls. The island can be divided into 4 groups: the 14 Community islands, the 11 Marquises Islands, the Austral islands and the Tuamotu-Gambrier Archipelago. The Maohi, the indigenous people of French Polynesia, form 70% of the region's 190,000 inhabitants. The second largest population group is the Demin, comprising 15 % of the population. 11% of the population is European while the remainder is Asian, mostly Chinese. Organisations: The Maohi people are represented through Hiti Tau, an umbrella organisation of Maohi (non-governmental) organisation from the island of French Polynesia. It deals with political issues as well as economical, social and environmental matters. "
Maoism China - - - - 1966 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998); pg. 34. "In 1966, student discontent turned into massive protests. Mao exploited these protests, initiating the 'Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution' to unsettle his opponents. Party cadres provoked a mass movement of the Red Guards, tossing the country once again into chaos, at times close to civil war. Intellectuals, artists and politicians, including top party leadership, fell victim to the terror of the Red Guards. Schools closed, artistic life stagnated, international relations evaporated. At the same time, Mao elevated himself in a personality cult unprecedented anywhere else in the world. "
Maoism China 800,000,000 - - - 1975 Wallechinsky, David & Irving Wallace; The People's Almanac; Garden City, NY: Doubleday (1975); pg. 1270. List of "Major World Religions ": "The main tenets of Maoism are faith in the Communist party... It is estimated that there are 800 million Maoists in China alone, although they don't all agree on practical interpretations of the scripture. "
Maori New Zealand - - - - 850 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 13). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1728. "The Maoris are a Polynesian people whose ancestors arrived in New Zealand in the 9th century AD. These population movements were not planned, rather they were accidental voyages made by adventurous seamen, defeated warriors or wind-blown fishermen. It is known that by the 11th century they had explored much of the east coasts of both main islands of New Zealand, which stretch over 1000 miles from the subtropical North Cape to the temperate southern tip of the South Island. "
Maori New Zealand 42,000 - - - 1896 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 489. "As a result of war and disease, the Maori population fell to 42,000 by 1896. "; [NOTE: This statistic is of a cultural/ethnic affiliation, NOT a count of how many practice traditional Maori religion.]
Maori New Zealand 321,369 9.36% - - 1991 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 573. "As of the 1991 census, New Zealand's population was 3,434,950... In March 1991 there were 321,396 Maoris or part-Maoris (those reporting a Maori ancestry of 50% or more), about 90% of whom live in North Island. "
Maori New Zealand 288,000 8.00% - - 1997 Leibo, Steven A. East, Southeast Asia, and the Western Pacific 1997 (The World Today Series). Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Stryker-Post Publications (1997); pg. 188. Estimates of % of population in ethnic (NOT religious) backgrounds, & est. 1997 total pop.
Maori New Zealand 525,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 489. "Maori: Location: New Zealand; Population: Approximately 525,000; Language: Maori; English; Religion: Christianity; traditional Maori, based on ancestor worship "; [NOTE: This statistic is of a cultural/ethnic affiliation, NOT a count of how many practice traditional Maori religion.]


Maori, continued

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