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Index

back to Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, Washington

Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod Washington, D.C. 1,156 0.19% 4
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns.
Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod West Virginia 628 0.04% 4
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 455. [Listed as 'Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod.']
Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod Wisconsin 248,876 5.09% 428
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 189,901. [Listed as 'Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod.']
Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod world 300,000 - 1,500
units
- 1887 Spence, Hartzell. The Story of America's Religions; New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston (1960) [1st printing 1957]; pg. 51. "Before he died in 1887, Walther say his little Missouri Synod expand to 1,500 congregations with 300,000 members in 24 states. "
Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod world 1,361,698 - 4,114
units
- 1945 Ferm, Vergilius (ed). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976; 1st ed. pub. 1945 by Philosophical Library); pg. 497. "the Synod has enjoyed rapid growth and now has 4,110 pastors, 4,114 congregations, and 1,361,698 members. "
Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod world 2,660,000 - 6,200
units
- 1986 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 154. "Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod... Membership: In 1986 the Missouri Synod reported 2,660,000 members in 6,200 congregations. There were 6,000 pastors and 10,500 teachers. "
Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod world 2,600,000 - - 43
countries
1993 Bedell, Kenneth (ed.). Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches 1993. Abingdon Press: Nashville, Tenn (1993); pg. 101. "works in various capacities in 42 other countries. It has 2.6 million members worldwide, and is the second-largest Lutheran denomination in North America. "
Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod world 2,609,000 - 5,369
units
- 1993 Mead, Frank S. (revised by Samuel S. Hill), Handbook of Denominations in the United States (10th Ed.), Abingdon Press: Nashville, Tenn. (1995). -
Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod world 2,606,370 - - 2
countries
1995 *LINK* Evangelical Lutheran Church in America web site; web page: "January 25, 1996 News Releases " (viewed 9 July 1999). Story: "More than 60 Million Lutherans Worldwide " [96-01-003-FI] List: "Lutheran Churches with more than 1/2 million members "; "Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod (USA and Canada) 2,606,370 "
Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod world 2,601,730 - - - 1996 *LINK* web site: "Religions and Health Care " by Fr. J Mahoney, M.Div.; web page: "Membership Reported " (viewed 20 Feb. 1999); [Orig. source: J. Gordon Melton. Encyclopedia of American Religions, 6th edition, copyright 1999, Gale Publishing] Table: "Membership Reported "; 3 key columns: "Religious Group ", "Year ", "Membership " (which always specifies location, whether U.S., North America, or Total]; listed in table as "Lutheran Church- Missouri Synod "
Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod world 2,600,000 - 6,145
units
- 1997 *LINK* official web site 2.6 million members in 6,145 congregations
Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod world 2,600,000 - - - 1999 *LINK* Associated Press. "Unity pact leads to divide between Lutherans " in Deseret News, 18 Sept. 1999 (viewed online 18 Sept. 1990). "ST. LOUIS (AP) The recent unity pact between the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and the Episcopal and Moravian churches has worsened relations with the nation's other major Lutheran denomination. A.L. Barry, president of the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, says the decisions pushed the two Lutheran churches farther apart. 'An even more serious erosion of a genuine Lutheran identity' will be the inevitable result, he says... Barry's conservative denomination, which avoids ecumenical involvements, has 2.6 million members. The Evangelical Lutherans claim 5.2 million. "
Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod Wyoming 11,228 2.48% 44
units
- 1990 Glenmary Research Center. Churches & Church Membership in U.S., 1990. By-county org. reports, figures from 'Churches' & inclusive 'Adherents' columns. More exclusive 'members': 7,982. [Listed as 'Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod.']
Lutheran Free Church of Norway Norway 18,984 - 64
units
- 1971 *LINK* Government statistics web site (viewed circa Nov. 1998) Table: "Religious and philosophical communities outside Church of Norway "
Lutheran Free Church of Norway Norway 19,357 - 66
units
- 1980 *LINK* Government statistics web site (viewed circa Nov. 1998) Table: "Religious and philosophical communities outside Church of Norway "
Lutheran Free Church of Norway Norway 20,360 - 72
units
- 1990 *LINK* Government statistics web site (viewed circa Nov. 1998) Table: "Religious and philosophical communities outside Church of Norway "
Lutheran Free Church of Norway Norway 20,618 - 80
units
- 1996 *LINK* Government statistics web site (viewed circa Nov. 1998) Table: "Religious and philosophical communities outside Church of Norway "
Lutheran Free Church of Norway USA 49,506 - - - 1945 Ferm, Vergilius (ed). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976; 1st ed. pub. 1945 by Philosophical Library); pg. 458. "The largest of the Scandinavian synods [in U.S.] are:... the Lutheran Free Church (Norwegian) with 210 pastors and 49,506 members... "
Lutheran Synod of Buffalo New York: Buffalo 1,525 - 4
units
- 1926 Finke, Roger & Rodney Stark. The Churching of America, 1776-1990. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press (1992; 3rd printing 1997). [Orig. source: 1926 U.S. govt. census from Bureau of the Census, 1930, vol. 1]; pg. 8. "Table 31. Number of churches, membership [incl. children]... 1926 "; Reports prepared by pastors/boards of elders. Listed in table as Lutheran Synod of Buffalo under subheading "Lutherans ".
Lutheran World Federation Africa 7,873,287 - - - 1995 *LINK* Evangelical Lutheran Church in America web site; web page: "January 25, 1996 News Releases " (viewed 9 July 1999). Story: "More than 60 Million Lutherans Worldwide " [96-01-003-FI] Table: "Lutheran World Federation 1995 Membership Figures Summary "
Lutheran World Federation Africa 7,900,000 - - - 1995 *LINK* Evangelical Lutheran Church in America web site; web page: "January 25, 1996 News Releases " (viewed 9 July 1999). Story: "More than 60 Million Lutherans Worldwide " [96-01-003-FI] "Almost all of Africa's 7.9 million Lutherans are members of the [LWF] federation. "
Lutheran World Federation Africa 9,100,000 - - - 1999 Lutheran World Federation "The African membership of the World Lutheran Federation, for example, has grown by 65 percent in just seven years, to 9.1 million people. "
Lutheran World Federation Asia 4,700,000 - - - 1995 *LINK* Evangelical Lutheran Church in America web site; web page: "January 25, 1996 News Releases " (viewed 9 July 1999). Story: "More than 60 Million Lutherans Worldwide " [96-01-003-FI] "Asia has just under 4.9 million Lutherans, of whom over 4.7 million belong to the LWF. "
Lutheran World Federation Asia 4,757,361 - - - 1995 *LINK* Evangelical Lutheran Church in America web site; web page: "January 25, 1996 News Releases " (viewed 9 July 1999). Story: "More than 60 Million Lutherans Worldwide " [96-01-003-FI] Table: "Lutheran World Federation 1995 Membership Figures Summary "
Lutheran World Federation Europe 37,300,000 - - - 1995 *LINK* Evangelical Lutheran Church in America web site; web page: "January 25, 1996 News Releases " (viewed 9 July 1999). Story: "More than 60 Million Lutherans Worldwide " [96-01-003-FI] "The largest concentration of Lutheranism and the LWF is in Europe, with over 37.3 million members. North America has 8.6 million Lutherans, of whom 5.4 million belong to the LWF. Almost all of Africa's 7.9 million Lutherans are members of the federation. Asia has just under 4.9 million Lutherans, of whom over 4.7 million belong to the LWF. Of the nearly 1.4 million Lutherans in Latin America, over 1.1 million are members of the LWF. "
Lutheran World Federation Europe 37,342,200 - - - 1995 *LINK* Evangelical Lutheran Church in America web site; web page: "January 25, 1996 News Releases " (viewed 9 July 1999). Story: "More than 60 Million Lutherans Worldwide " [96-01-003-FI] Table: "Lutheran World Federation 1995 Membership Figures Summary "
Lutheran World Federation Latin America 1,100,000 - - - 1995 *LINK* Evangelical Lutheran Church in America web site; web page: "January 25, 1996 News Releases " (viewed 9 July 1999). Story: "More than 60 Million Lutherans Worldwide " [96-01-003-FI] "Of the nearly 1.4 million Lutherans in Latin America, over 1.1 million are members of the LWF. "
Lutheran World Federation Latin America 1,131,878 - - - 1995 *LINK* Evangelical Lutheran Church in America web site; web page: "January 25, 1996 News Releases " (viewed 9 July 1999). Story: "More than 60 Million Lutherans Worldwide " [96-01-003-FI] Table: "Lutheran World Federation 1995 Membership Figures Summary "
Lutheran World Federation North America 5,400,000 - - - 1995 *LINK* Evangelical Lutheran Church in America web site; web page: "January 25, 1996 News Releases " (viewed 9 July 1999). Story: "More than 60 Million Lutherans Worldwide " [96-01-003-FI] "North America has 8.6 million Lutherans, of whom 5.4 million belong to the LWF. "
Lutheran World Federation North America 5,416,657 - - - 1995 *LINK* Evangelical Lutheran Church in America web site; web page: "January 25, 1996 News Releases " (viewed 9 July 1999). Story: "More than 60 Million Lutherans Worldwide " [96-01-003-FI] Table: "Lutheran World Federation 1995 Membership Figures Summary "
Lutheran World Federation world 54,700,000 - - - 1993 *LINK* Evangelical Lutheran Church in America web site; web page: "January 25, 1996 News Releases " (viewed 9 July 1999). Story: "More than 60 Million Lutherans Worldwide " [96-01-003-FI] "The 122 member churches and 12 recognized congregations of the LWF totaled 56.5 million members in 1995, compared with just under 56.1 million in 1994 and 54.7 million in 1993. "
Lutheran World Federation world 56,100,000 - - - 1994 *LINK* Evangelical Lutheran Church in America web site; web page: "January 25, 1996 News Releases " (viewed 9 July 1999). Story: "More than 60 Million Lutherans Worldwide " [96-01-003-FI] "The 122 member churches and 12 recognized congregations of the LWF totaled 56.5 million members in 1995, compared with just under 56.1 million in 1994 and 54.7 million in 1993. "
Lutheran World Federation world 56,500,000 - - - 1995 *LINK* Evangelical Lutheran Church in America web site; web page: "January 25, 1996 News Releases " (viewed 9 July 1999). Story: "More than 60 Million Lutherans Worldwide " [96-01-003-FI] "The 122 member churches and 12 recognized congregations of the LWF totaled 56.5 million members in 1995... "
Lutheran World Federation world 56,521,384 - - - 1995 *LINK* Evangelical Lutheran Church in America web site; web page: "January 25, 1996 News Releases " (viewed 9 July 1999). Story: "More than 60 Million Lutherans Worldwide " [96-01-003-FI] "General Summary 1995: 122 LWF member churches and 12 recognized congregations 56,521,384; Lutherans outside LWF constituency 3,625,270; TOTAL 60,146,654 "
Lutheran World Federation world 57,000,000 - - - 1997 1998 Catholic Almanac: Our Sunday Visitor: USA (1997); pg. 280. "The world's 61 million Lutherans form the third largest grouping of Christians, after Roman Catholics and Orthodox. About 57 million of them belong to church bodies which make up the Lutheran World Federation, headquartered in Geneva. "
Lutheran World Federation world 57,000,000 - - - 1998 "Lutherans, Catholics Step Closer " in Christianity Today (Aug. 10, 1998); pg. 26. "The Lutheran World Federation, which represents 57 million Lutherans around the world... "
Lutheran World Federation world 57,600,000 - - 69
countries
1998 *LINK* web site: "Evangelical Lutheran Church of America ": ELCA News Sevice (Jan. 29, 1998): "Lutherans Support U.S. Participation in United Nations 98-04-016-FI "; (viewed 5 April 1999) "...the ELCA -- 5.2 million Lutherans in the United States and Caribbean. LOWC is a shared ministry of the ELCA and the Lutheran World Federation, a Geneva-based communion of 124 member church bodies in 69 countries, representing about 57.6 million of the world's 61 million Lutherans. "
Lutheran World Federation world 57,000,000 - - 69
countries
1999 *LINK* Polk, Peggy & David E. Anderson (Religion News Service). "Catholics, Lutherans Reach Agreement on Salvation Issue " in Salt Lake Tribune, June 12, 1999 (viewed online 12 June 1999). "The Lutheran World Federation includes 124 member churches in 69 countries, with some 57 million members. "
Luvale Zambia - - - 1
country
1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures
Luzon Convention of Southern Baptist Churches Philippines 34,160 - 427
units
- 1998 *LINK* Baptist World Alliance web site; page: "BWA Statistics " (viewed 31 March 1999). "Figures are for BWA affiliated conventions/unions only (no independents included). "; Table with 3 columns: Country, "Churches ", & "Members "; "1997/1998 Totals "; [Listed in table as "Luzon Convention of Southern Baptist Churches, Inc. "]
M'Bochi Congo, Republic of the (Brazzaville) 306,000 12.00% - - 1997 Dostert, Pierre Etienne. Africa 1997 (The World Today Series). Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Stryker-Post Publications (1997); pg. 98. Estimates of % of population in ethnic (NOT religious) backgrounds, & est. 1997 total pop.; Republic of Congo
Maasai Africa 150,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 1 - Africa. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 271. "Maasai: Location: Kenya, Tanzania; Population: Over 150,000; Religion: Traditional beliefs "; "Contrasting themselves against the predominantly Christian populations of Kenya and Tanzania that surround them, the Maasai traditional place themselves at the center of their universe as God's chosen people. "
Maasai Africa - East - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 13). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1753. "A nomadic people occupying most of Central Kenya and Tanzania, the Masai once romaed freely all over the plains of East Africa with their cattle. "; Pg. 1754: "Even during the British colonial period, the Masai managed to remain aloof and independent, despite the efforts of administrators, missionaries, schoolmasters, tax-collectors, and all those who sought to change their way of life. Today, their problems are the inroads of civilization, the shrinkage of available pasturage, and the determination of the new states to abolish the old tribal patterns of African society. "
Maasai world 100,000 - - 2
countries
1995 Haskins, Jim & Joann Biondi. From Afar to Zulu: A Dictionary of African Cultures. New York: Walker Publishing Co. (1995); pg. 118, 122. "Maasai: Population: 100,000; Location: Kenya and Tanzania; Language: Maasai "; Pg. 122: "The Maasai do not believe in an afterlife, but they do believe in a god. They call their god Ngai, which is the same word used for sky. "
Maba Chad - - - 1
country
1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures
Macandal Haiti - - - - 1976 Davis, Wade. The Serpent and the Rainbow. New York: Simon & Schuster (1985); pg. 211-212. "Haitian anthropologist... Michel Laguerre... 1976 [met] peasants who had been invited to join secret societies, [but later] converted to Protestantism & hence were willing to talk. There were... secret societies in all parts of the country, & each one maintained control of a specified territory. Names varied from region to region but included Zobop, Bizango, Vlinblindingue, San Poel, Mandingue, &... Macandal... quasi-political arm of the vodoun society charged above all with the protection of the community... "
Macandal Washington, D.C. - - - - 1998 *LINK* Tapper, Jake. "The Witch Doctor is IN " in Washington City Paper, 1998. "On its surface, however, the voodoo of Macandal and Dutty bears little resemblance to what goes on in the Temple of Yehwe on Connecticut Avenue NW. The voodoo of the Peristyle de Mariani comes only slightly closer. 'There is no comparison' between the two, Beauvoir acknowledges. '[The Temple] is not a peristyle, because people do not dance.

At his temple in Haiti, 6 nights a week... Beauvoir would clap his hands and exquisite chaos would reign. This was Beauvoir's world, where the natural and supernatural intertwined like glowing red sparks floating into the night sky... mix of an ancient temple, a touristy cabaret, a sacred, secret voodoo ceremony... and you'll have a vague impression of the Peristyle de Mariani, where up to 450 spectators‹both lifelong believers and curious, Bermuda shorts-clad tourists‹would pack the amphitheater each night. They came year-round to witness rites of voodoo (called vodoun by purists) that Beauvoir the Peristyle... only too eager to provide. "

Macau Baptist Association Macau 750 - 7
units
- 1998 *LINK* Baptist World Alliance web site; page: "BWA Statistics " (viewed 31 March 1999). "Figures are for BWA affiliated conventions/unions only (no independents included). "; Table with 3 columns: Country, "Churches ", & "Members "; "1997/1998 Totals "
Macedonian Orthodox Australia 53,152 0.30% - - 1996 *LINK* Parliament of Australia web site; page: "Census 96: Religion " (viewed 18 Dec. 1999) Self-identification, from 1996 govt. census. [Listed in table as "Macedonian Orthodox "]
Macedonian Orthodox USA - - 3
units
- 1965 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 126. "Macedonian Orthodox Church... Gary, IN [H.Q.]... Another schism in the Serbian Church occurred in 1947 when under pressure of the government a new church was created to serve the geographic area of Macedonia, now existing in Yugoslavia, Greece, & Bulgaria, though its strength was in South Serbia. In 1959 the patriarchate was 'forced' to recognize it as autonomous but under the Belgrade patriarch, and Bishop Dositej was placed at its head. In 1967 Dositej proclaimed separation and independence, an act not recognized by the patriarch (or anyone but Marshall Tito) & thus became schismatic. The Macedonian Church was begun in Gary, Indiana, in 1961... Other parishes were established in Syracuse, New York, & Columbus, Ohio. They are under the jurisdiction of Bishop Kiril who resides in Skoplje, Yugoslavia... Membership: Not reported. "
Maciasism Equatorial Guinea - - - - 1974 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 1 - Africa. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 153-154. "Since independence in 1968, [Equatorial Guinea] has been ruled by the despotic Nguema family... first head of state, Francisco Macias Nguema... was Africa's worst despot. "; Pg. 154: "Macias invented his own personality cult. In 1974 he ordered priests to read the following message during the mass: 'Never without Macias, always with Macias. Down with colonialism and with ambition.' He decreed that churches hang his own portrait... Inscribed was the message: 'Only and unceasing miracle of Equatorial Guinea. God created Equatorial Guinea thanks to Macias. Without Macias, Equatorial Guinea would not exist.' He recruited youth spies to report on 'subversive' clergy, and expelled, imprisoned, and executed bishops, priests, and pastors suspected of resisting. "
Maciasism Equatorial Guinea - - - - 1975 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 1 - Africa. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 154. "Macias invented his own personality cult... In 1975, [Macias] closed all mission schools. Obiang [new leader who overthrew Macias in 1979] has permitted freedom of worship, but surveillance and repression of the clergy continues. "
Macumba Brazil - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 360. "Candomble is the generic name for a number of African religious traditions established by slaves in 19th-century Brazil, specifically in the region of Bahia. (In the southeast it is called Macumba; Rio de Janeiro's sect is known as Umbanda.) "
Madhyamika world - - - - -250 B.C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 151. "From the Mahayana movement three major sectarian traditions emerged. First, the Pure Land sect... Second... the Madhyamika sect, organized (ca. 250 A.D.) around the great philosopher Nagarjuna, and taking its name (lit. 'middle path') from his most famous text. Promoting the notion of emptiness (Suntyata), Nagarjuna argued vigorously against abstruse philosophisizing, and emphasized the direct experience of the world as it is. After enjoying brief popularity in China and Japan, the school died out, but had a lasting impact on all the Mahayana meditational traditions, particularly Zen and Shingon. Finally... Yogacara school... "
Magic Jewel, School of the China - - - - 400 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 203. "Ling-pao p'ai: Chin., lit. 'School of the Magic Jewel'; a branch of religious Taoism that developed in the 4th/5th C.E. and was based on the scriptures of the Magic Jewel... The Magic Jewel School owed its rapid spread to this simplification. "
Magic Jewel, School of the China - - - - 550 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996), Chapter: Taoism; pg. 187-188. "During the 6th century, the School of the Magic Jewel (Ling-pao p'ai), which had begun to develop during the two previous centuries, displaced the Inner Gods Hygiene School. The Magic Jewel sect taught that individual liberation was dependent on outside help from the T'ien-tsun, the highest gods of the Taoist Church... After the 3rd century, the T'ien-tsun gradually became identified with the Buddhist concept of the bodhisattva... "
Magnificat Meal Movement world - - - 62
countries
1998 *LINK* Roberts, Greg. "Vatican set to act on Australian sect " in Sydney Morning Herald, 2 Nov. 1998. "A high-powered Vatican congregation will consider a report in Rome next week on the Magnificat Meal Movement, which has thousands of members in 62 countries and is based in the small town of Helidon, 100 kilometres west of Brisbane. "
Maguzawa Africa - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 1 - Africa. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 206-207. "Hausa: Location: Hausaland in West Africa (northwestern Nigeria and in adjoining southern Niger); Population: more than 20 million; Religion: Islam, small native cults "; "Since the penetration of Islam into Hausaland in the mid-14th century, most Hausa have become extremely devoted to the Islamic faith... In the rural areas, there are still a few communities of people who do not follow Islam. These people are referred to as Maguzawa, and they worship native spirits known as bori or iskoki. "
Mahabodhi Society Sri Lanka - - - - 1891 *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "MAHBODHI SOCIETY: founded in Ceylon in 1891 by a BUDDHIST PRIEST, Angarika Dharmapla, the SOCIETY aimed at restoring the Buddhist TEMPLES of India and reviving BUDDHISM in the land of its birth. "
Mahabodhi Society world - - - 7
countries
1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 450. "Mahabodhi Society. A Buddhist organization founded in 1891 for the purpose of gaining Buddhist control over the sacred site of Buddha's enlightenment, Bodhgaya. Working from Sri Lanka, Hewavitarne (1864-1933) founded the Society with the help of two Theosophists. From its base in Calcutta the Society started the Maha Bodhi Journal in 1892 (not the oldest Buddhist journal). Control of Bodhgaya was achieved in 1953. With headquarters in Colombo, Sri Lanka, the Society currently publishes Maha Bodhi, maintains hospitals and orphanages, and operates centers for worship, study and training in India, Sri Lanka, England, Ghana, Japan, Korea, and the U.S. "
Mahabodhi Society world - - - - 1986 Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 212. "Mahabodhi Society - lit. 'Society of Great Enlightenment'; a society founded by the Sinhalese monk Dharmapala in the year 1891, which contributed decisively to the revival of Buddhism in India... The Mahabodhi Society today maintains schools, hospitals, and other social institutions, has centers throughout the world, and has undertaken the translation and publication of Pali texts. "
Mahasanghika world - - - - -364 B.C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 150. "...the Mahasanghika tradition is embodied in the second tradition of Bhavya's text as well as the Sariputrapariprccha-sutra... It was initially surmised that the first great schism in Buddhism, separating the previously unified community into the rival sects known as Sthaviras and Mahasanghikas, resulted from disciplinary laxity on the part of the future Mahasanghikas. Other scholars then argued that the schism resulted from doctrinal innovations on the part of the latter... Most recently, however, Bareau has concluded that both disciplinary laxity and doctrinal innovation are to blame. He further notes that this split occurred in 137 A.N. (after the Buddha's Nirvana)... This latter thesis was challenged in 1977 by Nattier and Prebish who... conclude that the schism occurred in 116 A.N... [caused by] expansion of the canon by the future Sthaviras... "
Mahasanghika world - - - - -300 B.C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 129. "The Hinayana enumerates the traditions of 18 schools that developed out of the original community; however, the texts make reference to many more. At the third Buddhist council the first schism took place, which split the original community into Sthavira (Paili, Thera) and Mahasanghika factions. Between 280 and 240 B.C.E., the Mahasanghika group divided into 6 schools... "
Mahasanghika world - - - - -280 B.C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 151. "The Mahasanghikas divided internally in the course of time into several subsects, the doctrines of which foreshadow to some extent the rise of Mahayana. "
Mahasanghika world - - - - -250 B.C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 214. "Mahasanghika... one of the two Hinayana schools into which the original Buddhist community split at the third Buddhist council in Pataliputra... In the course of further development the Mahasanghika further split into the Ekavyavaharikas (which produced the Lokottaravadins) and the Gokulikas (which divided into the Bahushrutiyas, Prajnaptivadins and the Chaitikas)... "


Mahasanghika, continued

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