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back to Jainism, Asia

Jainism, continued...

Group Where Number
of
Adherents
% of
total
pop.
Number
of
congreg./
churches/
units
Number
of
countries
Year Source Quote/
Notes
Jainism Asia 3,850,000 0.11% - - 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999). [Source: 1999 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 695. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1998 "
Jainism Canada 1,410 - - - 1991 *LINK* web site: "Toronto Consultants on Religious Tolerance "; web page: "Jainism " (viewed 2 March 1999) "There are about 1,410 in Canada (1991 census). "
Jainism Eurasia 0 0.00% - - 1996 *LINK* web site: "The Geography of Religion Website " (assembled by the students of Morehead State University, under Prof. Timothy C. Pitts); web page: "The Geography of Jainism " (viewed 2 March 1999); [Orig. source: Markham, Ian S., (Editor), A World Religions Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers (1996), pp. 356-357.] table with 3 columns: "Area "; "Adherents "; "Population Percentage "; [Geographical regions in this table: Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, Northern America, Oceania, and Eurasia]
Jainism Europe 25,000 - - - 1987 Bishop, Peter & Michael Darton (editors). The Encyclopedia of World Faiths: An Illustrated Survey of the World's Living Faiths. New York: Facts on File Publications (1987); pg. 214. "More recently, a European Jain Samaj has been formed, a focal point for some 25,000 Jainas now living in Europe; its headquarters are in Leicester (UK), where a centre for all Jaina sects is being set up... "
Jainism Europe 15,000 0.00% - - 1995 The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1996 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 646. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1995 "
Jainism Europe 16,000 0.00% - - 1996 The World Almanac & Book of Facts 1998 (K-111 Reference Corp.: Mahwah, NJ), [Source: 1997 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 654. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1996 "
Jainism Europe 15,000 0.00% - - 1996 *LINK* web site: "The Geography of Religion Website " (assembled by the students of Morehead State University, under Prof. Timothy C. Pitts); web page: "The Geography of Jainism " (viewed 2 March 1999); [Orig. source: Markham, Ian S., (Editor), A World Religions Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers (1996), pp. 356-357.] table with 3 columns: "Area "; "Adherents "; "Population Percentage "; [Geographical regions in this table: Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, Northern America, Oceania, and Eurasia]
Jainism Europe 0 0.00% - - 1998 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, NJ: PRIMEDIA Reference Inc. (1999). [Source: 1999 Encyc. Britannica Book of the Year]; pg. 695. Table: "Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1998 "
Jainism India - - - - -350 B.C.E. Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 11). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1481. "For some two centuries the Jains remained a small community of monks and followers. But in the 4th century BC they gained strength and spread from Bihar to Orissa, then so South India and westwards to Gujarat and the Punjab, where Jain communities became firmly established, particularly among the mercantile classes. "
Jainism India - - - - 1100 C.E. Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 371. "The period of the Mauryan Dynasty to the twelfth century A.D. was the period of Jainism's greatest growth and influence. Thereafer the Jainas in the South and Central regions lost ground in face of rising Hindu devotional movements. Jainism retreated to the West and Northwest, which have remained its stronghold to the present. "
Jainism India 1,220,000 0.48% - - 1881 Folkert, Kendall W. "Jainism " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st published in 1984]; pg. 272. "...1881 census, Jains [were] 0.48% of India's total pop.; by 1941... stood at 0.37%. By the 1970s...the pop. percentage has nearly returned to its level of a century ago... a growth of nearly 1.5 mil. (from c. 1.22 mil in 1881 to c. 2.6 mil. in... 1971 "
Jainism India 1,452,105 - - - 1891 Ferm, Vergilius (ed). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976; 1st ed. pub. 1945 by Philosophical Library); pg. 385. "...Jain pop. of India according to the 1931 census was 1,252,105... a slight increase over the 1921 census... of 1,178,596, but was nearly 200,000 less than the number in the census of 1891. "
Jainism India 1,178,596 0.37% - - 1921 Ferm, Vergilius (ed). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976; 1st ed. pub. 1945 by Philosophical Library); pg. 368. Table: "The latest census gives the following enumeration of the adherents... " [1921 and 1931 figures.]
Jainism India 1,178,596 - - - 1921 Ferm, Vergilius (ed). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976; 1st ed. pub. 1945 by Philosophical Library); pg. 385. "The present Jain population of India according to the 1931 census was 1,252,105. This represents a slight increase over the 1921 census which revealed a Jain population of 1,178,596... "
Jainism India 1,252,105 0.36% - - 1931 Ferm, Vergilius (ed). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976; 1st ed. pub. 1945 by Philosophical Library); pg. 368. Table: "The latest census gives the following enumeration of the adherents... " [1921 and 1931 figures.]
Jainism India 1,252,105 - - - 1931 Ferm, Vergilius (ed). An Encyclopedia of Religion; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1976; 1st ed. pub. 1945 by Philosophical Library); pg. 385. "The present Jain population of India according to the 1931 census was 1,252,105. "
Jainism India 2,600,000 0.37% - - 1941 Folkert, Kendall W. "Jainism " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st published in 1984]; pg. 272. "...1881 census, Jains [were] 0.48% of India's total pop.; by 1941... stood at 0.37%. By the 1970s...the pop. percentage has nearly returned to its level of a century ago... a growth of nearly 1.5 mil. (from c. 1.22 mil in 1881 to c. 2.6 mil. in... 1971 "
Jainism India 2,027,000 0.50% - - 1961 *LINK* website: Census of India 2001; webpage: Data on Religion; PDF file: "Presentation on Religon " (Office of the Registrar General, India) (viewed 18 April 2005) Table: Population by religious communities, India - 1961 to 2001; Table: Percentage distribution (unadjusted) of population by religious communities India - 1961 to 2001 Census (without excluding Assam and Jammu & Kashmir [no census conducted there in 1981, 1991])
Jainism India 1,700,000 - - - 1970 Cavendish, Richard (ed.). Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (vol. 11). New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1970); pg. 1480. "The religion of the Jains, or Jainas, an Indian community some 1,700,000 persons strong... "
Jainism India 2,605,000 0.50% - - 1971 *LINK* website: Census of India 2001; webpage: Data on Religion; PDF file: "Presentation on Religon " (Office of the Registrar General, India) (viewed 18 April 2005) Table: Population by religious communities, India - 1961 to 2001; Table: Percentage distribution (unadjusted) of population by religious communities India - 1961 to 2001 Census (without excluding Assam and Jammu & Kashmir [no census conducted there in 1981, 1991])
Jainism India 2,720,000 0.47% - - 1971 Folkert, Kendall W. "Jainism " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st published in 1984]; pg. 272. "...1881 census, Jains [were] 0.48% of India's total pop.; by 1941... stood at 0.37%. By the 1970s...the pop. percentage has nearly returned to its level of a century ago... a growth of nearly 1.5 mil. (from c. 1.22 mil in 1881 to c. 2.6 mil. in... 1971 "
Jainism India 2,600,000 0.48% - - 1971 *LINK* web site: Invest India; web page: Religions of India (viewed 16 Jan. 1999) "The 1971 census produced the following statistics: 453 million Hindu; 61 million Muslim; 14 million Christian; 10 million Sikh; 3.8 million Buddhist; 2.6 million Jain; 2.2 million Parsis, Jews and others "
Jainism India 3,000,000 0.50% - - 1978 Rice, Edward. Ten Religions of the East. New York: Four Winds Press (1978); pg. 5. "The Jains, who number not quite three million members out of India's six hundred million people... "
Jainism India 3,206,000 0.50% - - 1981 *LINK* website: Census of India 2001; webpage: Data on Religion; PDF file: "Presentation on Religon " (Office of the Registrar General, India) (viewed 18 April 2005) Table: Population by religious communities, India - 1961 to 2001; Table: Percentage distribution (unadjusted) of population by religious communities India - 1961 to 2001 Census (without excluding Assam and Jammu & Kashmir [no census conducted there in 1981, 1991])
Jainism India 2,500,000 0.42% - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 359. "...Jainism numbers only 2 1/2 million [in India]. "
Jainism India - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 310. "Jainism had periods of great strength and royal patronage in various areas of India, and ocntinues today as the religion of a small but influential number of Indians. as a result of that early strength and continued presence, it has had considerable influence on the structure and thought of Hinduism. "
Jainism India - - - - 1981 Crim, Keith (ed.). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins (1989). Reprint; originally pub. as Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 1981; pg. 371. "[after] twelfth century A.D... Jainism [mostly] retreated to the West and Northwest [of India], which have remained its stronghold to the present. "
Jainism India - 0.50% - - 1984 Folkert, Kendall W. "Jainism " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st published in 1984]; pg. 256. "The community [Jainism] at present includes only some 3 million persons (roughly one-half of 1 per cent of India's population); and its relative size has been small throughout its history. "
Jainism India 2,000,000 - - - 1986 Pastva, Loretta. Great Religions of the World; Winona, Minnesota: Saint Mary's Press, Christian Brothers Publications (1995) [9th printing. 1st printing in 1986]; pg. 82. "Toda ere are two million Jains in India. "
Jainism India 3,000,000 - - - 1987 Bishop, Peter & Michael Darton (editors). The Encyclopedia of World Faiths: An Illustrated Survey of the World's Living Faiths. New York: Facts on File Publications (1987); pg. 208. "Jainism has remained largely confined to its country of origin [India]. There, it continues to be a living faith with more than 3 million adherents today. It is found in nearly all Indian states but is concentrated mostly in western India, Uttar Pradesh, Mysore, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. "
Jainism India 5,000,000 - - - 1990 Fisher, Mary Pat & Robert Luyster. Living Religions, I.B. Tauris & Co.: New York (1990); pg. 94. "Even within India (according to perhaps low government estimates) there are only four to five million Jains. "
Jainism India 3,353,000 0.40% - - 1991 *LINK* website: Census of India 2001; webpage: Data on Religion; PDF file: "Presentation on Religon " (Office of the Registrar General, India) (viewed 18 April 2005) Table: Population by religious communities, India - 1961 to 2001; Table: Percentage distribution (unadjusted) of population by religious communities India - 1961 to 2001 Census (without excluding Assam and Jammu & Kashmir [no census conducted there in 1981, 1991])
Jainism India 4,000,000 0.50% - - 1991 Neusner, Jacob (ed). World Religions in America: An Introduction; Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press (1994); pg. 179. Table: "breakdown of major religions in India, according to the population totals of the 1991 census, is roughly as follows "
Jainism India - 1.00% - - 1992 Goring, Rosemary (ed). Larousse Dictionary of Beliefs & Religions (Larousse: 1994); pg. 581-584. Table: "Population Distribution of Major Beliefs "; "Figures have been compiled from the most accurate recent available information and are in most cases correct to the nearest 1% "
Jainism India 5,000,000 - - - 1996 1997 Britannica Book of the Year; pg. 781-783. Table: "Religion ": Divided by nations, with 2 columns: "Religious affiliation " & "1996 pop. " [of that religion]. Based on best avail. figures, whether census data, membership figures or estimates by analysts, as % of est. 1996 midyear pop.
Jainism India 2,000,000 - - - 1996 Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); pg. 51. "The roughly 2 million Jains in India today share a disproportionate amount of the country's wealth. "
Jainism India 7,840,000 - - - 1997 Breuilly, Elizabeth, et al. Religions of the World: The Illustrated Guide to Origins, Beliefs, Traditions & Festivals. Facts on File Inc.: New York, NY (1997); pg. 10 to 11. "More than 98% of the 8 million Jains in the world today live in India. The two largest Jain communities outside India are in the UK and USA.
Jainism India 4,833,916 0.50% - - 1997 *LINK* CIA World Factbook web site (viewed Aug. 1998) Hindu 80%, Muslim 14%, Christian 2.4%, Sikh 2%, Buddhist 0.7%, Jains 0.5%, other 0.4%; Total Population: 966,783,171.
Jainism India 4,500,000 - - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 325. "There are approximately 4.5 million Jains in India today. They have a strong presence in Gujarat and Rajasthan and are also found in the northern region of Madhya Pradesh around Ujjain. Another rarea of high population concentration is the region of Mysore (the modern Karnataka State) that has historically been a Jain stronghold. The city of Bombay has a large Jain community, and Jains are found throughout much of the rest of Maharashtra State. "
Jainism India 4,700,000 0.50% - - 1998 Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 287. "Location: India; Population: About 940 million; Religion: Hinduism (80%); Islam (14%); Christianity (2.4%); Sikhism (2%); Buddhism (0.7%); Jainism (0.5%)... "
Jainism India 10,000,000 - - - 1998 McCourt, Frank. "God in America " in Life (Dec. 1998); pg. 67. "There are 10 million Jains in India and 100,000 in the U.S. "
Jainism India - 0.50% - - 1998 *LINK* Nazarene web site: Nazarene World Mission Society; (major source: Johnstone's Operation World) Table "Religions "; total population: 904,800,000
Jainism India 4,225,000 0.40% - - 2001 *LINK* website: Census of India 2001; webpage: Data on Religion; PDF file: "Presentation on Religon " (Office of the Registrar General, India) (viewed 18 April 2005) Table: Population by religious communities, India - 1961 to 2001; Table: Percentage distribution (unadjusted) of population by religious communities India - 1961 to 2001 Census (without excluding Assam and Jammu & Kashmir [no census conducted there in 1981, 1991])
Jainism India 4,225,053 0.41% - - 2001 *LINK* website: Census of India 2001; webpage: Data on Religion (Office of the Registrar General, India) (viewed 18 April 2005) Census 2001 data table: Religion
Jainism India: Andaman and Nicobar Islands 23 0.01% - - 2001 *LINK* website: Census of India 2001; webpage: Data on Religion (Office of the Registrar General, India) (viewed 18 April 2005) Census 2001 data table: Religion
Jainism India: Andhra Pradesh - - - - 1984 Folkert, Kendall W. "Jainism " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st published in 1984]; pg. 261. Figure 7.1: Distributions of the Jain population (in India) by number and as percentage of state population. [Andhra Pradesh: pop. figure: "10,000 to 100,000 " percentage: "below 1/4% "]
Jainism India: Andhra Pradesh 26,564 0.04% - - 1991 *LINK* web site: "Mission India " Table: "Religion 1991 " [based on census]
Jainism India: Andhra Pradesh 41,846 0.05% - - 2001 *LINK* website: Census of India 2001; webpage: Data on Religion (Office of the Registrar General, India) (viewed 18 April 2005) Census 2001 data table: Religion
Jainism India: Arunachal Pradesh - - - - 1984 Folkert, Kendall W. "Jainism " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st published in 1984]; pg. 261. Figure 7.1: Distributions of the Jain population (in India) by number and as percentage of state population. [Pop. figure for this province: "Below 10,000 " percentage: "less than 1/4% "]
Jainism India: Arunachal Pradesh 64 0.01% - - 1991 *LINK* web site: "Mission India " Table: "Religion 1991 " [based on census]
Jainism India: Arunachal Pradesh 216 0.02% - - 2001 *LINK* website: Census of India 2001; webpage: Data on Religion (Office of the Registrar General, India) (viewed 18 April 2005) Census 2001 data table: Religion
Jainism India: Assam - - - - 1984 Folkert, Kendall W. "Jainism " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st published in 1984]; pg. 261. Figure 7.1: Distributions of the Jain population (in India) by number and as percentage of state population. [Assam: pop. figure: "10,000 to 100,000 " percentage: "less than 1/4% "]
Jainism India: Assam 20,645 0.09% - - 1991 *LINK* web site: "Mission India " Table: "Religion 1991 " [based on census]
Jainism India: Assam 23,957 0.09% - - 2001 *LINK* website: Census of India 2001; webpage: Data on Religion (Office of the Registrar General, India) (viewed 18 April 2005) Census 2001 data table: Religion
Jainism India: Bihar - - - - 1984 Folkert, Kendall W. "Jainism " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st published in 1984]; pg. 261. Figure 7.1: Distributions of the Jain population (in India) by number and as percentage of state population. [Bihar: pop. figure: "10,000 to 100,000 " percentage: "less than 1/4% "]
Jainism India: Bihar 23,049 0.03% - - 1991 *LINK* web site: "Mission India " Table: "Religion 1991 " [based on census]
Jainism India: Bihar 16,085 0.02% - - 2001 *LINK* website: Census of India 2001; webpage: Data on Religion (Office of the Registrar General, India) (viewed 18 April 2005) Census 2001 data table: Religion
Jainism India: Chandigarh 2,592 0.29% - - 2001 *LINK* website: Census of India 2001; webpage: Data on Religion (Office of the Registrar General, India) (viewed 18 April 2005) Census 2001 data table: Religion
Jainism India: Chhattisgarh 56,103 0.27% - - 2001 *LINK* website: Census of India 2001; webpage: Data on Religion (Office of the Registrar General, India) (viewed 18 April 2005) Census 2001 data table: Religion
Jainism India: Dadra and Nagar Haveli 864 0.39% - - 2001 *LINK* website: Census of India 2001; webpage: Data on Religion (Office of the Registrar General, India) (viewed 18 April 2005) Census 2001 data table: Religion
Jainism India: Daman and Diu 268 0.17% - - 2001 *LINK* website: Census of India 2001; webpage: Data on Religion (Office of the Registrar General, India) (viewed 18 April 2005) Census 2001 data table: Religion
Jainism India: Delhi - 1.00% - - 1984 Folkert, Kendall W. "Jainism " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st published in 1984]; pg. 261. Figure 7.1: Distributions of the Jain population (in India) by number and as percentage of state population. [Delhi: pop. figure: "10,000 to 100,000 " percentage: "<1% "]
Jainism India: Delhi 155,122 1.12% - - 2001 *LINK* website: Census of India 2001; webpage: Data on Religion (Office of the Registrar General, India) (viewed 18 April 2005) Census 2001 data table: Religion
Jainism India: Goa - - - - 1984 Folkert, Kendall W. "Jainism " in Hinnells, John R. (ed). A Handbook of Living Religions, Penguin Books: New York (1991) [reprint; 1st published in 1984]; pg. 261. Figure 7.1: Distributions of the Jain population (in India) by number and as percentage of state population. [Goa: pop. figure: "Below 10,000 " percentage: "below 1/4% "]
Jainism India: Goa 487 0.04% - - 1991 *LINK* web site: "Mission India " Table: "Religion 1991 " [based on census]


Jainism, continued

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