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43,941 adherent statistic citations: membership and geography data for 4,300+ religions, churches, tribes, etc.

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Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Karo Indonesia 500,000 - - - 1990 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 101. "Batak: Location: Indonesia (North Sumatra); Population: 3 to 6 million "; "According to the 1990 census, speakers of the... [three] Batak languages... numbered over 3.1 million... Assuming the percentages given in the 1930 colonial census are still accurate, one can break the total down as follows: 1.65 million Toba, living around Lake Toba, on Samosir Island, & in the highlands to the south; 500,000 Karo to the northwest of the lake; 200,000 Simalungun, east of the lake; 100,000 Dairi, west of the lake; & 650,000 Angkola a&nd Mandailing between the Toba & the Minangkabau. " [NOTE: These are tribal/cultural (NOT religious) stats.]
Karuk North America 1,500 - - - 1700 Legay, Gilbert. Atlas of Indians of North America. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's (1995); pg. 65. "Karuk... About 1,500 in 1700... "
Karuk North America 1,500 - - - 1995 Legay, Gilbert. Atlas of Indians of North America. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's (1995); pg. 65. "Karuk... About 1,500 in 1700, there are about the same number listed in the tribal census today. "
Karuk North America - Pacific Coast 1,500 - - - 1770 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 430-431. Table: "The Pacific Coast: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber); Listed in table as "Karok "
Karuk world 1,500 - - - 1770 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 430-431. Table: "The Pacific Coast: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber); Listed in table as "Karok "
Kashmiri Shaivism India - - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 53. "The most important Shaivite [Hindu] subsect, Shaiva-Siddhanta, founded in the 13th century... Kashmiri Shaivism is another large subsect. "
Kashyapiya Buddhism world - - - - -150 B.C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 129. "The Hinayana enumerates the traditions of 18 schools that developed out of the original community... Two other schools that splintered from the Sthaviras are the Sarvastivada, out of which, around 150 B.C.E., came the Sautrantikas, and the Vibhajyavadins, who see themselves as orthodox Sthaviras. Out of this last school arose the Theravada, Mahishasakas, and Kashyapiyas; from the Mahishasakas came the Dharmaguptakas. "
Kaskinampo North America - Central Prairies and Woodlands 500 - - - 1699 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 240. Table: "Central Prairies and Woodlands: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Kaskinampo world 500 - - - 1699 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 240. Table: "Central Prairies and Woodlands: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Kataka world - - - - 800 C.E. Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 177-178. "Kataka school... a school of Ch'an (Zen) founded by Ho-tse Shen-hui... Although Ho-tse made an essential contribution toward the official recognition of Hui-neng and his Southern school, the Kataku school founded by him did not belong to the 'five houses-seven schools' (goke-shichishu) and died out after a few generations. The only well-known master produced by this lineage was Kuei-feng Tsung-mi, who is actually less konwn as a Ch'an master than as the 5th patriarch of the Hua-yen school of Chinese Buddhism (Jap., Kegon school). "
Kathryn Kuhlman Foundation world - - 21
units
- 1970 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.) The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); Chapter: Pentecostal Family; section: Deliverance Pentecostals; pg. 258. "Kathryn Kuhlman Foundation. (Defunct). Kathryn Kuhlman emerged in the 1970s as the most famous and sought-after spiritual healer in the country. Born in Concordia, Missouri, and reared in the Methodist chrch, she could not preach for the Methodists because she was a woman, so she became a Baptist and was ordained by the Evangelical Church Alliance... In 1947, she moved to Pittsburgh where her work was later institutionalized as the Kathryn Kuhlman Foundation. She died in 1976... In 1970, the Foundation was subsidized by approximately 21 churches in countries around the world. "
Kathryn Kuhlman Foundation world 0 0.00% - - 1991 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); pg. 258. "Kathryn Kuhlman Foundation. (Defunct). "
Kato North America - Pacific Coast 500 - - - 1770 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 430-431. Table: "The Pacific Coast: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Kato world 500 - - - 1770 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 430-431. Table: "The Pacific Coast: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Kavango Namibia - - - 1
country
1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures
Kawaiisu North America - Pacific Coast 500 - - - 1400 C.E. Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 430-431. Table: "The Pacific Coast: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber); "Kawaiisu (aboriginal): 500 "; [exact year not given]
Kawaiisu world 500 - - - 1400 C.E. Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 430-431. Table: "The Pacific Coast: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber); "Kawaiisu (aboriginal): 500 "; [exact year not given]
Kayapo Brazil 2,500 - - - 1902 Pinney, Roy. Vanishing Tribes. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1968); pg. viii. "In Brazil... The Kayapo of the River Araguaya were 2,500 in 1902 and 10 in 1950 "
Kayapo Brazil 10 - - 1
country
1950 Pinney, Roy. Vanishing Tribes. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1968); pg. viii. "In Brazil... The Kayapo of the River Araguaya were 2,500 in 1902 and 10 in 1950 "
Kayapo Brazil 4,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 2 - Americas. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 271-272. "Kayapos: Location: Brazil (Amazon jungle); Population: A few thousand; Language: Kayapo; Religion: Traditional indigenous beliefs "; "As opposed to the beliefs that some missionaries have brought to the Amazon, including the idea that after death people either descend into Hell or rise to Heaven, the Kayapos believe that at death a person goes to the village of the dead, where people sleep during the day and hunt at night. There, old people become younger and children become older. In that villag in the afterlife, Kayapos believe they have their own traditional assembly building... "
Kazakh China 500,000 0.05% - - 1984 McLenighan, Valjean. China (series: Enchantment of the World). Chicago: Childrens Press (1984); pg. 117. "There are probably about half a million Kazakhs in China and 75,000 Kirghiz. " [These are not distinct religions, but ethnic groups which practice Islam.]
Kazakh China: Xinjiang - - - - 1998 Rutherford, Scott (ed.) East Asia. London: Apa Publications (1998); pg. 41. "In the autonomous region of Xinjiang, Uighurs remain the largest existing ethnic group, but make up only 45 percent of the population. Only when grouped together with the Kazakhs, Kirghiz and others do Uighurs constitute an Islamic, Turkic-speaking majority. "
Kazakh Uzbekistan 852,040 4.00% - - 1997 Shoemaker, M. Wesley. Russia, Eurasian States, and Eastern Europe 1997 (The World Today Series). Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Stryker-Post Publications (1997); pg. 176. "Population: 21,301,000... Tatars (4.2%), Kazakhs (4%)... "
Kedang Indonesia - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 711. "Only a few groups do not practice sacrifices, and most of these, like the Kedang of Lembata in eastern Indonesia, are groups in which large numbers have been converted to Christianity of Islam. "
Kegon Japan - - - - 742 C.E. *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "KEGON SCHOOL: a branch of BUDDHISM introduced into Japan by the Korean monk JINJO (died 742) which had a significant influence on the rise of ZEN through its identification of NIRVNA and SASRA. "
Kegon Japan - - - - 784 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 524. "The six Nara Buddhist schools. Six scholarly disciplines were pursuied by a small number of monks at designated home temples in Nara. They were extensions of Chinese scholarship... Kusha... Jojitsu... Sanron... Hosso... Kegon (Chin.: Hua-yen) school. Based on the Hua-yen of Avatamsaka Sutra (Wreath or Garland Sutra) and centered on Vairocana as the cosmic Buddha that encompasses all beings--an extravagant grand vision involving the total penetration of the one and the many, the part and the whole, the noumenal and the phenomenal... Ritsu... "
Keiyo Kenya - - - 1
country
1995 Haskins, J. From Afar to Zulu. New York: Walker Pub. (1995); pg. 191-7. Table: Add'l African Cultures
Keiyo Kenya 110,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 1 - Africa. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 240-241. "Kalenjin: Location: Kenya; Population: 110,000 "; "The Keiyo live in the western section of Africa's Great rift Valley in... Keiyo District. "; Pg. 241: "Currently, nearly everyone professes membership in some organized religion--either Christianity or Islam. Major Christian sects include the Afria Inland Church (AIC), the Church of the Province of Kenya (CPK), and the Roman Catholic Church. Muslims are relatively few in number among the Keiyo. Generally speaking, today only the older people can recall details of traditional religious beliefs. " [NOTE: This statistic is a measure of tribal/ethnic affiliation, NOT a count of people who practice traditional Keiyo religion.]
Kele Saint Lucia - - - - 1993 Brandon, George. Santeria from Africa to the New World: Dead Sell Memories. Bloomington and Indiana: Indiana University Press (1993); pg. 2. "...Yoruba-based religious forms that exist in the Caribbean, in Central & South America... Santeria is the Cuban variant of this tradition. Shango in Trinidad and on Grenada, Xango and Candomble in Brazil, and Kele on St. Lucia are other examples... "
Kemetic Orthodoxy USA - - 2
units
- 1998 *LINK* official organization web page (1998) "In perhaps its only major departure from Kemetic faith as practiced in antiquity, the Kemetic Orthodox following today is small... in the world, we know only of 2 temples...: the House of Netjer and Ordo Servorum Isidis, both headquartered in the United States of America. "
Kemetic Orthodoxy world - - 2
units
1
country
1998 *LINK* official organization web page (1998) "In perhaps its only major departure from Kemetic faith as practiced in antiquity, the Kemetic Orthodox following today is small... in the world, we know only of 2 temples...: the House of Netjer and Ordo Servorum Isidis, both headquartered in the United States of America. "
Kentucky Mountain Holiness Association world - - 16
units
- 1988 Melton, J. Gordon (ed.) The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Vol. 1. Tarrytown, NY: Triumph Books (1991); Chapter: Holiness Family; section: 20th Century Holiness; pg. 220. "Kentucky Mountain Holiness Association... Jackson, KY [H.Q.]... was begun in 1925 by Lela G. McConnell, a deaconness in the Methodist Episcopal Church. Following her ordination in 1924 she began a vigorous ministry in the mountains of eastern Kentucky... Membership: In 1988 the Association reported 16 churches served by resident pastors with the exception of one church pastored by students. "
Kenya Mennonite Church Kenya 11,500 - 108
units
- 1998 *LINK* Mennonite World Conference web site. Directory 1998. Web page: "Africa: Mennonite & Brethren in Christ Churches " KENYA... Kenya Mennonite Church... Members: 11,500; Congregations: 108
Keresan Pueblos North America - Southwestern Deserts and Mesa Lands 4,000 - - - 1760 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 27. Table: "Southwestern Deserts and Mesa Lands: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Keresan Pueblos USA - Southwest - - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 17). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 2300. "Once there were hundreds of villages, now there are only 25 (in north-west New Mexico and north-east Arizona). The villages cluster together in accordance with tribal links--for there are five separate tribes of Pueblo Indians: Hopi, Zuni, Keres, Tiwa and Tewa. "
Keresan Pueblos world 4,000 - - - 1760 Terrell, John Upton. American Indian Almanac. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (1974); pg. 27. Table: "Southwestern Deserts and Mesa Lands: Earliest Population Estimates " (mainly relying on James Mooney, John R. Swanson, & A. L. Kroeber)
Kerretjie People South Africa - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 1 - Africa. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 236-237. "Karretjie People: Location: The Karoo in South Africa; Population: Several thousand; Language: Afrikaans; Religion: None "; "Travelers who journey between the interior of South Africa and the coast cross the vast arid scrublands of the central plateau. This is the Karoo... and this is where the Karretjie People... can usually be seen criss-crossing the plains in their donkey carts. "; Pg. 237: "Very few of the Karretjie People are members of a church or a religious organization or have ever, for that matter, been exposed to religious activities. Some may have been baptized by a minister of the Dutch Reformed Mission church, either in a church or by virtue of a minister visiting the farm where their parents worked. Those couples who have had a church marriage are the exception, and those who live together are regarded as having a properly sanctioned union. "
Ketockton Baptist Association Virginia - - - - 1766 Armstrong, O.K. & Marjorie Armstrong. The Baptists in America. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co. (1979) [revised 2nd edition; originally published in 1967 under the title The Indomitable Baptists]; pg. 96. "By 1762, the Philadelphia Baptist Association had grown to 29 churches with more than 4,000 members... Following the pattern set by this first co-operating group of Baptist churches, other groups formed themselves into associations for united efforts and mutual benefit. The second such association was made by congregations of the Charleston, South Carolina, area, grouping about the Old First Baptist Church. Next came the Sandy Creek Baptists in North Carolina in 1758 and Ketockton Baptist Association in Virginia in 1766. "
Khakass Russia 71,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 214. "Khakass: Location: Russia (Republic of Khakasia); Population: 71,000 "; "Russian Orthodox missionaries converted the Khakass to Christianity in the 2nd half of the 18th century. While the commitment of the Khakass to Christianity is an unresolved issue, there is no doubt that they remained firmly committed to their native religious beliefs and customs even during the Soviet period, when open manifestations of religious life were frequently suppressed. A partial result of the relatively late conversion of the Khakass to Christianity was that the Khakass retained many very archaic religious practices. "
Kharijites Middle East - - - - 656 C.E. Ovendale, Ritchie. The Longman Companion to The Middle East since 1914. London & New York: Longman (1992); pg. 220. "Khawarij (Kharijis): The dissenters. The oldest religious sect of Islam. Considered to be the antecedents of the Ibadis of Oman. Following the murder of the third Caliph, Uthman, in 656, his cousin, Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, rebelled against the fourth Caliph, Ali ibn Abi Talib, demanding revenge. Ali accepted arbitration, but some of his supporters, including those involved in Uthman's murder, insisted that judgement was God's prerogative. They insisted that only the Koran could lay down how a Muslim should believe and withdrew from the community. After about fifty years they were suppressed. "
Kharijites Middle East - - - - 659 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 405-406. "Kharijites. The 'seceders' who in A.D. 659 left Ali's army at Harura, near Kufa, to form their own military force... Most of the early seceders were wiped out by Ali's forces, but their movement was spread by a handful of survivors, one of whom assassinated Ali in 661. The Kharijites were the first sect in Islam to raise issues concerning the qualificatoins for leadership of the Muslim community (Umma) and the relationship between faith and works. "
Kharijites world - - - - 661 C.E. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 431. "u008athe Kharijites ('seceders') are reputedly the oldest religious sect of Islam. Originally followers of Ali, they seceded in protest because Ali accepted an arbitrated decision to make him caliph rather than seizing the title they felt was legitimately his... Ali... was assassinated by a Kharijite in 661... The Kharijites abhorred the notion that the succession of the Prophet was open only to select clans, as the Sunnis and Shiites hold, and felt that any true believing and righteous Muslim could be elected to the caliphate... They were and are strict fundamentalists and Quranic literalists, but were so prone to suicidal violence that their numbers soon dwindled. Their only remaining subsect, the Ibadites, live in Oman and northeast Africa. "
Kharijites world - - - - 700 C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 11). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1470. "Another early split in Islam was that of the Kharijites who had fought on Ali's side against Muawiya, but objected to the dispute being put to arbitration... for long [they] were a thorn in the side of the caliphate. They taught free will, insisted that faith must be proved by works, held that serious sin is apostacy, and felt they were the only true Moslems. They admitted no superior class or hereditary claim, holding that anyone, no matter what his origin, was eligible to become caliph, provided he was a sincere Muslim and possessed the requisite qualities... Today they are represented by the Ibadites in Oman, East Africa, and parts of North Africa... "
Kharijites world 0 - - - 900 C.E. Mohaddessin, Mohammad. Islamic Fundamentalism: The New Global Threat. Washington, D.C.: Seven Locks Press (1993); pg. 4. "The Kharajites (seceders)... During the caliphate of Ali ibn Abi Taleb (the Prophet's son-in-law and cousin, and the first Shi'ite Imam), a group of Muslims rebelled... forming the anarchist sect of Kharajites. One of them assassinated Ali in 661. The Kharajites continued to exist as a rebel group for two centuries, then disintegrated and virtually disappeared as a sect. They are noteworthy, however, because they were the first to advocate a fundamentalist outlook of Islam... "
Khasi India 628,104 - - - 1981 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 391-392. "Khasi; Location: India (Meghalaya state); Population: 628,104 (1981); Language: Khasi; Religion: Christianity; native animist beliefs " [NOTE: This statistic is for Khasi as a tribal/ethnic group, NOT the total practicing Khasi religion.]
Khasi religion India 207,274 - - - 1981 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 391-392. "Khasi; Location: India (Meghalaya state); Population: 628,104 (1981) "; "Khasi religion may be described as animistic, focusing on the propitation of spirits--both good and evil... Although many aspects of traditional Khasi religion survive, the majority of Khasi have adopted Christianity. Missionary work began in the region during the late 19th century and has been so successful that today over 67% of Khasi profess to be Christian. "
Khasi religion India - Khasi 207,274 33.00% - - 1981 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 391-392. "Khasi; Location: India (Meghalaya state); Population: 628,104 (1981); Language: Khasi; Religion: Christianity; native animist beliefs "; "Khasi religion may be described as animistic, focusing on the propitation of spirits--both good and evil... Although many aspects of traditional Khasi religion survive, the majority of Khasi have adopted Christianity. Missionary work began in the region during the late 19th century and has been so successful that today over 67% of Khasi profess to be Christian. "
Khatmiya Sudan - - - - 1988 Bratvold, Gretchen (ed). Sudan ...in Pictures (Visual Geography Series). Minneapolis, Minnesota: Lerner Publications Co. (1988); pg. 42. "Muslims... make up about 75% of the total Sudanese population. Approximately 95% of the northern provinces consist of Arabic-speaking Muslims... Sudanese Muslims are of the Sunni--or traditional--sect... In Sudan the Qadiriya is the largest order, but it is also the least organized. The Khatmiya gets most of its support from northeastern Sudan. A strong, centralized order, the Khatmiya is headed by members of one family and has wielded political power since the late nineteenth century. "
Khatmiya Sudan - - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 1 - Africa. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 402. "Sudan is now an Islamist state, and the majority of its population is indeed Muslim... Brotherhoods continue to be very important in the practice of Sudanese Islam. The most important Brotherhoods in Sudan today are the Qadiriyya (the oldest Brotherhood) and the Khatmiyya (a more modern organization which grew out of 18th century reformist movements). "
Khattabiyya world - - - - 900 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 635. "Also important were the beliefs of the Khattabiyya, followers of Abu al-Khattab Muhammad ibn Abi Zaynab al-Asadi al-Kufi, who seems to have shaped the Qarmatian doctrines of the esoteric interpretation of the Qur'an and the transference of spiritual authority. Abu al-Khattab, who was al-Sadiq's disciple in Kufa... "
Khazars Europe - - - - 950 C.E. *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "KHAZARS: a Crimean tribe of TURKISH or FINNISH origin which converted to JUDAISM around the tenth century. "
Khazars Turkey - - - - 1000 C.E. Jacobs, Louis. Oxford Concise Companion to the Jewish Religion. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press (1999); pg. 124. "Khazars: A Turkish people whose kingdom endured from the seventh to the eleventh centuries. There is a solid basis in fact behind the stories circulating in the Middle Ages that a king of the Khazars and his people with him converted to Judaism. The mere fact that such a kingdom of Jews had existed provided medieval Jewry with hope for the future. Judah Halevi's Kuzari consists of an imaginary dialogue between the king of the Khazars and a Jewish sage after which the king is moved to accept the Jewish religion in its Rabbinic formulation. Arthur Koestler's attempt (The Thirteenth Tribe, London, 1976) to show that all Ashkenazi Jews are descended from the Khazars is purely speculative, has nothing to commend it, and is repudiated by all Khazar scholars. "
Khoisan South Africa 5,000 - - - 1999 Canesso, Claudia. South Africa (series: Major World Nations). Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers (1999); pg. 78-79. "South Africa has a fifth population group, although it is very small and takes no part in the country's political or social life. It consists of the few thousand [5,000 perhaps?] remaining Khoisan people, who live in the Kalahari Desert and in remote areas of Namaqualan and the Sandveld. They practice a way of life similar to that of their distant ancestors, living in small family bands and roaming in search of game, water, and edible plants. Some scientists have lived with the Khoisan to study their language, cultures, and survival skills, but the world in general has no contact with this isolated and dwindling population. "
Khoisan world 55,000 - - 3
countries
1995 Haskins, Jim & Joann Biondi. From Afar to Zulu: A Dictionary of African Cultures. New York: Walker Publishing Co. (1995); pg. 99. "Khoisan: Population: 55,000; Location: Botswana, Namibia, South Africa; Languages: The many dialects of the Khoisan language "
Khojas Middle East - - - - 1992 Ovendale, Ritchie. The Longman Companion to The Middle East since 1914. London & New York: Longman (1992); pg. 221. "Nizari Ismailis: Following the destruction of the Assassin fortress at Alamut in 1256 by Mongols it is claimed that the last Imam of Alamut sent his son for safety in Azerbaijan. In 1840 the Imam, Hasan Ali Shah, who had taken the title Aga Khan went to India, where there were a number of his followers called Khojas. Today Khojas live mainly in Gujarat, Bombay and East Africa. Nizari Ismailis who also acknowledge the Aga Khan live in Salamiyya in Syria. "
Khojas world - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 406. "Khojas. An Indian Muslim caste, converted from Hinduism in the fourteenth century by a Persian missionary of Isma'iliyya. Since Ismailis were persecuted by the Muslim rulers of India, many Khojas pretended to be Sunnites or Imamiyya, and some of them eventually turned to these sects permanently. For this reason there are at present three varieites of Khojas: 1) the majority, who are Nizari Ismailis and follow the Agha Khan; 2) Sunni Khojas; and 3) Imamite Khojas. Most Khojas are found in western India and east Africa. "
Khojas world - - - - 1994 *LINK* Hexham, Irving. Concise Dictionary of Religion. Carol Stream, USA: InterVarsity Press (1994). (v. online 6 Oct. 1999) "KHOJAS: a MUSLIM community which originated through the CONVERSION of HINDUS, which is now found along the West coast of India and in East Africa, their allegiance is to the AGA KHAN. "
kibbutzim Israel - - 1
unit
- 1909 Gilbert, Martin (ed.) The Illustrated Atlas of Jewish Civilization: 4,000 Years of Jewish History. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. (1990); pg. 183. "In 1909... the formation of the first kibbutz, Um Djuni (later called Degania), on malarial swampland by the Sea of Galilee, which by 1914 had more than 50 members. "
kibbutzim Israel 50 - - - 1914 Gilbert, Martin (ed.) The Illustrated Atlas of Jewish Civilization: 4,000 Years of Jewish History. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. (1990); pg. 183. "In 1909... the formation of the first kibbutz, Um Djuni (later called Degania), on malarial swampland by the Sea of Galilee, which by 1914 had more than 50 members. "
kibbutzim Israel 124,000 - - - 1978 "Judaism and Modernization " in Social Forces (Vol. 62:1, Sept. 1983); pg. 10-11, 27. "...the smallest of the 4 major kibbutz federations in Israel, HaKibbutz HaDati (RKF), the religious Zionist federation..., whose 16 settlements constituted about 5% of the total kibbutzim in Israel in 1982. "; [pg. 27] "In 1978 the total pop. of the RKF settlements was about 6,200. "
kibbutzim Israel - 3.00% 250
units
- 1983 Charing, Douglas. The Jewish World. London, UK: Silver Burdett Co. (1983); pg. 38. "not own anything for themselves, but instead shared everything in common... Today there are about 250 kibbutzim in Israel, but only 3% of the population actually live on them (although these include a great variety of people, even university teachers, writers and some government ministers). "
kibbutzim Israel - - 800
units
- 1988 Cahill, Mary Jane. Israel (series: Places and Peoples of the World). Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers (1988); pg. 92. "There are more than 800 kibbutzim (the plural of kibbutz) in Israel, all carefully organized. "
kibbutzim Israel 116,000 - 270
units
- 1990 Gilbert, Martin (ed.) The Illustrated Atlas of Jewish Civilization: 4,000 Years of Jewish History. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. (1990); pg. 183. "There are now some 270 kibbutzim in Israel with a total population of 116,000. "
kibbutzim Israel - - 270
units
- 1999 Cahill, Mary Jane. Israel (series: Major World Nations). Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers (1999); pg. 92. "There are about 270 kibbutzim... in Israel. They attract volunteers from around the world. A kibbutz can have more than 1,000 members or as few as 40... Although the proportion of Israelis who live on kibbutzim has declined, the principles of kibbutz life still influence the nation. "
kibbutzim Israel - - - - 1999 Jacobs, Louis. Oxford Concise Companion to the Jewish Religion. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press (1999); pg. . "Kibbutz: 'Gathering', the collective, socialistic settlement in the state of Israel which had its origins in the early years of the 20th century. The kibbutz movement believed that the establishment of kibbutzim was the best method of reclaiming the land of Israel. The influence of the highly idealistic kibbutzniks was enormous and their important contribution was acknowledged from the days of early Zionism. It has to be appreciated that the kibbutzim was a secular movement, though obviously based on Jewish ideals, especially the ethical norms of Judaism. Most of the kibbutzim were and are largely unobservant of the Jewish rituals or, rather, they sought to develop a secular, nationalistic form of some observances and ritual, in the celebration of the festivals, for example, in a new form, and in the creation of new festivals based on the land. However, the Kibbutz Ha-Dati is an organization of religious kibbutzim... socialist ideal wedded to full observance of Jewish law. "


kibbutzim, continued

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